Military budget of the Russian Federation: Difference between revisions

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The '''[[military budget]] of the [[Russian Federation]]''' is the portion of the overall budget of [[Russia]] that is allocated for the funding of the [[Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]]. This military budget finances employee salaries and training costs, the maintenance of equipment and facilities, support of new or ongoing operations, and development and procurement of new weapons, equipment, and vehicles.
 
The Russian government's published 2014 military budget is about 2.49 trillion [[rubles]] (approximately US$69.3 billion), the [[List of countries by military expenditures|third largest]] in the world behind the US and China. The official budget was set to rise to 3.03 trillion rubles (approximately US$83.7 billion) in 2015, and 3.36 trillion rubles (approximately US$93.9 billion) in 2016.<ref name="auto">{{cite web|last=Kazak|first=Sergey|title=Russia to Up Nuclear Weapons Spending 50% by 2016|url=http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20131008/184004336/Russia-to-Up-Nuclear-Weapons-Spending-50-by-2016.html|publisher=RIA Novosti|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref> As of 2014, Russia's military budget was higher than any other European nation, and approximately 1/7th (14%) of the [[Military budget of the United States|US military budget]]. However, [[2014–15 Russian financial crisis|a collapse in the value of the Rouble]] has greatly reduced the dollar-value of the Russian budget to around 50 billion USD as of February 2015, despite a 33% increase in the Rouble-value of the budget.<ref>{{cite web|last1=ISACHENKOV|first1=Vladimir|title=Putin Spending Big On Military Modernization Despite Russia's Economic Woes|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/04/russia-military-modernization_n_6612418.html|publisher=Associated Press via Huffington Post|accessdate=8 March 2015}}</ref>
 
==Unofficial estimates==
The [[International Institute of Strategic Studies]] (IISS) estimated the 2013 Russian military budget at US$68.2 billion, a 31% rise since 2008.<ref>{{cite web|title=Russian military regains its clout|url=http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/02/28/world/russian-military-regains-its-clout/#.UxGgefnxqlQ|publisher=Reuters via Japan Times|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref> IISS noted in their 2013 report that this meant that Russia had passed the UK and Saudi Arabia to become the world's third largest military spender, though exchange rates had also been a factor in this.<ref>{{cite web|last=Marcus|first=Johnathan|title=Military spending: Balance tipping towards China|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26054545|publisher=BBC|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref>
 
The [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]] (SIPRI) 2013 Military Expenditure Database estimated Russia's military expenditure in 2012 at US$90.749 billion.<ref>{{cite web|title=SIPRI Military Expenditure Database|url=http://milexdata.sipri.org/files/?file=SIPRI+milex+data+1988-2012+v2.xlsx|publisher=Stockholm International Peace Research Institute|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref> This estimate is an increase of more than US$18 billion on SIPRI's estimate of the Russian military budget for 2011 (US$71.9 billion).<ref name="auto1">{{cite web|last=Toohey|first=Nathan|title=Russia’s defense spending grows to third largest in the world|url=http://themoscownews.com/russia/20120417/189640006.html|publisher=Moscow Times|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref>
 
==History==
In 1988 military spending was a single line item in the Soviet state budget, totaling 21 billion rubles (68.8 billion 1988 U.S. dollars). Given the size of the military establishment, however, the actual figure was considered to be far higher. However, in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union and the emergence of Russian Federation as an independent state, between 1991 and 1997 Russia's defence spending fell by a factor of eight in real prices.<ref>{{cite book |title=The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia |last=Austin |first=Greg |authorlink= |author2=Alexey Muraviev |year=2000 |publisher=I.B. Tauris |location=London, New York |isbn=1-86064-485-6 |oclc= |page=155 }}</ref> Between 1988 and 1993 weapons production in Russia fell by at least 50% for virtually every major weapons system.
 
In 1998, when Russian Federation [[1998 Russian financial crisis|experienced a severe financial crisis]], its military expenditure in real terms reached its lowest point— barely one-quarter of the USSR's in 1991, and two-fifths of the level of 1992, the first year of Russia's independent existence. However, since the rise to power of [[Vladimir Putin]] and the exposure of the poor state of preparedness amongst Russia's armed forces in the [[Chechen–Russian conflict#Post-Soviet era|Chechen War]]s and the 2008 intervention in Georgia over attack on [[South Ossetia]], Russian military spending has rapidly increased, particularly after the [[2008 Russian military reform]]. According to SIPRI, Russian military spending in real terms in 2012 was the highest it has been since Russian Federation's re-emergence as an independent nation, but is still far lower than the estimated military expenditure of the USSR in 1990 - its final full year of existence (US$291 billion at 2012 prices).<ref>{{cite web|lastname=Toohey|first=Nathan|title=Russia’s defense spending grows to third largest in the world|url=http://themoscownews.com/russia/20120417/189640006.html|publisher=Moscow Times|accessdate=1 March 2014}}<"auto1"/ref> The budget expanded from 1998 until 2015, but economic problems including a sharp decline in the oil price mean it will be cut by 5.3% in 2016 despite analysts saying that large increases are required to fund the current equipment plans and accommodate high rates of inflation; the navy may be the most likely victim of cuts.<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/f6564f36-53a3-11e4-929b-00144feab7de.html | title=Russia’s defence budget hit by slowdown | first=Kathrin | last= Hille | newspaper=Financial Times | date=15 October 2014}}</ref>
 
==Comparison with other countries==
|-
|'''[[Russian Federation]]'''
| style="text-align:right;"| $69.3 billion<ref name="auto"/>
| style="text-align:right;"| $69.3 billion<ref>{{cite web|last=Kazak|first=Sergey|title=Russia to Up Nuclear Weapons Spending 50% by 2016|url=http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20131008/184004336/Russia-to-Up-Nuclear-Weapons-Spending-50-by-2016.html|publisher=RIA Novosti|accessdate=1 March 2014}}</ref>
| style="text-align:right;"| $90.7 billion
| style="text-align:right;"| $68.9 billion