James Ford Rhodes: Difference between revisions

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==Reception==
In papers written in 1954 and 1960, historians Russell, Sheehan and Syrett described him as a [[Republican]] historian and noted for criticizing his own party in his work.<ref>James Russell, "Lincoln’s Successor: President Andrew Johnson," in ''History Today 4'' (1954), No. 9, p. 626</ref><ref>Donald Sheehan/Harold C. Syrett, ''Essays in American Historiography'', Papers presented in Honor of Allan Nevins. New York: 1960, p. 38</ref> Howe described Rhodes as a Democrat in his 1929 biography of the historianRhodes.<ref>[[Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe (writer)|Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe]], ''James Ford Rhodes, American Historian'' (1929), pp. 21 and 24</ref>
 
RhodesIn wasseveral challenged for his assertions of factbooks and his interpretationarticles, including by [[John R. Lynch]], former Congressman from Mississippi, who directly participated in Mississippi's Reconstruction directly challenged for his assertions of fact and wrotehis someinterpretation. booksIn abouthis the1917 periodarticle titled "Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes".<ref name="lynch">[http://www.jstor.org/stable/2713394?seq=1 John R. Lynch, "Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes"], ''The Journal of Negro History'', Vol. 2, No. 4, Oct., 1917</ref> Lynch wrote:
 
Lynch challenged Rhodes in a 1917 article, "Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes".<ref name="lynch">[http://www.jstor.org/stable/2713394?seq=1 John R. Lynch, "Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes"], ''The Journal of Negro History'', Vol. 2, No. 4, Oct., 1917</ref> For instance, he wrote:
<blockquote>"the reader of Mr. Rhodes' history cannot fail to see that he believed it was a grave mistake to have given the colored men at the South the right to vote, and in order to make the alleged historical facts harmonize with his own views upon this point, he took particular pains to magnify the virtues and minimize the faults of the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]] and to magnify the faults and minimize the virtues of the [[Republican Party (United States)|Republicans]], the colored men especially."<ref name="lynch353">Lynch (1917), "Errors", p.353</ref></blockquote>
 
In book VI, pp.&nbsp;35–40, Rhodes stated,said of "[[Thaddeus] Stevens']], a federal lawmaker and fierce opponent of [[slavery]] and [[discrimination]] against [[African-American]]s, that "[[Reconstruction Acts]], ostensibly in the interest of freedom, were an attack on civilization...[and] did not show wise constructive statesmanship in forcing unqualified Negro Suffrage on the South".<ref>Rhodes 1920</ref> To this assertion, Lynch respondedreplied that the actsActs allowed some time for transition away from the society that was built on slavery. He wrote,
<blockquote>"But for the adoption of the Congressional plan of Reconstruction and the subsequent legislation of the nation along the same line, the [[abolitionism|abolition]] of slavery through the ratification of the [[13th Amendment to the United States Constitution|13th Amendment]] would have been in name only, a legal and constitutional myth."<ref name="lynch362-363">Lynch (1917), "Error", pp. 362-363</ref></blockquote>
 
Lynch noted that Rhodes concluded that Reconstruction had failed. He disagreed, saying that not all its goals had been accomplished but he believed that ratification of the [[14th Amendment to the US Constitution|14th]] and [[Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|15th Amendment]]s made it a success, as all people of color were granted citizenship, which could not be restricted by race or color, and they were granted suffrage nationally.<ref name="lynch365">Lynch (1917), "Error", p. 365</ref> LynchIn had1913, alreadyLynch published his own bookhistory of the era, titled, ''The Facts about Reconstruction.'' (1913).
 
Rhodes became a member ofjoined the [[American Historical Association]]. Heand was elected as [[American Historical Association#Past presidents|its president]] in 1899 for the customarya one-year term.
 
In the latter half of the 20th century, major new histories were published about the Civil War and Reconstruction thatfrom presentedthe additionalviewpoint documentationof forthe differingfreed pointspeople. ofThose viewviews differed from thatRhodes' viewpoint, which represented the interests of Rhodesformer slave owners and their sympathizers.
 
==Legacy and honors==