Constitutio Antoniniana: Difference between revisions

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Typos and general fixes, typo(s) fixed: dicussion → discussion using AWB
m (Typos and general fixes, typo(s) fixed: dicussion → discussion using AWB)
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The '''''Constitutio Antoniniana''''' ([[Latin]]: "Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus") (also called the '''Edict of Caracalla''' or the '''Antonine Constitution''') was an [[edict]] issued in 212,<ref>"Late Antinquity" by Richard Lim in ''The Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome''. Edinburgh: [[Edinburgh University Press]], 2010, p. 114.</ref> by the [[Roman Emperor]] [[Caracalla]] declaring that [[Peregrinus (Roman)|all free men]] in the [[Roman Empire]] were to be given theoretical [[Roman citizen]]ship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
 
 
== Analysis ==
The Roman Jurist [[Ulpian]] in his work ''Digest'' stated 'All persons throughout the Roman world were made Roman citizens by an edict of the Emperor Antoninus Caracalla'.
 
The context of the decree is still subject to dicussiondiscussion. According to [[Cassius Dio]] the reasons [[Caracalla]] passed this law were mainly to increase the number of people available to tax. In the words of Cassius Dio: "This was the reason why he made all the people in his empire Roman citizens; nominally he was honouring them, but his real purpose was to increase his revenues by this means, inasmuch as aliens did not have to pay most of these taxes."<ref>[http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/78*.html Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'', book 78, chapter 9.]</ref> It should, however, be noted that Cassius Dio generally saw Caracalla as a bad, contemptible emperor.
 
Another goal may have been to increase the number of men able to serve in the legions, as only full citizens could serve as [[legionaries]] in the [[Military history of the Roman Empire|Roman Army]]. Despite what might have been seen as easy benefits, the edict came at the cost to the [[Auxiliaries (Roman military)|auxiliaries]], which primarily consisted of non-citizen men, and led to [[barbarization]] of the Roman military{{Citation needed|date=October 2009}}.
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[[Category:212 in law]]
[[Category:Roman law]]