Johann Christian Ludwig Hellwig: Difference between revisions

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'''Johann Christian Ludwig Hellwig''' (8 November 1743 in [[Garz/Rügen]] – 10 October 1831 in [[Braunschweig]]) was a [[Germany|German]] [[entomologist]] and [[ wargaming|wargame ]] designer.
 
After studies of [[mathematics]] and [[natural history]] at the university of [[Frankfurt]], he became, in 1766, adviser to prince [[Wilhelm Adolf von Braunschweig]] at the time of his voyage in the south of Russia.
 
In 1771, he taught in two colleges of Brunswick then he became professor of [[philosophy]] of the university of [[Helmstadt]]. In 1790, he taught mathematics and natural science at the military academy of [[Braunschweig]], where famously he was the "Master of Pages" (''Pagenhofmeister''). His attempts to instruct the young in military sciences inspired his work on wargames.
 
He exerted a great influence on his pupils.{{FactCitation needed|date=April 2007}} He was the tutor and the father-in-law of the German entomologist [[Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger]] (1775-1813), who became director of the zoological garden of [[Berlin]], of the mineralogist [[Gottlieb Peter Sillem]] (who succeeded him at the school of Braunschweig) and the count [[Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg]] (1766-1849).
 
His work in the taxonomy of the insects in collaboration with Illiger and Hoffmannsegg is famous and was the entomological origin of the collections of the [[Humboldt Museum|University of Berlin]].
== Hellwig's Wargame ==
 
He was also the inventor of ''kriegsspiel'' (literally war game), a sophisticated variant of [[chess]] which had much success in its time. Hellwig published the first edition of his ''kriegsspiel'' in 1780 as ''Versuch eines aufs Schachspiel gebaueten taktischen Spiels von zwey und mehreren Personen zu spielen,'' or "Attempt to build upon chess a tactical game which two or more persons might play."<ref name=playingworld>{{cite book | title = Playing at the World | last = Peterson | first = Jon | author-link = Jon Peterson | publisher = Unreason Press | year = 2012 | location = San Diego CA | page = 213 | isbn = 978-0615642048}}</ref> His objective was to try to create a chess-like game that better reflected the military science of the day, especially the behavior of infantry, cavalry and artillery. His initial ''kriegsspiel'' vastly expanded the chess board (he usually employed a board of 49 ranks by 33 files, for 1617 squares) and radically changed the behavior of pieces, as well as introducing several new pieces. Rather than depicting only the abstract space of chess, his board had varying terrain types, including mountains, swamps and water squares. Rather than capturing the king to win, one had to occupy an enemy fortress. Hellwig further refined his game over the next twenty years, publishing in 1803 his revised ''Das Kriegsspiel,'' which dispensed with the trappings of chess entirely and substituted for chess pieces new units representing the military branches of his era. His game spawned numerous contemporary imitators, and its fundamental innovations formed the basis of the hobby board wargames pioneered by [[ Avalon Hill ]] in the twentieth century.
 
== References ==
<references />
 
== External links ==
* [http://mdz.bib-bvb.de/digbib/lexika/adb/images/adb013/@ebt-link?target=idmatch(entityref,adb0130500) Eintrag in der ADB]
 
== References Sources==
<references />
 
==Source==
Translated from French Wikipedia
 
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{{Persondata <!-- Metadata: see [[Wikipedia:Persondata]]. -->
| NAME = Hellwig, Johann Christian Ludwig