Stratosphere: Difference between revisions

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The '''stratosphere''' {{IPAc-en|ˈ|s|t|r|æ|t|ə|s|f|ɪər}} is the second major layer of [[Earth's atmosphere]], just above the [[troposphere]], and below the [[mesosphere]]. It is [[Atmospheric stratification|stratified]] in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface, which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down. The border of the troposphere and stratosphere, the [[tropopause]], is marked by where this inversion begins, which in terms of [[atmospheric thermodynamics]] is the [[equilibrium level]]. At moderate latitudes the stratosphere is situated between about {{convert|10|-|13|km|sigfig=1|ft mi|abbr=on}} and {{convert|50|km|sigfig=2|ft mi|abbr=on}} [[altitude]] above the surface, while at the [[geographical pole|poles]] it starts at about {{convert|8|km|sigfig=1|ft mi|abbr=on}} altitude, and near the [[equator]] it may start at altitudes as high as {{convert|18|km|sigfig=2|ft mi|abbr=on}}.
 
==Ozone and temperature==
Within this layer, temperature increases as altitude increases (see [[temperature inversion]]); the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 [[Kelvin|K]] (&minus;3[[°C]] or 29.6[[°F]]), just slightly below the freezing point of water.<ref> Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis, (2006), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change 2nd ed, Wiley, New Jersey</ref> The stratosphere is layered in temperature because [[ozone]] (O<sub>3</sub>) here absorbs high energy UVB and UVC energy waves from the [[Sun]] and is broken down into atomic oxygen (O) and diatomic oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>). Atomic oxygen is found prevalent in the upper stratosphere due to the bombardment of UV light and the destruction of both ozone and diatomic oxygen. The mid stratosphere has less UV light passing through it, O and O<sub>2</sub> are able to combine, and is where the majority of natural ozone is produced. It is when these two forms of oxygen recombine to form ozone that they release the heat found in the stratosphere. The lower stratosphere receives very low amounts of UVC, thus atomic oxygen is not found here and ozone is not formed (with heat as the byproduct).{{verification needed|date=May 2012}} This vertical atmosphere[[Atmospheric stratification|stratification]], with warmer layers above and cooler layers below, makes the stratosphere [[dynamically stable]]: there is no regular [[convection]] and associated [[turbulence]] in this part of the atmosphere. The top of the stratosphere is called the [[stratopause]], above which the temperature decreases with height.
 
While[[Methane]], (CH<sub>4</sub>) while not a direct cause of ozone destruction in the stratosphere, does lead to the formation of compounds that destroy ozone. MonatomicMonoatomic oxygen (O) in the upper stratosphere reacts with methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) to form a hydroxyl radical (OH'''·'''). This hydroxyl radical is then able to interact with non-soluble compounds like [[chlorofluorocarbons]], and UV light breaks off chlorine radicals (Cl'''·'''). These chlorine radicals break off an oxygen atom from the ozone molecule, creating an oxygen molecule (O<sub>2</sub>) and a hypochloryl radical (ClO'''·'''). The hypochloryl radical then reacts with an atomic oxygen creating another oxygen molecule and another chlorine radical, thereby preventing the reaction of monatomicmonoatomic oxygen with O<sub>2</sub> to create natural ozone.
Within this layer, temperature increases as altitude increases (see [[temperature inversion]]); the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about just slightly below the freezing point of water.<ref> Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis, (2006), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change 2nd ed, Wiley, New Jersey</ref> The stratosphere is layered in temperature because here absorbs high energy UVB and UVC energy waves from the Sun and is broken down into atomic oxygen and diatomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen is found prevalent in the upper stratosphere due to the bombardment of UV light and the destruction of both ozone and diatomic oxygen. The mid stratosphere has less UV light passing through it, and are able to combine, and is where the majority of natural ozone is produced. It is when these two forms of oxygen recombine to form ozone that they release the heat found in the stratosphere. The lower stratosphere receives very low amounts of UVC, thus atomic oxygen is not found here and ozone is not formed.This vertical atmosphere with warmer layers above and cooler layers below, makes the stratosphere there is no regular convection and associated turbulence in this part of the atmosphere. The top of the stratosphere is called the stratopause above which the temperature decreases with height.
 
While not a direct cause of ozone destruction in the stratosphere, does lead to the formation of compounds that destroy ozone. Monatomic oxygen in the upper stratosphere reacts with methane to form a hydroxyl radical . This hydroxyl radical is then able to interact with non-soluble compounds like chlorofluorocarbons, and UV light breaks off chlorine radicals . These chlorine radicals break off an oxygen atom from the ozone molecule, creating an oxygen molecule and a hypochloryl radical. The hypochloryl radical then reacts with an atomic oxygen creating another oxygen molecule and another chlorine radical, thereby preventing the reaction of monatomic oxygen with to create natural ozone.
 
==Aircraft flight==