Große Kreisstadt: Difference between revisions

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'''''Große Kreisstadt''''' ([[German language{{lang-en|German]] for ''"major district town''" or ''"major county town''"}}) is a term in the German [[municipal law]] (''[[Gemeindeordnung]]'') of several [[States of Germany|German states]]. In some German federal states the term is used as a special legal status for a [[Districts of Germany|district-affiliated]]–affiliated cities[[town]]—as ordistinct townsfrom withan [[independent city]]—with additional competences in comparison with other municipalities[[Municipalities orof townsGermany|municipalities]] of the district. The title is based on sovereign conferment by the state government.
 
==Administration rules==
'''Große Kreisstadt''' ([[German language|German]] for ''major district town'' or ''major county town'') is a term in the German municipal law. In some German federal states the term is used as a special legal status for district-affiliated cities or towns with additional competences in comparison with other municipalities or towns of the district. The title is based on sovereign conferment.
The term is officially used and quoted. In different German federal states (''Bundesländer'') there are different laws and administration rules about when exactly a town can obtain the status but they do not differ very much. The [[mayor]] of a ''Große Kreisstadt'' usually bears the title of an ''Oberbürgermeister'' ("Chief Burgomaster").
 
The term is officially used and quoted. In different German federal states there are different laws and administration rules about when exactly a town can become a "Große Kreisstadt" but they do not differ very much. In some German states other terms are used, for example "Große selbständige Stadt". At the moment reforms are discussed in some states. It is not a main goal of these reforms to make the rules more similar, in opposite, the district towns are thought to be important to keep the existing diversity of regions. In Germany federal states have very similar administration rules, so the states (Bundesland) are not always comparable to [[US states]] for example.
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== Große Kreisstädte in the German States ==
 
=== ''Große Kreisstädte'' in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Saxony ===
District-affiliated municipalities may apply for the status of a ''Große Kreisstadt'', conferred by decree of the state's interior ministry. Assuming certain sovereign functions of the district, the municipal authorities have to ensure they are able to carry out the assigned responsibilities. In the state of [[Baden-Württemberg]], the necessary population for the status is 20,000. In [[Bavaria]] 30,000 inhabitants are necessary, in [[Saxony]], the minimum population is 17,500 (until 2008: 20,000). Usually, the motion is accepted.
necessary population for the status: 20,000
 
The status of a ''Große Kreisstadt'' was first implemented by the Baden-Württemberg ''Gemeindeordnung'' on 1 April 1956, followed by Bavaria, where in the course of a 1972 administrative reform, the status was conferred to 23 former independent cities regardless of the population. The smallest ''Große Kreisstadt'' is [[Rothenburg ob der Tauber]] with about 10,900 inhabitants. Further conferments require a quorum of 30,000, however, in 1998 the historic [[Free imperial city|imperial cities]] of [[Dinkelsbühl]] and [[Donauwörth]] were elevated by Bavarian state law, though they did not reach the necessary number of inhabitants. Currently, there are 93 ''Große Kreisstädte'' in Baden-Württemberg, 29 in Bavaria, and 50 in Saxony.
=== Bavaria ===
30,000 inhabitants necessary
 
== Comparable towns in other states ==
=== Saxony ===
In some German states other terms are used, for example ''Große selbständige Stadt'' in [[Lower Saxony]], conclusively assigned by law to the towns of [[Celle]], [[Cuxhaven]], [[Goslar]], [[Hameln]], [[Hildesheim]], [[Lingen, Germany|Lingen]] and [[Lüneburg]] in the course of the 1970s administrative reform. District-affiliated municipalities with a population of more than 30,000 hold the status of a ''Selbständige Gemeinde'', territorial authorities with more than 20,000 inhabitants could apply for conferment by the Lower Saxon state government.
20,000 inhabitants necessary
-->
 
In the states of [[Brandenburg]], [[North Rhine-Westphalia]] and [[Rhineland-Palatinate]], the status of a ''Große kreisangehörige Stadt'' is conferred by the state government to municipalities with a certain population (Brandenburg: 35,000; North Rhine-Westphalia: 60,000; Rhineland-Palatinate: 25,000). In Brandenburg and North Rhine-Westphalia, there are also ''Mittlere kreisangehörige Städte'' with a population of more than 25,000. In [[Thuringia]], a district-affiliated local authority ensuring adequate administrative and financial parameters may apply for the status. In 2005 the [[Schleswig-Holstein]] government declared [[Norderstedt]] in [[Segeberg]] District (part of the [[Hamburg Metropolitan Region]]) a ''Große kreisangehörige Stadt''.
==Administration rules==
 
The term is officially used and quoted. In different German federal states there are different laws and administration rules about when exactly a town can become a "Große Kreisstadt" but they do not differ very much. In some German states other terms are used, for example "Große selbständige Stadt". At the moment reforms are discussed in some states. It is not a main goal of these reforms to make the rules more similar, in opposite, the district towns are thought to be important to keep the existing diversity of regions. In Germany federal states have very similar administration rules, so the states (Bundesland) are not always comparable to US states for example.
In [[Saarland]], the towns of [[Sankt Ingbert]] and [[Völklingen]] hold the comparable status of a district-affiliated ''Mittelstadt''. In [[Hesse]], seven towns with a population of more than 50,000 obtained the status of a ''Sonderstatusstadt'': [[Bad Homburg vor der Höhe]], [[Fulda]], [[Giessen]], [[Hanau]], [[Marburg]], [[Rüsselsheim]] and [[Wetzlar]].
 
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