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To gain access to the body, [[pathogen]]s can penetrate mucous membranes lining the genitourinary tract.
As a medical specialty, ''genitourinary pathology'' is the subspecialty of [[surgical pathology]] which deals with the [[diagnosis]] and characterization of [[neoplasia|neoplastic]] and non-neoplastic [[disease]]s of the [[urinary tract]], male genital tract, and testes. However, medical disorders of the kidneys are generally within the expertise of [[renal pathology|renal pathologists]]. Genitourinary [[pathology|pathologists]] generally work closely with [[urology|urologic surgeons]].