(unsourced and no info)
Tephrochronology requires accurate geochemical fingerprinting (usually via an [[electron microprobe]]).<ref>Smith & Westgate (1969)</ref> An important recent advance is the use of LA-ICP-MS (i.e. [[laser ablation]] [[ICP-MS]]) to measure trace-element abundances in individual tephra shards.<ref>Pearce et al. (2002)</ref> One problem in tephrochronology is that tephra chemistry can become altered over time, at least for basaltic tephras.<ref>Pollard et al. (2003)</ref>
Early tephra horizons were identified with the [[Saksunarvatn tephra]] (Icelandic origin, [[circa|ca]] 10.2 cal. [[
A pioneer in the use of tephra layers as marker horizons to establish chronology was [[Sigurdur Thorarinsson]], who began by studying the layers he found in his native Iceland.<ref>Alloway et al. (2007)</ref> Since the late 1990s, techniques developed by Chris S. M. Turney ([[QUB]], Belfast; now [[University of Exeter]]) and others for extracting tephra horizons invisible to the naked eye ("cryptotephra")<ref>Turney et al. (1997)</ref> have revolutionised the application of tephrochronology. This technique relies upon the difference between the specific gravity of the microtephra shards and the host sediment matrix. It has led to the first discovery of the Vedde ash on the mainland of Britain, in Sweden, in [[the Netherlands]], in the Swiss Lake [[Soppensee]] and in two sites on the [[Karelian Isthmus]] of Baltic Russia.