Octavo: Difference between revisions

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'''Octavo''' (abbreviated '''8vo''' or '''8°''') is a technical term describing the '''format''' of a book, which refers to the size of leaves produced from folding a full sheet of paper on which multiple pages of text were printed to form the individual sections (or ''gatherings'') of a book. An '''octavo''' is a book or pamphlet made up of one or more full sheets of paper on which 16 pages of text were printed, which were then folded three times to produce eight leaves. Each leaf of an octavo book thus represents one '''eighth''' the size of the original sheet. Other common book formats are [[Folio (printing)|folios]] and [[Quarto (text)|quartos]]. '''Octavo''' is also used as a general description of '''size''' of books that are about 8 to 10  inches tall, and as such does not necessarily indicate the actual printing format of the books, which may even be unknown as is the case for many modern books. These terms are discussed in greater detail in [[Book sizes]].
 
==Octavo as format==
An octavo is a book or pamphlet made up of one or more full sheets of paper on which 16 pages of text were printed, which were then folded three times to produce eight leaves. Each leaf of an octavo book thus represents one eighth the size of the original sheet.
 
There are many variations in how octavos were produced. For example, bibliographers call a book printed as an octavo (eight leaves per full sheet), but bound in gatherings of 4 leaves each, an "octavo in 4s." <ref> [[Ronald B. McKerrow]], ''An Introduction to Bibliography for Literary Students'', Oxford 1927 and later eds., p. 28. </ref>
 
The actual size of an octavo book depends on the size of the full sheet of paper on which it was printed. The size of such sheets varied in different localities and times. A sixteenth century octavo printed in France or Italy is about the size of a modern cheap paperback, whereas an eighteenth century octavo printed in England is larger, about the size of a modern hardcover novel.
The [[Gutenberg Bible]] was printed as a folio in about 1455, in which four pages of text were printed on each sheet of paper, which were then folded once. Several such folded conjugate pairs of leaves were inserted inside another to produce the sections or gatherings, which were then sewn together to form the final book.
 
The oldest surviving octavo book apparently is the so-called "Turkish calendar" for 1455, presumably printed in late 1454, about the same time as the Gutenberg Bible. <ref> [http://istc.bl.uk/search/search.html?operation=record&rsid=356&q=0 British Library, Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, entry for the 1454 Turkish Calendar]. </ref> <ref> Margaret Bingham Stillwell, ''The Beginning of the World of Books, 1450-1470, [[Bibliographical Society of America]], New York, 1972, p. 6, described as a tract of 6 leaves, but not identifying the format. </ref> Numerous other octavos survive beginning from about 1461. <ref> [http://istc.bl.uk/search/search.html?operation=search&rsid=356&sort=idx-year British Library, Incunabula Short Title Catalogue search for octavos, sorted by year] </ref> The [[British Library]] [[Incunabula Short Title Catalogue]] currently lists about 28,100 different editions of surviving books, pamphlets and broadsides (some fragmentary only) printed before 1501 <ref> [http://istc.bl.uk/search/search.html?operation=search&rsid=9450&sort=idx-year Search of Incunabula Short Title Catalog for imprints before 1501, sorted by date. Search done July 12, 2009.] </ref> of which about 2,850 are octavos, <ref> [http://istc.bl.uk/search/search.html?operation=search&rsid=9460&sort=idx-year British Library, Incunabula Short Title Catalogue, search for imprints before 1501 and format as "8vo", sorted by date. Search done July 12, 2009.] </ref> representing 10 percent of all works in the catalog.
 
Beginning in 1501, [[Aldus Manutius]] of Venice began to print classical works in small octavo format which were easily portable. These editions contained only the text of the works, without the commentary and notes, and became extremely popular with educated readers. As a result, Aldus became closely associated with the octavo format. <ref> Martin Lowry, ''The World of Aldus Manutius,'' [[Cornell University Press]], 1979, pp. 137-167. </ref>
 
==Octavo as size==
 
Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, technology permitted the manufacture of large sheets or rolls of paper on which books were printed, many text pages at a time. As a result, it may be impossible to determine the actual format (i.e., number of leaves formed from each sheet fed into a press). The term "octavo" as applied to such books may refer simply to the size of the book. The use of the term "octavo" as applied to such books refers to books which are generally between 8" and 10" (20-25 20–25&nbsp;cm) tall, the most common size for modern hardbound books. More specific sizes are denoted by reference to certain paper sizes as follows:
 
*Foolscap octavo (6¾" by 4¼") (170 &nbsp;mm x 108 &nbsp;mm)
*Crown octavo (7½" by 5") (190 &nbsp;mm x 126 &nbsp;mm)
*Demy octavo (8¾" by 5⅝") (221 &nbsp;mm x 142 &nbsp;mm)
*Royal octavo (10" by 6¼") (253 &nbsp;mm x 158 &nbsp;mm)
 
==References==
4,732,723

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