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'''George Ent''' ([[November 6]], [] - [[October 13]], []) was an English scientist in the seventeenth century who focused on the study of [[anatomy]]. He was a member of the [[Royal Society]] and the [[Royal College of Physicians]]. Ent is best known for his associations with [[William Harvey]], particularly his ''Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis'', a defense of Harvey’s work.
'''Sir George Ent''' was born on [[6 November]] [] in Sandwich, Kent.
As a boy, Ent went to school in [[Wallachia]] and [[Rotterdam]], but attended college in [[England]].
On [[25 June]] [], Sir George Ent became a fellow of the [[Royal College of Physicians]] and remained a fellow for the duration of his life. In addition, he served as a censor from 1645 to 1669 (with gaps in service in 1650, 1652, and 1658), a Registrar from 1655 to 1670, and Consiliarius from 1667 to 1669 and 1676 to 1686. He was elected President of the Royal College of Physicians in 1670. He held the position for five years, as well as on [[17 August]] [] and [[28 May]] []. Ent was also elected to the [[Royal Society]] as an Original Fellow on [[22 April]] [].
Ent died in his house in St Giles-in-the-Fields on [[13 October]] [] at the age of 84.
==Works and Theories==
George Ent’s significance lies mainly in his contributions to the works of others, particularly his critiques. He is known as one of the closest friends and first defenders of [[William Harvey]], and he is considered to be one of Harvey’s successors in the study of anatomy. Ent’s best known theories build on Harvey’s work, while the rest of Ent’s work spans a wide spectrum of knowledge.
===''Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis''===
Translation: ''Defense on Behalf of the Circulation of the Blood''.
In the ''Apologia'', Ent elaborates on Harvey’s theories on [[circulation]], suggesting that a “nutritive fluid” nourishes the body by passing through the nerves. Ent draws on [[John Mayow]]’s theories on [[innate heat]] and [[Respiration (physiology)|respiration]] in his discussion of the [[nervous system]]. In addition to Harvey’s work, Ent references both ancient and contemporary sources, particularly mentioning writers discussing topics now considered occult, whom Harvey dismissed.
===''Sive animadversiones in Malachias Thrustoni''===
Translation: ''Or Observations against Malachi Thruston''.
The ''Sive animadversiones in Malachias Thrustoni'' contains Ent’s analysis of [[Malachi Thruston]]’s theories on respiration. While containing a reasonable critique, the original theories Ent puts forth in this work do not go beyond those expressed in his Apologia, making this work less significant than the Apologia as an original expression.
===Lectures on Anatomy===
Ent gave several lectures on [[anatomy]] at the [[Royal College of Physicians]] in 1665. He is known for being one of only two lecturers to have left his lecture notes in English. After a lecture in April, which the King attended, Ent received a [[knighthood]].
''Mantissa anatomica'' combines of three of Ent's studies on anatomy – ''Lophius'', ''Galeus'', and ''Rana''. He assembled these as part of an intended broad study of anatomy in the 1650s that never further materialized.
Ent’s nonscientific works include a range of topics. ''The Grounds of Unity in Religion'' comments on the relationship of the English government and the [[Church of England]], discussing the position of people of different faiths with the political and religious framework. ''The Manner of Hatching Chicken at Cairo'', on which he collaborated with [[John Graves]], describes a method of using heat from ovens to force eggs to hatch.
*Bylebyl, Jerome J. ''William Harvey and his age : the professional and social context of the discovery of the circulation''. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.
*[[Debus, Allen G.]] ''Medicine in seventeenth century England; a symposium held at UCLA in honor of C. D. O'Malley''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
*Munk, William. ''The Roll of the Royal College of Physicians of London''. 2d ed. rev. and enlarged. London: 1878. Volume I. 223-227.
*[http://www.royalsociety.ac.uk/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=Browse2.tcl&dsqItem=MS/83&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqKey=RefNo Royal Society's archive of George Ent's speeches and notes]
*[http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1033339 Sir George Ent's Commonplace Book]