Souffle (heart sound)
A souffle (English: //)[a] is a vascular or cardiac murmur with a blowing quality when heard on auscultation. It is particularly used to describe vascular murmurs or transmitter heart sounds which occur during pregnancy, either from the uterus and breasts of the mother, or from the fetus.
Uterine souffle or placental souffle is a soft, blowing sound heard using a stethoscope, usually in the second trimester of pregnancy (13–28 weeks). This sound is heard most clearly in the lower part of the uterus and is synchronous with the pulse of the mother. The uterine souffle is produced by the rush of blood through the dilated vessels of the uterus. On auscultation, uterine souffle may often be confused with funic souffle, which is a sharp, whistling sound that is synchronous with the pulse of the foetus. Therefore, the maternal pulse must be palpated simultaneously in order to confirm uterine souffle. Uterine souffle is considered as a probable objective sign of pregnancy.
Funic souffle (also known as funicular or fetal souffle), is a blowing sound heard in synch with fetal heart sounds, and may originate from the umbilical cord. It has also been described as a sharp, whistling sound that is synchronous with the pulse of the foetus, usually heard during the second trimester of pregnancy (13–28 weeks). It is heard because of the rush of blood through the umbilical arteries of the foetus, and is therefore synchronous with the foetal pulse. The funic souffle is not heard consistently. On auscultation, funic souffle may often be confused with uterine souffle, which is a soft, blowing sound synchronous with the maternal pulse. Therefore, the maternal pulse must be palpated simultaneously in order to differentiate uterine souffle from funic souffle.
A mammary souffle is a maternal cardiac murmur heard over the breasts.
- Naturalized in English as //, from French souffle, "a puff of air"; it is not to be confused with soufflé (English: //), which is cognate but reflects another French noun coming from nominalization of the participial adjective; the difference is that between "a blow" and "blown", that is, "a puff of air" versus "a thing puffed up by a puff of air".
- Cunningham, Gary (2014). Williams Obstetrics (24 ed.). New York: McGraw Hills. p. 169.
- Murray, Sharon Smith (2014). Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 105. ISBN 9780323293846.
- Cunningham, Gary (2014). Williams Obstetrics (24 ed.). New York: McGraw Hills. p. 169. ISBN 978-0071798938.
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