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The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists (from smallest to largest) of the soprillo, sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass, contrabass saxophone and tubax. Soprano saxophones are the smallest saxophone in common use.
(Single-reeded aerophone with keys)
|Developed||28 June 1846|
In B♭: sounds a major second lower than written.
Military band family:
A transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F♯ key have a range from B♭3 to F♯6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone. Some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and G at the top of the range. These extra keys are commonly found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the altissimo register, which allows them to play even higher. There is also a soprano pitched in C, which is less common and until recently had not been made since around 1940.
The soprano saxophone may sometimes be confused with the B♭ clarinet, although the clarinet can play an augmented fourth lower and over a fifth higher. Additionally, the saxophone is made of brass, and is gold while the clarinet is either dark blue or black. Due to the relatively wide bore of the soprano, it is less forgiving with respect to intonation than the lower saxophones, though an experienced player will use alternate fingerings or vary breath support, tongue position or embouchure to compensate. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation. Due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it.
In addition to straight sopranos, there are also slightly and fully curved sopranos. The fully curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some players believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer, less nasal tone. The soprano has all the keys of other saxophone models (with the exception of the extra 'A' on some baritones and altos) and some (e.g. those made by Yanagisawa, Selmer, and Yamaha) may have a top 'G' key next to the F♯ key.
Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required.
In classical musicEdit
The soprano saxophone is mainly used as a solo and chamber instrument in classical music, though it is occasionally used in a concert band or orchestra. It is included in the saxophone quartet and plays a lead role. Many solo pieces have been written for it by composers such as Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alan Hovhaness, Jennifer Higdon, Takashi Yoshimatsu, Charles Koechlin, John Mackey, Miklos Maros, Marc Mellits, Jennifer Higdon, Belinda Reynolds.
As an orchestral instrument, it has been used in several compositions. It was used by Richard Strauss in his Sinfonia Domestica, where included in the music are parts for four saxophones, including a soprano saxophone in C. It is also used in Maurice Ravel's "Boléro" and has a featured solo directly following the tenor saxophone's solo. Vincent d'Indy includes a soprano in his opera Fervaal.
Notable classical soprano saxophonists include Carina Rascher, Christine Rall, Michael Hernandez, Eugene Rousseau, Kenneth Tse, Jean-Yves Fourmeau, Jean-Denis Michat, Vincent David, Rob Buckland, John Harle, Mariano Garcia, Claude Delangle, Arno Bornkamp, Timothy McAllister and Christopher Creviston.
While not as popular as the alto and tenor saxes in jazz, the soprano saxophone has played a role in its evolution. Greats of the jazz soprano sax include 1930s virtuoso Sidney Bechet, 1950s innovator Steve Lacy, and, beginning with his landmark 1960 album My Favorite Things, John Coltrane.
Other well known jazz players include: Wayne Shorter, Paul McCandless, Johnny Hodges, Walter Parazaider, Oliver Nelson, Bob Berg, Joe Farrell, Lucky Thompson, Sonny Fortune, Anthony Braxton, Sam Rivers, Gary Bartz, Dan Forshaw, Bennie Maupin, Branford Marsalis, Kirk Whalum, Jan Garbarek, Danny Markovitch of Marbin, Paul Winter, Dave Liebman, Evan Parker, Sam Newsome, Kenny G and Charlie Mariano (including in his work with bassist Eberhard Weber).
Other notable soprano saxophonists include Joshua Redman, Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, Grover Washington Jr., Ronnie Laws, LeRoi Moore Sarah Skinner of Red Dirt Skinners and Nigerian Afrobeat multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti.
In popular cultureEdit
Similar to the flute, the soprano saxophone is culturally associated with smooth jazz and easy listening. Thus, it is often the subject of various instrumental "background music" played in elevators, hotels, supermarkets, shopping malls and other indoor facilities.
In some popular music interpretations, the soprano saxophone is commonly paired with FM-type electric piano and drum machine sounds to create a smooth, R&B-like and "retro" feel to a song. It is also popular in Japanese music, most commonly within the "city pop" genre.
A curved soprano saxophone, played by Jan Garbarek.
- "June 28, 1846: Parisian Inventor Patents Saxophone". Wired.com. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Aulochrome". aulochrome. Retrieved 19 May 2014.