Shivalik-class frigate

The Shivalik class or Project 17 class is a class of multi-role frigates in service with the Indian Navy. They are the first stealth warships built in India.[9] They were designed to have better stealth features and land-attack capabilities than the preceding Talwar-class frigates.[10][11] A total of three ships were built between 2000 and 2010, and all three were in commission by 2012.[2]

120416-N-ZF681-220 (8092630181).jpg
INS Satpura (F48) transits the Indian Ocean during Malabar 2012.
Class overview
Name: Shivalik class
Builders: Mazagon Dock Limited
Operators:
Indian Navy Ensign
Indian Navy
Preceded by: Talwar class
Succeeded by: Nilgiri class
Cost: 2,300 crore (US$320 million)[1]
Planned: 3[2]
Completed: 3
Active: 3
General characteristics
Type: Guided-missile frigate
Displacement: 6,200 tonnes (6,100 long tons; 6,800 short tons) full load[3]
Length: 142.5 m (468 ft)[4]
Beam: 16.9 m (55 ft)
Draught: 4.5 m (15 ft)
Installed power:
  • 2 × Pielstick 16 PA6 STC Diesel engines
  • 15,200 shp (11,300 kW)
  • 2 × GE LM2500+
  • 33,600 shp (25,100 kW)
Propulsion: boost turbines in CODOG configuration.
Speed:
  • 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph)[5]
  • 22 knots (41 km/h; 25 mph) (diesel engines)
Range: In excess of 5,000 nautical miles (9,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)[6]
Complement: 257 (35 officers)[7]
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • 1 × MR-760 Fregat M2EM 3-D radar
  • 4 × MR-90 Orekh radar
  • 1 × Elta EL/M-2238 STAR
  • 2 × Elta EL/M 2221 STGR
  • 1 × BEL APARNA
  • HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array)[8]
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
  • Anti-air missiles:
  • 32-cell VLS launched Barak 1 missiles
  • 24 × Shtil-1 medium range missiles
  • Anti-ship/Land-attack missiles:
  • 8 × VLS launched Klub, anti-ship cruise missiles
  • or
  • 8 × VLS launched BrahMos, anti-ship and land-attack cruise missiles
  • Guns:
  • 1 × OTO Melara 76 mm naval gun
  • 2 × AK-630 CIWS
  • Anti-submarine warfare:
  • 2 × 2 DTA-53-956 torpedo launchers
  • 2 × RBU-6000 (RPK-8) rocket launchers
Aircraft carried: 2 × HAL Dhruv or Sea King Mk. 42B helicopters.

The Shivalik class, along with the seven Project 17A frigates currently being developed from them, are projected be the principal frigates of the Indian Navy in the first half of the 21st century.[12] All ships of the class were built by Mazagon Dock Limited. The class and the lead vessel have been named for the Shivalik hills. Subsequent vessels in the class are also named for hill-ranges in India.[2]

Design and descriptionEdit

Project 17 was conceived in the 1990s to meet the Indian Navy's need for a class of stealthy frigates that were to be designed and built in India.[13][14] The Directorate of Naval Design (DND)'s specifications for the project called for a class of "5000 ton stealth frigates (Project 17) incorporating advanced signature suppression and signature management features".[15] The first three units were formally ordered by the Indian Navy in early 1999.[16]

Shivalik's design embodies many firsts in Indian ships. Shivalik is the first Indian naval vessel to use a combined diesel or gas (CODOG) propulsion system. The CODOG gearboxes were designed and built by Elecon Engineering.[17]

The main features of the class are its stealth characteristics and land-attack capability. The ships incorporate structural, thermal and acoustic stealth features.[18] The vessels use 10 gigabit LAN for their network.[19]

There has also been an increased emphasis on crew comfort in this class of ships with more spacious accommodation being provided. Also, INS Shivalik is the first ship in the Indian Navy with chapati- and dosa-makers on board.[1]

General characteristics and propulsionEdit

The Shivalik-class frigates have a length of 142.5 m (468 ft) overall, a beam of 16.9 m (55 ft) and a draft of 4.5 m (15 ft). The ships displace about 4,900 tonnes (4,800 long tons; 5,400 short tons) at normal load and 6,200 tonnes (6,100 long tons; 6,800 short tons) at full load.[3] The complement is about 257, including 35 officers.[3]

They use two Pielstick 16 PA6 STC Diesel engines and two GE LM2500+ boost turbines in CODOG configuration providing a total of 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) of power. This allows the ships to reach a maximum speed of 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph).[2]

Electronics and sensorsEdit

The Shivalik-class frigates are equipped with a wide range of electronics and sensors. These include:

  • 1 × MR-760 Fregat M2EM 3-D radar
  • 4 × MR-90 Orekh radars
  • 1 × ELTA EL/M-2238 STAR
  • 2 × ELTA EL/M-2221 STGR
  • 1 × BEL APARNA

In addition, the ships use HUMSA-NG (hull-mounted sonar array) and the BEL Ellora Electronic Warfare suite.[8]

Weapons and sensors fitment on Shivalik-class.
(top) Fregat M2EM Radar, ELTA ELM-2238 Radar, BEL Aparna FCR, L&T RBU-6000 ASW rocket launcher.


ArmamentEdit

The Shivalik-class frigates are equipped with a mix of Russian, Indian and Israeli weapon systems. These include the 76mm Otobreda naval gun, Klub and BrahMos supersonic anti-ship missiles, Shtil-1 anti-aircraft missiles, RBU-6000 anti-submarine rocket launchers and 6–324 mm ILAS 3 (2 triple)torpedoes. A 32 cell VLS launched Barak SAM and AK-630 act as Close-in weapon systems (CIWS). The ships also carry two HAL Dhruv or Sea King Mk. 42B helicopters.[2][better source needed]

Construction and serviceEdit

All the three ships of the class were constructed at the Mazagon Dock Limited. The construction of the lead ship, Shivalik, commenced in December 2000. The ship's keel was laid in July 2001 and was launched in April 2003. It underwent sea trials in February 2009 before being commissioned in April 2010. The second ship, Satpura, was laid in October 2002. It was launched in June 2004 and commissioned in August 2011. The third and final ship, Sahyadri, was laid in September 2003, launched in May 2005 and commissioned in July 2012.[2] All the three ships are named after hill-ranges in India: Shivalik after the Sivalik Hills, Satpura after the Satpura range and Sahyadri after the Sahyadri range commonly called Western Ghats.[2]

The lead ship of the class, INS Shivalik, was deployed in the North West Pacific for JIMEX 2012 (Japan-India Maritime Exercise) with four other ships which included INS Rana, a Rajput-class guided missile destroyer, INS Shakti, a Deepak-class fleet tanker, and INS Karmuk, a Kora-class corvette, and took part in India's first bi-lateral maritime exercise with Japan. The Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF) was represented by two destroyers, one maritime patrol aircraft and a helicopter.[20] After the deployment in the north Pacific, the battle group was deployed in the South China Sea.[21][22] As part of India's Look East policy, the ships visited the Shanghai port on 13 June 2012, for a five-day goodwill tour.[23][24] INS Shakti served as the fuel and logistics tanker to the three destroyers. The ships left the port on 17 June 2012.[25] Before leaving the port, the ships conducted a routine passage exercise with the People's Liberation Army Navy.[26][27][28]

The second ship, INS Satpura, participated in the Malabar 2012 exercise with the United States Navy along with the Indian destroyers INS Ranvir, INS Ranvijay, corvette INS Kulish and replenishment oiler INS Shakti. The other ships which participated in the exercise included Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 1 of the US Navy, consisting of:[29] USS Carl Vinson, embarked Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 17, the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruiser USS Bunker Hill and the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Halsey. Military Sealift Command's fast combat support ship USNS Bridge also provided support for the exercise.[30]

INS Shivalik participated in the PLAN's 65th anniversary celebrations held in Qingdao sailing 4,500 miles from Port Blair without any assistance from support ships. India, Indonesia and China conducted three high level exercises including anti-hijack exercise.[31]

ShipsEdit

Name Pennant Builder Laid Down Launched Sea Trials Commissioned Home port Status
INS Shivalik F47 Mazagon Dock Limited 11 July 2001 18 April 2003 February 2009 29 April 2010[32] Visakhapatnam Active
INS Satpura F48 31 October 2002 4 June 2004[4] 2010–2011 20 August 2011[33] Active
INS Sahyadri F49 30 September 2003[13] 27 May 2005 2011–2012 21 July 2012[34] Active

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Eat dosa, sink enemy". Calcutta: The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Shivalik Class Frigates". Naval Technology. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  3. ^ a b c "Shivalik class". Indiannavy.nic.in. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  4. ^ a b Cdr. A.K. Lambhate, "Stealth is Wealth" Archived 22 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Sainik Samachar, Vol. 51, No. 14, 16–31 July 2004, Ministry of Defence (India).
  5. ^ Monica Chadha, India trials stealth frigate Archived 13 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, BBC, 18 April 2003
  6. ^ "India finalizing mega stealth frigates' project for over Rs 50,000 crore". 9 July 2012. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  7. ^ Commodore Stephen Saunders, ed. (2016). "India". Jane's Fighting Ships 2016–2017 (119th ed.). Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. p. 348. ISBN 978-0710631855.
  8. ^ a b c d Waters, Conrad (2015). Seaforth World Naval Review 2013: pdf. Seaforth Publishing. p. 159. ISBN 9781473817999. Archived from the original on 3 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Riding the waves". Rediff.com. 10 May 2003. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  10. ^ "Indian Navy working on policy to allow women on-board warships". The Economic Times. 30 March 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  11. ^ "INS-Sahyadri plays mid-sea saviour to Aussie lady sailor". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  12. ^ "Capital Cruisers" Archived 21 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Sainik Samachar, Ministry of Defence (India), 15 March 2004. Adm. Madhvendra Singh, Chief of Naval Staff: "These would be the future ships of the Indian Navy and will be of the Shivalik class".
  13. ^ a b 2003–04 Annual Report of the Ministry of Defence Archived 17 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, India.
  14. ^ MoD – Report on Major Activities, 2002–05 Archived 29 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Defence (India).
  15. ^ The Corps of Naval Constructors – Building Self Reliance Archived 22 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, MoD Samachar, Ministry of Defence (India), 1 December 2006.
  16. ^ "Project 17 (Shivalik) Class". Surface Fleet, Active Ships, Project 17 (Shivalik) Class. Bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  17. ^ Anandan, S.; Martin, K. A. (30 December 2011). "Navy floats out first Indigenous Aircraft Carrier". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012.
  18. ^ "Warship Building Prowess", FORCE, January 2008, (forceindia.net Archived 11 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine).
  19. ^ "CMC Uplifts Network Infrastructure for Indian Navy". Cxotoday.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  20. ^ "India, Japan to hold first naval exercise from today". IBN Live. 9 June 2012. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Warm reception to Indian naval ships in China". Zee News. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  22. ^ "Indian warships to dock at Chinese port". Zee News. 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  23. ^ "How Indian Navy is expanding and modernising". NDTV. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  24. ^ "Indian warships to dock at Chinese port after 6 yrs gap". Hindustantimes.com. 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  25. ^ "Indian warships wrap up China visit". NDTV. 19 June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  26. ^ "Chinese Navy calls for trust building with India". The Hindu. 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  27. ^ "Chinese Navy calls for trust building with India". THE WEEK IN REVIEW. IDSA. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  28. ^ Mohan, C Raja. "Analysis: Japanese Navy". Observer Research Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  29. ^ "Carrier Strike Group 1 Completes Exercise Malabar 2012". C7f.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Carl Vinson Sailors Make History During Exercise Malabar 2012". Public.navy.mil. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  31. ^ India, China agree to deepen naval ties after landmark exercise Archived 26 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ "Why Shivalik-class frigates matter to India". News.rediff.com. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  33. ^ "India to boost 'blue-water' warfare punch with two new stealth frigates". The Times of India. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  34. ^ "Stealth warship 'INS Sahyadri' commissioned". www.indiatvnews.com. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.

External linksEdit