Schwarzheide is a town in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz district, in southern Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated on the river Schwarze Elster, 11 km southwest of Senftenberg, 110 km south of Berlin and 40 km north of Dresden. The little river Pössnitz runs through the eastern part of Schwarzheide.

Schwarzheide
Schwarzheide Wasserturm.jpg
Coat of arms of Schwarzheide
Coat of arms
Location of Schwarzheide within Oberspreewald-Lausitz district
Schwarzheide in OSL.svg
Schwarzheide is located in Germany
Schwarzheide
Schwarzheide
Schwarzheide is located in Brandenburg
Schwarzheide
Schwarzheide
Coordinates: 51°28′59″N 13°52′00″E / 51.48306°N 13.86667°E / 51.48306; 13.86667Coordinates: 51°28′59″N 13°52′00″E / 51.48306°N 13.86667°E / 51.48306; 13.86667
CountryGermany
StateBrandenburg
DistrictOberspreewald-Lausitz
Government
 • MayorChristoph Schmidt (Ind.)
Area
 • Total33.23 km2 (12.83 sq mi)
Elevation
99 m (325 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[1]
 • Total5,652
 • Density170/km2 (440/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
01987
Dialling codes035752
Vehicle registrationOSL (to 1994 SFB)
Websitewww.schwarzheide.de

Neighbouring communitiesEdit

Immediate neighbors of the town are the towns Ruhland (south), Lauchhammer (west), Schipkau (north) and Senftenberg with the district Brieske (east).

DistrictsEdit

Schwarzheide has the following districts [2]

  • Schwarzheide-West (former Zschornegosda)
  • Wandelhof
  • Schwarzheide-Mitte
  • Schwarzheide-Ost, consisting of Victoria and Naundorf


HistoryEdit

The town's landmark is the watertower. Today´s industrial town, Schwarzheide, was created on October 1, 1936, from the independent communities, Zschornegosda (today Schwarzheide-West) and Naundorf (now part of Schwarzheide-Ost). The name was translated from the Sorbian name, "Zschornegosda", (corny = black, gozd = heath, wood). The date of foundation of this community is unknown. Zschornegosda and Naundorf were founded in the 12th or the 13th century after the Christianization of the Sorbs.

The first written evidence of Naundorf (as Nuwendorff) came from a pledge deed from 1421. Zschornegosda was first written in 1449 (as Cschörnegast) in feudal deed of Duke Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. Naundorf is a typical street village. Zschornegosda is a rotunde called okolnica. The chapel was on the highest point of a sandy knoll.

The development of both villages was retarded by wars, fires, and epidemics. Until the 18th century, the villages had no more than 100 inhabitants.

In 1780, the discovery of lignite coal west of Zschornegosda in Bockwitz lead to mining and the foundation of briquette factories (Ferdinand, Victoria, Victoria II). The river, Schwarze Elster, was drained and converted to a canal, so it was no longer possible to live from fishing. Highway A13 was built in 1936.

World War II
In 1937, Brabag (German: Braunkohlen Benzin AG) completed the Brabag II facility in Ruhland-Schwarlheide (the 4th Nazi Germany Fischer-Tropsch plant) to produce gasoline and diesel fuel from lignite coal.[3] The plant was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II, used Sachsenhausen concentration camp forced labor, and became a post-war Soviet Joint Stock Company. The factory became VEB Synthesewerk Schwarzheide on January 1, 1954.

When the village's population reached eight-thousand inhabitants, the village became a town on January 11, 1967.

After 1990, Synthesewerk Schwarzheide became a part of BASF AG, which manufactures polyurethane.

Political affinityEdit

The river, Schwarze Elster, forms the border between lower and upper Lusatia. From 1635, both Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Saxony. In 1815 both villages came to Prussia because of the Congress of Vienna. Between 1818 and 1952, Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Kreis Calau. From 1952 to 1990, Schwarzheide was a part of Kreis Senftenberg in Bezirk Cottbus.

In 1990, town was annexed to Brandenburg, and, on December 6, 1993, to Oberspreewald-Lausitz.

DemographyEdit

YearPop.±% p.a.
1875 983—    
1890 1,175+1.20%
1910 2,145+3.06%
1925 3,638+3.58%
1933 4,095+1.49%
1939 5,898+6.27%
1946 7,449+3.39%
1950 8,287+2.70%
1964 8,169−0.10%
1971 8,570+0.69%
1981 9,920+1.47%
1985 9,262−1.70%
1989 9,198−0.17%
1990 8,936−2.85%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1991 8,377−6.26%
1992 8,286−1.09%
1993 8,153−1.61%
1994 7,995−1.94%
1995 7,881−1.43%
1996 7,699−2.31%
1997 7,540−2.07%
1998 7,323−2.88%
1999 7,298−0.34%
2000 7,203−1.30%
2001 7,107−1.33%
2002 6,941−2.34%
2003 6,793−2.13%
2004 6,676−1.72%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2005 6,555−1.81%
2006 6,510−0.69%
2007 6,451−0.91%
2008 6,344−1.66%
2009 6,211−2.10%
2010 6,053−2.54%
2011 5,893−2.64%
2012 5,855−0.64%
2013 5,743−1.91%
2014 5,772+0.50%
2015 5,795+0.40%
2016 5,711−1.45%
2017 5,679−0.56%

ParliamentEdit

The town parliament of Schwarzheide comprises the mayor and 18 members.

The turnout stood at 56,9 percent.

PartnershipsEdit

Culture and artEdit

 
Die denkmalgeschützte Lutherkirche

Symbol is the 36 m high watertower built in 1943/44 by French prisoners of war.Lutherkirche from 1754 is also located in the center. The oldest nightclub in eastern Germany is Freizeitpark Wandelhof and there is also a cinema with four sals and 650 places.


MuseumsEdit

  • Kulturhaus of BASF (Schipkauer Straße)
  • Museum of Schwarzheide (Dorfaue)

Historical monumentsEdit

  • Memorial for the victims of the concentration camp
  • Monument from 1965 on cemetery Schwarzheide-West for more than 23 unfree workers Brabagvictims

BuildingsEdit

  • Evangelical church (1953 first new church in the GDR, Otto-Nuschke-Straße)
  • Luther church (Schwarzheide)
  • Evangelical chapel (Parkstraße)
  • Catholic Holy Cross church (Otto-Nuschke-Straße)

Natur and recreation areasEdit

Pine forests, lakes, meadows, and pastures surround Schwarzheide. The Lusatian Lake District and Spreewald are also near Schwarzheide.

SportsEdit

Eurospeedway Lausitz is near.

InfrastructureEdit

TransportEdit

federal highway 13 Bundesautobahn 13 from Berlin to Dresden, in south B 169. There is a rail way point in Schwarzheide-Ost.

StreetEdit

A 13 (E 55): Berlin–Dresden (Anschlussstelle (16) Schwarzheide and Anschlussstelle (17) Ruhland)

RailwayEdit

RE 18: Falkenberg (Elster)–Bad Liebenwerda–Lauchhammer–Ruhland–Schwarzheide-Ost–Senftenberg–Drebkau–Cottbus

CompaniesEdit

The largest employer is BASF Schwarzheide GmbH. Other companies include Fränkische Rohrwerke and PeinigerRöRo.

MediaEdit

  • Local broadcasting Schwarzheide & Ruhland (LSR)

EducationEdit

In Schwarzheide exist a secondary school (Schwarzheide-Wandelhof), a high school(Emil-Fischer), a division of Oberstufenzentrums Lausitz (OSZ) to train laboratory technicians and chemistss, and a music school.

Important personsEdit

HonoredEdit

  • 2002: Hans-Herman Dehmel (CEO of BASF Schwarzheide from 1990 to 1995)
  • 2004: Sokratis Giapapas (chief of Fränkisch Rohrwerke in Schwarzheide)

External linksEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2018". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). July 2019.
  2. ^ Webseite der Stadt → Stadtentwicklungskonzept, S. 12
  3. ^ Strange, Anthony N (2003). "Germany's Synthetic Fuel Industry 1927-45" (PDF). Fischer-Tropsch.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2009-10-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ Detailed data sources are to be found in the Wikimedia Commons.Population Projection Brandenburg at Wikimedia Commons