The Ruger 10/22 is a series of semi-automatic rifles produced by American firearm manufacturer Sturm, Ruger & Co., chambered for the .22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge. It uses a patented 10-round rotary magazine, though higher capacity box magazines are also available. The standard Carbine version of the Ruger 10/22 has been in production continuously since 1964, making it one of the most successful rimfire rifle designs in history, with numerous third party manufacturers making parts and accessories for upgrading and customization. In fact, the 10/22's aftermarket is so prolific, that a 10/22 can be built with completely non-Ruger made components.
|Type||Rimfire semi-automatic rifle|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Users|
|Designer||William B. Ruger, Harry H. Sefried II|
|Manufacturer||Sturm, Ruger & Co.|
|Unit cost||$54.50 (1965)|
|No. built||over 7 million (2015)|
22 Charger pistol
|Specifications (Standard 10/22 carbine)|
|Mass||5 lb (2.3 kg)|
|Length||37 in (940 mm)|
|Barrel length||18.5 in (470 mm)|
|Cartridge||.22 Long Rifle|
.22 Magnum (10/22 Magnum only)
.17 HMR (10/17 only)
|Feed system||10-round rotary magazine or 25 and 15-round box magazine|
A magnum version of the 10/22, known as the 10/22 Magnum, chambered for the .22 WMR cartridge, was made from 1998 to 2006. A .17 HMR version, the 10/17, was announced in 2004 but was only listed in the catalog for two years.
Uses and customizationEdit
The 10/22 was immediately popular upon its release. It was designed as a quality adult gun with adult ergonomics and not a stereotypically cheap "youth rifle". It was styled as reminiscent of the U.S. 30 caliber M1 carbine adding to its appeal. Its easy handling characteristics, negligible recoil, and inexpensive ammunition nonetheless make it ideal for young or inexperienced shooters. It is very popular for small-game hunters and those who want an inexpensive rifle for firing inexpensive ammunition for target and plinking use. This popularity has led to many after-market modifications being available to improve performance, augment the rifle's looks, or increase its magazine capacity, making the 10/22 one of the most customizable firearms ever made. Custom manufacturers also make "clones" of the 10/22, which are similar in design (most parts will interchange) but built to much higher specifications and costs. The 10/22 barrel uses a unique two-screw, V-block system to attach the barrel to the receiver, making removal and replacement of the barrel (which would require a gunsmith's work with most other rifles) very easy. This, when combined with the simple construction of the rest of the components, means that the average person can easily replace any part in the gun with nothing more than a screwdriver, a hex key and simple punches.
The 10/22 is available in a wide variety of configurations. In 2015, the Ruger 10/22 came in 11 different models, not counting distributor exclusives. The Carbine came in three models; the Tactical, Takedown and Target each had two models; the Sporter and Compact each had one model. The discontinued 10/22 International model was fitted with a Mannlicher stock. Standard barrel lengths are 20" in the 10/22 Rifle, 181⁄2" in the 10/22 Carbine, and 161⁄8" in the 10/22 Compact Rifle which is also fitted with a shorter stock. All .22 Long Rifle versions use an aluminum receiver, while the discontinued .22 Magnum version used a steel receiver with integral scope bases.
Standard model with 18.5" barrel. Offered with hardwood or black synthetic stocks, black alloy, or stainless steel receivers and a model fitted with LaserMax laser sight.
Target shooting model with heavy 20" bull barrel with no iron sights.
10/22 Target LiteEdit
Introduced in 2018 the Target Lite is similar to the Target model but with a laminate thumbhole stock.
Compact rifle with 16.12" barrel.
Model with 18.5", alternatively 20" or 22", barrel and checkered walnut stock with sling swivels.
A model with 16.12" fitted with flash suppressor. Also offered with 16.12" heavy target barrel with Hogue OverMolded stock fitted with bipod.
The 10/22 Competition rifle has a hard-coat anodized, CNC-machined receiver made from heat-treated and stress relieved 6061-T6511 aluminum. The receiver incorporates a rear cleaning port and an integral, optics-ready 30 MOA Picatinny rail. The rifle also has an enhanced semi-auto chamber, BX-Trigger, heat-treated and nitrided CNC-machined match bolt, 16-1/8" cold hammer-forged bull free-floating barrel which is fluted to reduce weight and dissipate heat and is also threaded with a 1/2"-28 pattern to accommodate the included muzzle brake or other barrel accessories.
50th Anniversary RifleEdit
In 2014 to mark the 50th anniversary of the Ruger 10/22 a contest was held to design an anniversary model. The winning design by public vote has a stainless steel 18.5" threaded barrel with flash suppressor, a lightweight black synthetic stock with interchangeable stock modules, a picatinny rail and ghost-ring adjustable rear sight.
A limited edition 50th Anniversary Collector's Series Carbine model was offered in 2014. It had a black alloy receiver with "1964-2014" special markings, 18.5" barrel, fiber optic sights, and a 25-round magazine.
Collector's Series Second EditionEdit
In June 2015, Ruger announced a limited Second Edition of the Collector's Series 10/22 carbine. It features a dark grey version of Ruger's Modular Stock System found on the Ruger American Rimfire rifle, a protected non-glare blade front sight, ghost ring adjustable rear aperture sight, and a Picatinny rail.
VLEH Target Tactical RifleEdit
On March 28, 2012, Ruger introduced the 10/22 Takedown model. This model disassembles into barrel and action/buttstock components easily. It is shipped in a backpack style case that has room for the rifle, ammunition, and accessories. The MSRP is higher than the basic carbine models. The standard Takedown model has a brushed aluminum receiver made to resemble stainless steel and 18.5" barrel with a black synthetic stock. Also offered in a black alloy receiver and 16.12" threaded barrel with a flash suppressor or with a threaded, fluted target barrel.
10/22 Takedown LiteEdit
The Takedown Lite models are similar to the other Takedown models but has a lightweight target barrel design.
In 2009, Ruger released the SR-22 Rifle model, a 10/22 receiver embedded in a chassis that mimics the dimensions of an AR-15 style rifle such as their own SR-556. The SR-22 Rifle uses standard 10/22 rotary magazines, in addition to most aftermarket 10/22 magazines. The positions of the magazine release, the safety and the charging handle are all more similar to a standard 10/22 than an AR-15. The SR-22 Rifle competes directly with other AR-15 style rimfire rifles such as those made by Colt and Smith & Wesson. The SR-22 rifle boasts an aluminium handguard, adjustable six position stock, and a top receiver rail. Threaded holes on the handguard provide the customization of optional attachment rails.
22 Charger PistolEdit
The 22 Charger pistol, first introduced in late 2007, is a pistol based on the 10/22 action. The 22 Charger originally came with a black laminated wood pistol stock with forend, a 10-inch (254 mm) matte blued heavy barrel, a bipod, and a Weaver style scope base in lieu of iron sights. Overall length is just under 20 inches (510 mm), making it quite large for a handgun. As it has an included bipod it is likely to be used from a shooting bench or table. The bipod attaches to a sling swivel on the stock fore-end and is easily removable. Due to technical features, such as the magazine being outside the pistol grip, the Charger is not legally available in some U.S. states. The 22 Charger was later discontinued. It was reintroduced in December 2014, with a brown laminate stock with a M16A2 style pistol grip, 10-inch threaded barrel, picatinny rail, 15-round magazine and adjustable bipod. At the same time a "Takedown" model was introduced with a green laminate stock. Both models were later offered from September 2015 with black polymer stocks.
The 10/17 was announced in 2004 and was chambered for the .17 HMR cartridge.
The image on the bottom right shows two 10/22 carbines, the top one in issued form (with a 4-power magnification scope added, using the factory supplied scope base) and the bottom one in highly modified form. The modified target version includes an 18 inch bull barrel, a muzzle brake, a laminated wood silhouette style stock, and a scope with an illuminated reticle, in addition to internal modifications of the trigger group to improve the firing characteristics. See the entry on accurizing for more information on the reasons for these modifications.
A wide variety of aftermarket modification kits are offered for the 10/22, including conversions to bullpup configuration and cosmetic alterations to replicate the appearance of weapons like the M1 Carbine, Thompson submachine gun, FN P90, and AR-15.
AWC Ultra IIEdit
The AWC Ultra II is a modified version of the Ruger 10/22 made by AWC Systech and has an integrally-suppressed shortened barrel. The sound suppressor encloses a ported stainless barrel and is made of 300 series stainless steel having a 1" diameter which closely resembles a bull barrel. The barrel length is 16.5" with an overall weapon length of 341⁄2" and the weight is 6 lbs. Due to the integral suppressor, this model is a Title II weapon in the U.S.
AT 10/22 QDEdit
The AT 10/22 QD is a short-barreled modified version of the 10/22 made by Arms Tech Limited. It features a six-inch barrel, a folding stock, and is designed to accept Arms Tech's own QD-223 suppressor. It comes in at a mere 5 pounds without the suppressor. Due to its extremely short barrel, it is considered a Title II weapon in the U.S.
AMT Lightning 25/22Edit
The AMT Lightning 25/22 was a .22 LR-caliber semi-automatic rifle manufactured by Arcadia Machine & Tool (AMT). The Lightning 25/22 is functionally a clone of the Ruger 10/22 with the substitution of a larger 25-round magazine instead of the 10-round magazine used by Ruger.
The Thompson/Center T/CR22 is a .22 LR-caliber clone of the Ruger 10/22 semi-automatic rifle manufactured by Thompson/Center Arms.
There are many types of magazines for the Ruger 10/22. The standard 10/22 ships with a black 10-round polymer rotary magazine, the BX-1. Ruger has also introduced a transparent polycarbonate version ("40th-anniversary edition") of the BX-1 called the BX-1CLR, as well as a 1-round version for training and a 5-round version for states or countries that restrict magazine capacities. In 2011–2012, Ruger came out with the BX-25, a curved 25-round box magazine with a black composite frame and steel feed lips, as well as the 15-round BX-15 box magazine for states that restrict magazine capacities. Aftermarket options include 25-, 30-, and 50-round box magazines; 50-round teardrop-shaped rotary magazines, and 50- and 110-round drum magazines.
The standard BX-1 rotary magazine stores the cartridges in a cogwheel-like holder, rather than stacked as seen in a box magazine. This allows the magazine to be very compact and fit flush into the rifle without protruding from the stock at the natural balance point for one-handed carry. The bolt of the rifle pushes a cartridge from the metal feeding lip of the magazine with each shot, allowing the next cartridge to feed into place. Due to its time-tested reliability, the rotary magazine is also used by the Ruger's American Rimfire series bolt-action rifles, as well as the 10/22-footprinted "Summit" toggle-action rifles produced by Primary Weapon Systems/Vorquartsen. Even Ruger's market competitor Savage Arms has recently adopted a detachable rotary magazine design similar to the BX-1 in its new A series (semi-automatic) and B series (bolt-action) rimfire rifles.
Not all Ruger 10/22 magazines are interchangeable. The owners manual for the 10/22 Magnum model states, "Do not attempt to use standard 10/22 magazines in the 10/22 Magnum rifles or load .22 Short, Long, or Long Rifle ammunition into the .22 Magnum. They will not function correctly and are unsafe to use in .22 Magnum rifles." It goes on to say, "Never attempt to use .22 Long Rifle ammunition in Ruger 10/22 Magnum rifle magazines. The cartridges have a smaller case diameter and can split or burst when fired in the larger magnum chamber, releasing hot powder gasses and particle fragments out of the action at high speed, possibly resulting in injury to the shooter or bystanders."
- Israel: The Ruger 10/22 has seen limited use by the Israel Defense Force in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict as a “less than lethal” weapon for security and crowd or “riot” control purposes in the Palestinian territories. The IDF uses a modified carbine rifle version with a scope and a suppressor, which would allow for silent operation with no loud noises to indicate the shot’s origin.
- Brampton Centennial Secondary School shooting - On May 28, 1975, 16-year old Michael Slobodian killed two people and injured thirteen others with a 10/22 (Sporter variant) and a Marlin Model 444 before killing himself.
- Cleveland Elementary School shooting (San Diego) - On January 29, 1979, 16-year old Brenda Spencer killed two people and injured nine others with a 10/22 before surrendering to police. She has since been sentenced to 25 years to life.
- Hoddle Street massacre - On August 9, 1987, 19-year old Julian Knight killed seven people and injured nineteen others with a 10/22, a Mossberg shotgun, and an Norinco M14 rifle assault rifle before being apprehended by police. He was given seven subsequent life sentences with a non-parole period of 27 years.
- On December 30, 1994, 22-year old John Salvi killed two people and injured five others with a modified 10/22 at two abortion clinics in Brookline, Massachusetts. He later committed suicide by asphyxiating himself with a garbage bag in prison.
- Thurston High School shooting - On May 21, 1998, 15-year old Kipland Kinkel killed four people (including his own parents) and injured 25 others with a sawed-off 10/22 and several other weapons. He was apprehended by several students and later sentenced to 111 years in prison.
- Cascade Mall shooting - On September 23, 2016, 20-year old Arcan Cetin killed five people with a 10/22 before being apprehended at his hometown. He later hanged himself in his prison cell.
- STEM School Highlands Ranch shooting - On May 7, 2019, two boys (18-year old Devon Michael Erickson and 16-year old transgender Alec McKinney) used a 10/22, a Glock 21, a Beretta M9, and a Taurus revolver to kill one student and injure eight others. After being apprehended, McKinney was given a life sentence while Erickson is still awaiting trial.
- Intratec TEC-22, a pistol that feeds from 10/22 magazines.
- Wilson, R. L. (1996). Ruger & His Guns: A History of the Man, the Company, and Their Firearms. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80367-4. OCLC 33820244.
- Kuleck, Walt (2015). The Ruger 10/22 Complete Owner's and Assembly Guide. Pennsylvania: Scott A. Duff Publications. ISBN 978-1-888722-20-8.
- Workman, William E. (1994). The Ruger 10/22. Krause Publications Inc. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87341-277-3.
- Kuleck 2015, p. 1.
- Wilson 1996, p. 78.
- Wilson 1996, pp. 82–85.
- Wood, J.B., Firearms Assembly / Disassembly Part III: Rimfire Rifles Revised Edition, DBI Books, 1994, ISBN 0-87349-152-1 p.331
- "Ruger Introduces the New Ruger 10/17 Magnum Rifle". Ruger.com. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- House, James E (2006). Customize the Ruger 10/22. Gun Digest Books. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-89689-323-8.
- "50 Years Of Ruger Genius" Guns Magazine, Sept, 1999 by Clair Rees
- Charles E. Petty (2000). "RUGER 10/22: From Factory to Fantasy". Guns Magazine. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
- The Ruger 1022 Exotic Weapons System, Paperback: 96 pages, Paladin Press Revised edition (Mar. 1989) ISBN 0873645146
- Clair Rees (May 1999), "Middle-Age Spread Of the 10/22", Guns Magazine
- "Ruger News". Ruger Firearms. June 19, 2015.
- "New Ruger 10/22 VLEH Target Tactical Rifle".
- "A new Take on the Ruger 10/22". March 28, 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Ruger 10/22 Carbine Pricing". Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- "Ruger 10/22 Takedown Pricing". Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Holt Bodinson (March 2010), "Ruger fields their own .22 LR AR: the old favorite 10/22 serves well as the platform", Guns Magazine
- ".22 Charger Pistol". Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- "Ruger's New .22 Charger Semi-Auto Pistol".
- 2009 AWC Product Guide, p. 7.
- "Autoloading rifles" at Ruger-firearms.com
- "Hornady's Sweet Seventeen" by Rick Jamison, Shooting Times
- "Rotary magazine for firearm with hold-open lever" Patent
- Instruction Manual for Ruger® 10/22® Autoloading Rifles (PDF). Newport, New Hampshire: Sturm, Ruger & Co., Inc. 2015.
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