Riemann zeta function
The Riemann zeta function or Euler–Riemann zeta function, ζ(s), is a function of a complex variable s that analytically continues the sum of the Dirichlet series
Riemann zeta function  

The Riemann zeta function ζ(z) plotted with domain coloring.^{[1]}  
Basic features  
Domain  
Codomain  
Specific values  
At zero  
Limit to +∞  
Value at  
Value at  
Value at  
which converges when the real part of s is greater than 1. More general representations of ζ(s) for all s are given below. The Riemann zeta function plays a pivotal role in analytic number theory and has applications in physics, probability theory, and applied statistics.
As a function of a real variable, Leonhard Euler first introduced and studied it in the first half of the eighteenth century without using complex analysis, which was not available at the time. Bernhard Riemann's 1859 article "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude" extended the Euler definition to a complex variable, proved its meromorphic continuation and functional equation, and established a relation between its zeros and the distribution of prime numbers.^{[2]}
The values of the Riemann zeta function at even positive integers were computed by Euler. The first of them, ζ(2), provides a solution to the Basel problem. In 1979 Roger Apéry proved the irrationality of ζ(3). The values at negative integer points, also found by Euler, are rational numbers and play an important role in the theory of modular forms. Many generalizations of the Riemann zeta function, such as Dirichlet series, Dirichlet Lfunctions and Lfunctions, are known.
DefinitionEdit
The Riemann zeta function ζ(s) is a function of a complex variable s = σ + it. (The notation s, σ, and t is used traditionally in the study of the zeta function, following Riemann.)
For the special case where the zeta function can be expressed by the following integral:
where
is the gamma function.
In the case σ > 1, the integral for ζ(s) always converges, and can be simplified to the following infinite series:
The Riemann zeta function is defined as the analytic continuation of the function defined for σ > 1 by the sum of the preceding series.
Leonhard Euler considered the above series in 1740 for positive integer values of s, and later Chebyshev extended the definition to ^{[3]}
The above series is a prototypical Dirichlet series that converges absolutely to an analytic function for s such that σ > 1 and diverges for all other values of s. Riemann showed that the function defined by the series on the halfplane of convergence can be continued analytically to all complex values s ≠ 1. For s = 1, the series is the harmonic series which diverges to +∞, and
Thus the Riemann zeta function is a meromorphic function on the whole complex splane, which is holomorphic everywhere except for a simple pole at s = 1 with residue 1.
Specific valuesEdit
For any positive even integer 2n:
where B_{2n} is the 2nth Bernoulli number.
For odd positive integers, no such simple expression is known, although these values are thought to be related to the algebraic Ktheory of the integers; see Special values of Lfunctions.
For nonpositive integers, one has
for n ≥ 0 (using the convention that B_{1} = −1/2).
In particular, ζ vanishes at the negative even integers because B_{m} = 0 for all odd m other than 1. These are the socalled "trivial zeros" of the zeta function.
Via analytic continuation, one can show that:
 This gives a pretext for assigning a finite value to the divergent series 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ⋯, which has been used in certain contexts (Ramanujan summation) such as string theory.^{[4]}
 Similarly to the above, this assigns a finite result to the series 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ⋯.
 This is employed in calculating of kinetic boundary layer problems of linear kinetic equations.^{[5]}
 If we approach from numbers larger than 1, this is the harmonic series. But its Cauchy principal value
 exists which is the Euler–Mascheroni constant γ = 0.5772….
 If we approach from numbers larger than 1, this is the harmonic series. But its Cauchy principal value
 This is employed in calculating the critical temperature for a Bose–Einstein condensate in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and for spin wave physics in magnetic systems.
 The demonstration of this equality is known as the Basel problem. The reciprocal of this sum answers the question: What is the probability that two numbers selected at random are relatively prime?^{[6]}
 This number is called Apéry's constant.
 This appears when integrating Planck's law to derive the Stefan–Boltzmann law in physics.
Taking the limit , one obtains .
Euler product formulaEdit
The connection between the zeta function and prime numbers was discovered by Euler, who proved the identity
where, by definition, the left hand side is ζ(s) and the infinite product on the right hand side extends over all prime numbers p (such expressions are called Euler products):
Both sides of the Euler product formula converge for Re(s) > 1. The proof of Euler's identity uses only the formula for the geometric series and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. Since the harmonic series, obtained when s = 1, diverges, Euler's formula (which becomes ∏_{p} p/p − 1) implies that there are infinitely many primes.^{[7]}
The Euler product formula can be used to calculate the asymptotic probability that s randomly selected integers are setwise coprime. Intuitively, the probability that any single number is divisible by a prime (or any integer) p is 1/p. Hence the probability that s numbers are all divisible by this prime is 1/p^{s}, and the probability that at least one of them is not is 1 − 1/p^{s}. Now, for distinct primes, these divisibility events are mutually independent because the candidate divisors are coprime (a number is divisible by coprime divisors n and m if and only if it is divisible by nm, an event which occurs with probability 1/nm). Thus the asymptotic probability that s numbers are coprime is given by a product over all primes,
(More work is required to derive this result formally.)^{[8]}
Riemann's functional equationEdit
The zeta function satisfies the functional equation:
where Γ(s) is the gamma function. This is an equality of meromorphic functions valid on the whole complex plane. The equation relates values of the Riemann zeta function at the points s and 1 − s, in particular relating even positive integers with odd negative integers. Owing to the zeros of the sine function, the functional equation implies that ζ(s) has a simple zero at each even negative integer s = −2n, known as the trivial zeros of ζ(s). When s is an even positive integer, the product sin(πs/2)Γ(1 − s) on the right is nonzero because Γ(1 − s) has a simple pole, which cancels the simple zero of the sine factor.
Proof of functional equation


A proof of the functional equation proceeds as follows: We observe that if , then As a result, if then With the inversion of the limiting processes justified by absolute convergence (hence the stricter requirement on ) For convenience, let Then Given that Then Hence This is equivalent to Or which is convergent for all s, so holds by analytic continuation. Furthermore, the RHS is unchanged if s is changed to 1 − s. Hence which is the functional equation. E. C. Titchmarsh (1986). The Theory of the Riemann Zetafunction (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford Science Publications. pp. 21–22. ISBN 0198533691. Attributed to Bernhard Riemann. 
The functional equation was established by Riemann in his 1859 paper "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude" and used to construct the analytic continuation in the first place. An equivalent relationship had been conjectured by Euler over a hundred years earlier, in 1749, for the Dirichlet eta function (alternating zeta function):
Incidentally, this relation gives an equation for calculating ζ(s) in the region 0 < Re(s) < 1, i.e.
where the ηseries is convergent (albeit nonabsolutely) in the larger halfplane s > 0 (for a more detailed survey on the history of the functional equation, see e.g. Blagouchine^{[9]}^{[10]}).
Riemann also found a symmetric version of the functional equation applying to the xifunction:
which satisfies:
(Riemann's original ξ(t) was slightly different.)
Zeros, the critical line, and the Riemann hypothesisEdit
The functional equation shows that the Riemann zeta function has zeros at −2, −4,…. These are called the trivial zeros. They are trivial in the sense that their existence is relatively easy to prove, for example, from sin πs/2 being 0 in the functional equation. The nontrivial zeros have captured far more attention because their distribution not only is far less understood but, more importantly, their study yields impressive results concerning prime numbers and related objects in number theory. It is known that any nontrivial zero lies in the open strip {s ∈ ℂ : 0 < Re(s) < 1}, which is called the critical strip. The Riemann hypothesis, considered one of the greatest unsolved problems in mathematics, asserts that any nontrivial zero s has Re(s) = 1/2. In the theory of the Riemann zeta function, the set {s ∈ ℂ : Re(s) = 1/2} is called the critical line. For the Riemann zeta function on the critical line, see Zfunction.
The Hardy–Littlewood conjecturesEdit
In 1914, Godfrey Harold Hardy proved that ζ (1/2 + it) has infinitely many real zeros.
Hardy and John Edensor Littlewood formulated two conjectures on the density and distance between the zeros of ζ (1/2 + it) on intervals of large positive real numbers. In the following, N(T) is the total number of real zeros and N_{0}(T) the total number of zeros of odd order of the function ζ (1/2 + it) lying in the interval (0, T].
 For any ε > 0, there exists a T_{0}(ε) > 0 such that when
 For any ε > 0, there exists a T_{0}(ε) > 0 and c_{ε} > 0 such that the inequality
These two conjectures opened up new directions in the investigation of the Riemann zeta function.
Zerofree regionEdit
The location of the Riemann zeta function's zeros is of great importance in the theory of numbers. The prime number theorem is equivalent to the fact that there are no zeros of the zeta function on the Re(s) = 1 line.^{[11]} A better result^{[12]} that follows from an effective form of Vinogradov's meanvalue theorem is that ζ (σ + it) ≠ 0 whenever t ≥ 3 and
The strongest result of this kind one can hope for is the truth of the Riemann hypothesis, which would have many profound consequences in the theory of numbers.
Other resultsEdit
It is known that there are infinitely many zeros on the critical line. Littlewood showed that if the sequence (γ_{n}) contains the imaginary parts of all zeros in the upper halfplane in ascending order, then
The critical line theorem asserts that a positive proportion of the nontrivial zeros lies on the critical line. (The Riemann hypothesis would imply that this proportion is 1.)
In the critical strip, the zero with smallest nonnegative imaginary part is 1/2 + 14.13472514…i (OEIS: A058303). The fact that
for all complex s ≠ 1 implies that the zeros of the Riemann zeta function are symmetric about the real axis. Combining this symmetry with the functional equation, furthermore, one sees that the nontrivial zeros are symmetric about the critical line Re(s) = 1/2.
Various propertiesEdit
For sums involving the zetafunction at integer and halfinteger values, see rational zeta series.
ReciprocalEdit
The reciprocal of the zeta function may be expressed as a Dirichlet series over the Möbius function μ(n):
for every complex number s with real part greater than 1. There are a number of similar relations involving various wellknown multiplicative functions; these are given in the article on the Dirichlet series.
The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the claim that this expression is valid when the real part of s is greater than 1/2.
UniversalityEdit
The critical strip of the Riemann zeta function has the remarkable property of universality. This zetafunction universality states that there exists some location on the critical strip that approximates any holomorphic function arbitrarily well. Since holomorphic functions are very general, this property is quite remarkable. The first proof of universality was provided by Sergei Mikhailovitch Voronin in 1975.^{[13]} More recent work has included effective versions of Voronin's theorem^{[14]} and extending it to Dirichlet Lfunctions.^{[15]}^{[16]}
Estimates of the maximum of the modulus of the zeta functionEdit
Let the functions F(T;H) and G(s_{0};Δ) be defined by the equalities
Here T is a sufficiently large positive number, 0 < H ≪ ln ln T, s_{0} = σ_{0} + iT, 1/2 ≤ σ_{0} ≤ 1, 0 < Δ < 1/3. Estimating the values F and G from below shows, how large (in modulus) values ζ(s) can take on short intervals of the critical line or in small neighborhoods of points lying in the critical strip 0 ≤ Re(s) ≤ 1.
The case H ≫ ln ln T was studied by Kanakanahalli Ramachandra; the case Δ > c, where c is a sufficiently large constant, is trivial.
Anatolii Karatsuba proved,^{[17]}^{[18]} in particular, that if the values H and Δ exceed certain sufficiently small constants, then the estimates
hold, where c_{1} and c_{2} are certain absolute constants.
The argument of the Riemann zeta functionEdit
The function
is called the argument of the Riemann zeta function. Here arg ζ(1/2 + it) is the increment of an arbitrary continuous branch of arg ζ(s) along the broken line joining the points 2, 2 + it and 1/2 + it.
There are some theorems on properties of the function S(t). Among those results^{[19]}^{[20]} are the mean value theorems for S(t) and its first integral
on intervals of the real line, and also the theorem claiming that every interval (T, T + H] for
contains at least
points where the function S(t) changes sign. Earlier similar results were obtained by Atle Selberg for the case
RepresentationsEdit
Dirichlet seriesEdit
An extension of the area of convergence can be obtained by rearranging the original series.^{[21]} The series
converges for Re(s) > 0, while
converges even for Re(s) > −1. In this way, the area of convergence can be extended to Re(s) > −k for any negative integer −k.
Mellintype integralsEdit
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The Mellin transform of a function f(x) is defined as
in the region where the integral is defined. There are various expressions for the zetafunction as Mellin transformlike integrals. If the real part of s is greater than one, we have
where Γ denotes the gamma function. By modifying the contour, Riemann showed that
for all s (where H denotes the Hankel contour).
Starting with the integral formula one can show^{[22]} by substitution and iterated differentation for natural
using the notation of umbral calculus where each power is to be replaced by , so e.g. for we have while for this becomes
We can also find expressions which relate to prime numbers and the prime number theorem. If π(x) is the primecounting function, then
for values with Re(s) > 1.
A similar Mellin transform involves the Riemann function J(x), which counts prime powers p^{n} with a weight of 1/n, so that
Now we have
These expressions can be used to prove the prime number theorem by means of the inverse Mellin transform. Riemann's primecounting function is easier to work with, and π(x) can be recovered from it by Möbius inversion.
Theta functionsEdit
The Riemann zeta function can be given by a Mellin transform^{[23]}
in terms of Jacobi's theta function
However, this integral only converges if the real part of s is greater than 1, but it can be regularized. This gives the following expression for the zeta function, which is well defined for all s except 0 and 1:
Laurent seriesEdit
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The Riemann zeta function is meromorphic with a single pole of order one at s = 1. It can therefore be expanded as a Laurent series about s = 1; the series development is then
The constants γ_{n} here are called the Stieltjes constants and can be defined by the limit
The constant term γ_{0} is the Euler–Mascheroni constant.
IntegralEdit
For all s ∈ C, s ≠ 1, the integral relation (cf. Abel–Plana formula)
holds true, which may be used for a numerical evaluation of the zetafunction.
Rising factorialEdit
Another series development using the rising factorial valid for the entire complex plane is^{[citation needed]}
This can be used recursively to extend the Dirichlet series definition to all complex numbers.
The Riemann zeta function also appears in a form similar to the Mellin transform in an integral over the Gauss–Kuzmin–Wirsing operator acting on x^{s − 1}; that context gives rise to a series expansion in terms of the falling factorial.^{[24]}
Hadamard productEdit
On the basis of Weierstrass's factorization theorem, Hadamard gave the infinite product expansion
where the product is over the nontrivial zeros ρ of ζ and the letter γ again denotes the Euler–Mascheroni constant. A simpler infinite product expansion is
This form clearly displays the simple pole at s = 1, the trivial zeros at −2, −4, ... due to the gamma function term in the denominator, and the nontrivial zeros at s = ρ. (To ensure convergence in the latter formula, the product should be taken over "matching pairs" of zeros, i.e. the factors for a pair of zeros of the form ρ and 1 − ρ should be combined.)
Globally convergent seriesEdit
A globally convergent series for the zeta function, valid for all complex numbers s except s = 1 + 2πi/ln 2n for some integer n, was conjectured by Konrad Knopp^{[25]} and proven by Helmut Hasse in 1930^{[26]} (cf. Euler summation):
The series appeared in an appendix to Hasse's paper, and was published for the second time by Jonathan Sondow in 1994.^{[27]}
Hasse also proved the globally converging series
in the same publication.^{[26]} Research by Iaroslav Blagouchine^{[28]}^{[25]} has found that a similar, equivalent series was published by Joseph Ser in 1926.^{[29]} Other similar globally convergent series include
where H_{n} are the harmonic numbers, are the Stirling numbers of the first kind, is the Pochhammer symbol, G_{n} are the Gregory coefficients, G^{(k)}
_{n} are the Gregory coefficients of higher order, C_{n} are the Cauchy numbers of the second kind (C_{1} = 1/2, C_{2} = 5/12, C_{3} = 3/8,...), and ψ_{n}(a)
are the Bernoulli polynomials of the second kind. See Blagouchine's paper.^{[25]}
Peter Borwein has developed an algorithm that applies Chebyshev polynomials to the Dirichlet eta function to produce a very rapidly convergent series suitable for high precision numerical calculations.^{[30]}
Series representation at positive integers via the primorialEdit
Here p_{n}# is the primorial sequence and J_{k} is Jordan's totient function.^{[31]}
Series representation by the incomplete polyBernoulli numbersEdit
The function ζ can be represented, for Re(s) > 1, by the infinite series
where k ∈ {−1, 0}, W_{k} is the kth branch of the Lambert Wfunction, and B^{(μ)}
_{n, ≥2} is an incomplete polyBernoulli number.^{[32]}
The Mellin transform of the Engel mapEdit
The function : is iterated to find the coefficients appearing in Engel expansions.^{[33]}
The Mellin transform of the map is related to the Riemann zeta function by the formula
Series representation as a sum of geometric seriesEdit
In analogy with the Euler product, which can be proven using geometric series, the zeta function for Re can be represented as a sum of geometric series:
where is the n:th not perfect power. ^{[34]}
Numerical algorithmsEdit
For , the Riemann zeta function has for fixed and for all the following representation in terms of three absolutely and uniformly converging series,^{[35]}
For a given argument with and one can approximate to any accuracy by summing the first series to , to and neglecting , if one chooses as the next higher integer of the unique solution of in the unknown , and from this . For one can neglect altogether. Under the mild condition one needs at most summands. Hence this algorithm is essentially as fast as the RiemannSiegel formula. Similar algorithms are possible for Dirichlet Lfunctions.^{[35]}
In February 2020, Sandeep Tyagi showed that a quantum computer can evaluate in the critical strip with computational complexity that is polylogarithmic in . Following work by Ghaith Ayesh Hiary, the required exponential sums may be rescaled as , for integer . ^{[36]}
ApplicationsEdit
The zeta function occurs in applied statistics (see Zipf's law and Zipf–Mandelbrot law).
Zeta function regularization is used as one possible means of regularization of divergent series and divergent integrals in quantum field theory. In one notable example, the Riemann zetafunction shows up explicitly in one method of calculating the Casimir effect. The zeta function is also useful for the analysis of dynamical systems.^{[37]}
Infinite seriesEdit
The zeta function evaluated at equidistant positive integers appears in infinite series representations of a number of constants.^{[38]}
In fact the even and odd terms give the two sums
and
Parametrized versions of the above sums are given by
and
with and where and are the polygamma function and Euler's constant, as well as
all of which are continuous at . Other sums include
where Im denotes the imaginary part of a complex number.
There are yet more formulas in the article Harmonic number.
GeneralizationsEdit
There are a number of related zeta functions that can be considered to be generalizations of the Riemann zeta function. These include the Hurwitz zeta function
(the convergent series representation was given by Helmut Hasse in 1930,^{[26]} cf. Hurwitz zeta function), which coincides with the Riemann zeta function when q = 1 (the lower limit of summation in the Hurwitz zeta function is 0, not 1), the Dirichlet Lfunctions and the Dedekind zetafunction. For other related functions see the articles zeta function and Lfunction.
The polylogarithm is given by
which coincides with the Riemann zeta function when z = 1.
The Lerch transcendent is given by
which coincides with the Riemann zeta function when z = 1 and q = 1 (the lower limit of summation in the Lerch transcendent is 0, not 1).
The Clausen function Cl_{s}(θ) that can be chosen as the real or imaginary part of Li_{s}(e^{iθ}).
The multiple zeta functions are defined by
One can analytically continue these functions to the ndimensional complex space. The special values taken by these functions at positive integer arguments are called multiple zeta values by number theorists and have been connected to many different branches in mathematics and physics.
See alsoEdit
NotesEdit
 ^ "Jupyter Notebook Viewer". Nbviewer.ipython.org. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
 ^ This paper also contained the Riemann hypothesis, a conjecture about the distribution of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function that is considered by many mathematicians to be the most important unsolved problem in pure mathematics. Bombieri, Enrico. "The Riemann Hypothesis – official problem description" (PDF). Clay Mathematics Institute. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
 ^ Devlin, Keith (2002). The Millennium Problems: The seven greatest unsolved mathematical puzzles of our time. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. 43–47. ISBN 9780760786598.
 ^ Polchinski, Joseph (1998). An Introduction to the Bosonic String. String Theory. I. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780521633031.
 ^ Kainz, A. J.; Titulaer, U. M. (1992). "An accurate twostream moment method for kinetic boundary layer problems of linear kinetic equations". J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 (7): 1855–1874. Bibcode:1992JPhA...25.1855K. doi:10.1088/03054470/25/7/026.
 ^ Ogilvy, C. S.; Anderson, J. T. (1988). Excursions in Number Theory. Dover Publications. pp. 29–35. ISBN 0486257789.
 ^ Sandifer, Charles Edward (2007). How Euler Did It. Mathematical Association of America. p. 193. ISBN 9780883855638.
 ^ Nymann, J. E. (1972). "On the probability that k positive integers are relatively prime". Journal of Number Theory. 4 (5): 469–473. Bibcode:1972JNT.....4..469N. doi:10.1016/0022314X(72)900388.
 ^ I. V. Blagouchine The history of the functional equation of the zetafunction. Seminar on the History of Mathematics, Steklov Institute of Mathematics at St. Petersburg, 1 March 2018. PDF
 ^ I. V. Blagouchine Rediscovery of Malmsten’s integrals, their evaluation by contour integration methods and some related results. The Ramanujan Journal, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 21110, 2014. Addendum: vol. 42, pp. 777–781, 2017. PDF
 ^ Diamond, Harold G. (1982). "Elementary methods in the study of the distribution of prime numbers". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 7 (3): 553–89. doi:10.1090/S027309791982150571. MR 0670132.
 ^ Ford, K. (2002). "Vinogradov's integral and bounds for the Riemann zeta function". Proc. London Math. Soc. 85 (3): 565–633. arXiv:1910.08209. doi:10.1112/S0024611502013655. S2CID 121144007.
 ^ Voronin, S. M. (1975). "Theorem on the Universality of the Riemann Zeta Function". Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Matem. 39: 475–486. Reprinted in Math. USSR Izv. (1975) 9: 443–445.
 ^ Ramūnas Garunkštis; Antanas Laurinčikas; Kohji Matsumoto; Jörn Steuding; Rasa Steuding (2010). "Effective uniform approximation by the Riemann zetafunction". Publicacions Matemàtiques. 54 (1): 209–219. doi:10.1090/S00255718197503846731. JSTOR 43736941.
 ^ Bhaskar Bagchi (1982). "A Joint Universality Theorem for Dirichlet LFunctions". Mathematische Zeitschrift. 181 (3): 319–334. doi:10.1007/bf01161980. ISSN 00255874. S2CID 120930513.
 ^ Steuding, Jörn (2007). ValueDistribution of LFunctions. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. 1877. Berlin: Springer. p. 19. arXiv:1711.06671. doi:10.1007/9783540448228. ISBN 9783540265269.
 ^ Karatsuba, A. A. (2001). "Lower bounds for the maximum modulus of ζ(s) in small domains of the critical strip". Mat. Zametki. 70 (5): 796–798.
 ^ Karatsuba, A. A. (2004). "Lower bounds for the maximum modulus of the Riemann zeta function on short segments of the critical line". Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Mat. 68 (8): 99–104. Bibcode:2004IzMat..68.1157K. doi:10.1070/IM2004v068n06ABEH000513.
 ^ Karatsuba, A. A. (1996). "Density theorem and the behavior of the argument of the Riemann zeta function". Mat. Zametki (60): 448–449.
 ^ Karatsuba, A. A. (1996). "On the function S(t)". Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Mat. 60 (5): 27–56.
 ^ Knopp, Konrad (1945). Theory of Functions. New York, Dover publications. pp. 51–55.
 ^ "Evaluating the definite integral..." math.stackexchange.com.
 ^ Neukirch, Jürgen (1999). Algebraic number theory. Springer. p. 422. ISBN 3540653996.
 ^ "A series representation for the Riemann Zeta derived from the GaussKuzminWirsing Operator" (PDF). Linas.org. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Blagouchine, Iaroslav V. (2018). "Three Notes on Ser's and Hasse's Representations for the Zetafunctions". INTEGERS: The Electronic Journal of Combinatorial Number Theory. 18A: 1–45. arXiv:1606.02044. Bibcode:2016arXiv160602044B.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Hasse, Helmut (1930). "Ein Summierungsverfahren für die Riemannsche ζReihe" [A summation method for the Riemann ζ series]. Mathematische Zeitschrift (in German). 32 (1): 458–464. doi:10.1007/BF01194645. S2CID 120392534.
 ^ Sondow, Jonathan (1994). "Analytic continuation of Riemann's zeta function and values at negative integers via Euler's transformation of series" (PDF). Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 120 (2): 421–424. doi:10.1090/S00029939199411729547.
 ^ Blagouchine, Iaroslav V. (2016). "Expansions of generalized Euler's constants into the series of polynomials in π^{−2} and into the formal enveloping series with rational coefficients only". Journal of Number Theory. 158: 365–396. arXiv:1501.00740. doi:10.1016/j.jnt.2015.06.012.
 ^ Ser, Joseph (1926). "Sur une expression de la fonction ζ(s) de Riemann" [Upon an expression for Riemann's ζ function]. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des Sciences (in French). 182: 1075–1077.
 ^ Borwein, Peter (2000). "An Efficient Algorithm for the Riemann Zeta Function" (PDF). In Théra, Michel A. (ed.). Constructive, Experimental, and Nonlinear Analysis. Conference Proceedings, Canadian Mathematical Society. 27. Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society, on behalf of the Canadian Mathematical Society. pp. 29–34. ISBN 9780821821671.
 ^ Mező, István (2013). "The primorial and the Riemann zeta function". The American Mathematical Monthly. 120 (4): 321.
 ^ Komatsu, Takao; Mező, István (2016). "Incomplete polyBernoulli numbers associated with incomplete Stirling numbers". Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen. 88 (3–4): 357–368. arXiv:1510.05799. doi:10.5486/pmd.2016.7361. S2CID 55741906.
 ^ "A220335  OEIS". oeis.org. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
 ^ Munkhammar, Joakim (2020). "The Riemann zeta function as a sum of geometric series". The Mathematical Gazette. 104 (561): 527–530. doi:10.1017/mag.2020.110.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Fischer, Kurt (4 March 2017). "The Zetafast algorithm for computing zeta functions". arXiv:1703.01414 [math.NT].
 ^ Tyagi, Sandeep (25 February 2020). "Evaluation of exponential sums and Riemann zeta function on quantum computer". arXiv:2002.11094 [quantph].
 ^ "Work on spinchains by A. Knauf, et. al". Empslocal.ex.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
 ^ Most of the formulas in this section are from § 4 of J. M. Borwein et al. (2000)
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 Borwein, Jonathan; Bradley, David M.; Crandall, Richard (2000). "Computational Strategies for the Riemann Zeta Function" (PDF). J. Comp. App. Math. 121 (1–2): 247–296. Bibcode:2000JCoAM.121..247B. doi:10.1016/S03770427(00)003368.
 Cvijović, Djurdje; Klinowski, Jacek (2002). "Integral Representations of the Riemann Zeta Function for OddInteger Arguments". J. Comp. App. Math. 142 (2): 435–439. Bibcode:2002JCoAM.142..435C. doi:10.1016/S03770427(02)003588. MR 1906742.
 Cvijović, Djurdje; Klinowski, Jacek (1997). "Continuedfraction expansions for the Riemann zeta function and polylogarithms". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 125 (9): 2543–2550. doi:10.1090/S0002993997041026.
 Edwards, H. M. (1974). Riemann's Zeta Function. Academic Press. ISBN 0486417409. Has an English translation of Riemann's paper.
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External linksEdit
 "Zetafunction", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, EMS Press, 2001 [1994]
 Riemann Zeta Function, in Wolfram Mathworld — an explanation with a more mathematical approach
 Tables of selected zeros
 Prime Numbers Get Hitched A general, nontechnical description of the significance of the zeta function in relation to prime numbers.
 XRay of the Zeta Function Visually oriented investigation of where zeta is real or purely imaginary.
 Formulas and identities for the Riemann Zeta function functions.wolfram.com
 Riemann Zeta Function and Other Sums of Reciprocal Powers, section 23.2 of Abramowitz and Stegun
 Frenkel, Edward. "Million Dollar Math Problem" (video). Brady Haran. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
 Mellin transform and the functional equation of the Riemann Zeta function—Computational examples of Mellin transform methods involving the Riemann Zeta Function