This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A religious experience (sometimes known as a spiritual experience, sacred experience, or mystical experience) is a subjective experience which is interpreted within a religious framework. The concept originated in the 19th century, as a defense against the growing rationalism of Western society. William James popularised the concept.
Many religious and mystical traditions see religious experiences (particularly the knowledge which comes with them) as revelations caused by divine agency rather than ordinary natural processes. They are considered real encounters with God or gods, or real contact with higher-order realities of which humans are not ordinarily aware.
Skeptics may hold that religious experience is an evolved feature of the human brain amenable to normal scientific study.[note 1] The commonalities and differences between religious experiences across different cultures have enabled scholars to categorize them for academic study.
- Transient – the experience is temporary; the individual soon returns to a "normal" frame of mind. Feels outside normal perception of space and time.
- Ineffable – the experience cannot be adequately put into words.
- Noetic – the individual feels that he or she has learned something valuable from the experience. Feels to have gained knowledge that is normally hidden from human understanding.
- Passive – the experience happens to the individual, largely without conscious control. Although there are activities, such as meditation (see below), that can make religious experience more likely, it is not something that can be turned on and off at will.
Norman Habel defines religious experiences as the structured way in which a believer enters into a relationship with, or gains an awareness of, the sacred within the context of a particular religious tradition (Habel, O'Donoghue and Maddox: 1993). Religious experiences are by their very nature preternatural; that is, out of the ordinary or beyond the natural order of things. They may be difficult to distinguish observationally from psychopathological states such as psychoses or other forms of altered awareness (Charlesworth: 1988). Not all preternatural experiences are considered to be religious experiences. Following Habel's definition, psychopathological states or drug-induced states of awareness are not considered to be religious experiences because they are mostly not performed within the context of a particular religious tradition.
Moore and Habel identify two classes of religious experiences: the immediate and the mediated religious experience (Moore and Habel: 1982).
- Mediated – In the mediated experience, the believer experiences the sacred through mediators such as rituals, special persons, religious groups, totemic objects or the natural world (Habel et al.: 1993).
- Immediate – The immediate experience comes to the believer without any intervening agency or mediator. The deity or divine is experienced directly.
In his book Faith and Reason, the philosopher Richard Swinburne formulated five categories into which all religious experiences fall:
- Public – a believer 'sees God's hand at work', whereas other explanations are possible e.g. looking at a beautiful sunset
- Public – an unusual event that breaches natural law e.g. walking on water
- Private – describable using normal language e.g. Jacob's vision of a ladder
- Private – indescribable using normal language, usually a mystical experience e.g. "white did not cease to be white, nor black cease to be black, but black became white and white became black."
- Private – a non-specific, general feeling of God working in one's life.
Swinburne also suggested two principles for the assessment of religious experiences:
- Principle of Credulity – with the absence of any reason to disbelieve it, one should accept what appears to be true e.g. if one sees someone walking on water, one should believe that it is occurring.
- Principle of Testimony – with the absence of any reason to disbelieve them, one should accept that eyewitnesses or believers are telling the truth when they testify about religious experiences.
The German thinker Rudolf Otto (1869–1937) argues that there is one common factor to all religious experience, independent of the cultural background. In his book The Idea of the Holy (1923) he identifies this factor as the numinous. The "numinous" experience has two aspects:
- mysterium tremendum, which is the tendency to invoke fear and trembling;
- mysterium fascinans, the tendency to attract, fascinate and compel.
The numinous experience also has a personal quality to it, in that the person feels to be in communion with a holy other. Otto sees the numinous as the only possible religious experience. He states: "There is no religion in which it [the numinous] does not live as the real innermost core and without it no religion would be worthy of the name" (Otto: 1972). Otto does not take any other kind of religious experience such as ecstasy and enthusiasm seriously and is of the opinion that they belong to the 'vestibule of religion'.
- Ecstasy – In ecstasy the believer is understood to have a soul or spirit which can leave the body. In ecstasy the focus is on the soul leaving the body and to experience transcendental realities. This type of religious experience is characteristic for the shaman.
- Enthusiasm – In enthusiasm – or possession – God is understood to be outside, other than or beyond the believer. A sacred power, being or will enters the body or mind of an individual and possesses it. A person capable of being possessed is sometimes called a medium. The deity, spirit or power uses such a person to communicate to the immanent world. Lewis argues that ecstasy and possession are basically one and the same experience, ecstasy being merely one form which possession may take. The outward manifestation of the phenomenon is the same in that shamans appear to be possessed by spirits, act as their mediums, and even though they claim to have mastery over them, can lose that mastery (Lewis: 1986).
- Mystical experience – Mystical experiences are in many ways the opposite of numinous experiences. In the mystical experience, all 'otherness' disappear and the believer becomes one with the transcendent. The believer discovers that he or she is not distinct from the cosmos, the deity or the other reality, but one with it. Zaehner has identified two distinctively different mystical experiences: natural and religious mystical experiences (Charlesworth: 1988). Natural mystical experiences are, for example, experiences of the 'deeper self' or experiences of oneness with nature. Zaehner argues that the experiences typical of 'natural mysticism' are quite different from the experiences typical of religious mysticism (Charlesworth: 1988). Natural mystical experiences are not considered to be religious experiences because they are not linked to a particular tradition, but natural mystical experiences are spiritual experiences that can have a profound effect on the individual.
- Spiritual awakening – A spiritual awakening usually involves a realization or opening to a sacred dimension of reality and may or may not be a religious experience. Often a spiritual awakening has lasting effects upon one's life. The term "spiritual awakening" may be used to refer to any of a wide range of experiences including being born again, near-death experiences, and mystical experiences such as liberation and enlightenment.
The notion of "religious experience" can be traced back to William James, who used the term "religious experience" in his book, The Varieties of Religious Experience. It is considered to be the classic work in the field, and references to James' ideas are common at professional conferences. James distinguished between institutional religion and personal religion. Institutional religion refers to the religious group or organization, and plays an important part in a society's culture. Personal religion, in which the individual has mystical experience, can be experienced regardless of the culture.
The origins of the use of this term can be dated further back. In the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, several historical figures put forth very influential views that religion and its beliefs can be grounded in experience itself. While Kant held that moral experience justified religious beliefs, John Wesley in addition to stressing individual moral exertion thought that the religious experiences in the Methodist movement (paralleling the Romantic Movement) were foundational to religious commitment as a way of life.
Wayne Proudfoot traces the roots of the notion of "religious experience" to the German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), who argued that religion is based on a feeling of the infinite. The notion of "religious experience" was used by Schleiermacher and Albert Ritschl to defend religion against the growing scientific and secular critique, and defend the view that human (moral and religious) experience justifies religious beliefs.
A broad range of western and eastern movements have incorporated and influenced the emergence of the modern notion of "mystical experience", such as the Perennial philosophy, Transcendentalism, Universalism, the Theosophical Society, New Thought, Neo-Vedanta and Buddhist modernism.
According to the Perennial philosophy, the mystical experiences in all religions are essentially the same. It supposes that many, if not all of the world's great religions, have arisen around the teachings of mystics, including Buddha, Jesus, Lao Tze, and Krishna. It also sees most religious traditions describing fundamental mystical experience, at least esoterically. A major proponent in the 20th century was Aldous Huxley, who "was heavily influenced in his description by Vivekananda's neo-Vedanta and the idiosyncratic version of Zen exported to the west by D.T. Suzuki. Both of these thinkers expounded their versions of the perennialist thesis", which they originally received from western thinkers and theologians.
Transcendentalism and Unitarian UniversalismEdit
Transcendentalism was an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, which was rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, and the skepticism of Hume.[web 1] The Transcendentalists emphasised an intuitive, experiential approach of religion.[web 2] Following Schleiermacher, an individual's intuition of truth was taken as the criterion for truth.[web 2] In the late 18th and early 19th century, the first translations of Hindu texts appeared, which were also read by the Transcendentalists, and influenced their thinking.[web 2] They also endorsed universalist and Unitarianist ideas, leading to Unitarian Universalism, the idea that there must be truth in other religions as well, since a loving God would redeem all living beings, not just Christians.[web 2][web 3]
New Thought promotes the ideas that Infinite Intelligence, or God, is everywhere, spirit is the totality of real things, true human selfhood is divine, divine thought is a force for good, sickness originates in the mind, and "right thinking" has a healing effect.[web 4][web 5] New Thought was propelled along by a number of spiritual thinkers and philosophers and emerged through a variety of religious denominations and churches, particularly the Unity Church, Religious Science, and Church of Divine Science. The Home of Truth, which belongs to the New Thought movement has, from its inception as the Pacific Coast Metaphysical Bureau in the 1880s, disseminated the teachings of the Hindu teacher Swami Vivekananda.[web 6]
The Theosophical Society was formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge and others to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy.[note 3] The Theosophical Society has been highly influential in promoting interest, both in west and east, in a great variety of religious teachings:
"No single organization or movement has contributed so many components to the New Age Movement as the Theosophical Society [...] It has been the major force in the dissemination of occult literature in the West in the twentieth century.
The Theosophical Society searched for 'secret teachings' in Asian religions. It has been influential on modernist streams in several Asian religions, notably Hindu reform movements, the revival of Theravada Buddhism, and D.T. Suzuki, who popularized the idea of enlightenment as insight into a timeless, transcendent reality.[web 7][web 8] Another example can be seen in Paul Brunton's A Search in Secret India, which introduced Ramana Maharshi to a western audience.
Orientalism and the "pizza effect"Edit
The interplay between western and eastern notions of religion is an important factor in the development of modern mysticism. In the 19th century, when Asian countries were colonialised by western states, a process of cultural mimesis began. In this process, Western ideas about religion, especially the notion of "religious experience" were introduced to Asian countries by missionaries, scholars and the Theosophical Society, and amalgamated in a new understanding of the Indian and Buddhist traditions. This amalgam was exported back to the West as 'authentic Asian traditions', and acquired a great popularity in the west. Due to this western popularity, it also gained authority back in India, Sri Lanka and Japan.
The best-known representatives of this amalgamated tradition are Annie Besant (Theosophical Society), Swami Vivekenanda and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (Neo-Vedanta), Anagarika Dharmapala, a 19th-century Sri Lankan Buddhist activist who founded the Maha Bodhi Society, and D.T. Suzuki, a Japanese scholar and Zen-Buddhist. A synonymous term for this broad understanding is nondualism. This mutual influence is also known as the pizza effect.
"Religious empiricism" is seen as highly problematic and was – during the period in-between world wars – famously rejected by Karl Barth. In the 20th century, religious as well as moral experience as justification for religious beliefs still holds sway. Some influential modern scholars holding this liberal theological view are Charles Raven and the Oxford physicist/theologian Charles Coulson.
Robert Sharf points out that "experience" is a typical Western term, which has found its way into Asian religiosity via western influences.[note 4] The notion of "experience" introduces a false notion of duality between "experiencer" and "experienced", whereas the essence of kensho is the realisation of the "non-duality" of observer and observed. "Pure experience" does not exist; all experience is mediated by intellectual and cognitive activity. The specific teachings and practices of a specific tradition may even determine what "experience" someone has, which means that this "experience" is not the proof of the teaching, but a result of the teaching. A pure consciousness without concepts, reached by "cleansing the doors of perception",[note 5] would be an overwhelming chaos of sensory input without coherence.
Causes of religious experiencesEdit
Religious practices: Traditions offer a wide variety of religious practices to induce religious experiences:
- Extended exercise, often running in a large communal circle, which is used in various tribal and neo-pagan religions.
- Dance, such as Sufi whirling
- Extreme pain, such as mortification of the flesh
- Meditation: Meditative practices are used to calm the mind, and attain states of consciousness such as nirvikalpa samadhi. Meditation can be focused on the breath, concepts, mantras, symbols.
- Questioning or investigating (self)representations/cognitive schemata, such as Self-enquiry, Hua Tou practice, and Douglas Harding's on having no head.
Drugs: Religious experiences may also be caused by the use of entheogens, such as:
- Ayahuasca (DMT)
- Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A)
- Peyote (mescaline)
- Psilocybin mushrooms (psilocybin)
- Amanita muscaria (muscimol)
- MDMA 
Neurophysiological origins: Religious experiences may have neurophysiological origins. These are studied in the field of neurotheology, and the cognitive science of religion, and include near-death experience and the "Koren helmet". Causes may be:
Neoplatonism is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists.
Neoplatonism teaches that along the same road by which it descended the soul must retrace its steps back to the supreme Good. It must first of all return to itself. This is accomplished by the practice of virtue, which aims at likeness to God, and leads up to God. By means of ascetic observances the human becomes once more a spiritual and enduring being, free from all sin. But there is still a higher attainment; it is not enough to be sinless, one must become "God", (henosis). This is reached through contemplation of the primeval Being, the One – in other words, through an ecstatic approach to it.
It is only in a state of perfect passivity and repose that the soul can recognize and touch the primeval Being. Hence the soul must first pass through a spiritual curriculum. Beginning with the contemplation of corporeal things in their multiplicity and harmony, it then retires upon itself and withdraws into the depths of its own being, rising thence to the nous, the world of ideas. But even there it does not find the Highest, the One; it still hears a voice saying, "not we have made ourselves." The last stage is reached when, in the highest tension and concentration, beholding in silence and utter forgetfulness of all things, it is able as it were to lose itself. Then it may see God, the foundation of life, the source of being, the origin of all good, the root of the soul. In that moment it enjoys the highest indescribable bliss; it is as it were swallowed up of divinity, bathed in the light of eternity. Porphyry tells us that on four occasions during the six years of their intercourse Plotinus attained to this ecstatic union with God.
Alcoholics Anonymous Twelfth StepEdit
The twelfth step of the Alcoholics Anonymous program states that "Having had a spiritual awakening as the result of these steps, we tried to carry this message to alcoholics and to practice these principles in all our affairs". The terms “spiritual experience” and “spiritual awaken-ing” are used many times in "The Big Book of Alcoholics Anonymous" which argues that a spiritual experience is needed to bring about recovery from alcoholism.
Christian doctrine generally maintains that God dwells in all Christians and that they can experience God directly through belief in Jesus, Christian mysticism aspires to apprehend spiritual truths inaccessible through intellectual means, typically by emulation of Christ. William Inge divides this scala perfectionis into three stages: the "purgative" or ascetic stage, the "illuminative" or contemplative stage, and the third, "unitive" stage, in which God may be beheld "face to face."
The third stage, usually called contemplation in the Western tradition, refers to the experience of oneself as united with God in some way. The experience of union varies, but it is first and foremost always associated with a reuniting with Divine love. The underlying theme here is that God, the perfect goodness, is known or experienced at least as much by the heart as by the intellect since, in the words of 1 John 4:16: "God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God and God in him." Some approaches to classical mysticism would consider the first two phases as preparatory to the third, explicitly mystical experience; but others state that these three phases overlap and intertwine.
Based on Christ's injunction in the Gospel of Matthew to "go into your closet to pray", hesychasm in tradition has been the process of retiring inward by ceasing to register the senses, in order to achieve an experiential knowledge of God (see theoria).
The highest goal of the hesychast is the experiential knowledge of God. In the 14th Century, the possibility of this experiential knowledge of God was challenged by a Calabrian monk, Barlaam, who, although he was formally a member of the Orthodox Church, had been trained in Western Scholastic theology. Barlaam asserted that our knowledge of God can only be propositional. The practice of the hesychasts was defended by St. Gregory Palamas.
While all Muslims believe that they are on the pathway to God and will become close to God in Paradise – after death and after the "Final Judgment" – Sufis believe that it is possible to become close to God and to experience this closeness while one is alive. Sufis believe in a tripartite way to God as explained by a tradition attributed to the Prophet,"The Shariah are my words (aqwal), the tariqa are my actions (amal), and the haqiqa is my interior states (ahwal)". Shariah, tariqa and haqiqa are mutually interdependent.
The tariqa, the ‘path’ on which the mystics walk, has been defined as ‘the path which comes out of the Shariah, for the main road is called shar, the path, tariq.’ No mystical experience can be realized if the binding injunctions of the Shariah are not followed faithfully first. The path, tariqa, however, is narrower and more difficult to walk. It leads the adept, called salik (wayfarer), in his suluk (wandering), through different stations (maqam) until he reaches his goal, the perfect tauhid, the existential confession that God is One.
In Theravada Buddhism practice is described in the threefold training of discipline (śīla), meditative concentration (samādhi), and transcendent wisdom (prajñā). Zen-Buddhism emphaises the sole practice of meditation, while Vajrayana Buddhism utilizes a wide variety of practices. While the main aim of meditation and prajna is to let go of attachments, it may also result in a comprehension of the Buddha-nature and the inherent lucidness of the mind.
Different varieties of religious experience are described in detail in the Śūraṅgama Sūtra. In its section on the fifty skandha-maras, each of the five skandhas has ten skandha-maras associated with it, and each skandha-mara is described in detail as a deviation from correct samādhi. These skandha-maras are also known as the "fifty skandha demons" in some English-language publications.
It is also believed that supernormal abilities are developed from meditation, which are termed "higher knowledge" (abhijñā), or "spiritual power" (ṛddhi). One early description found in the Samyutta Nikaya, which mentions abilities such as:
... he goes unhindered through a wall, through a rampart, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hands he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he exercises mastery with the body as far as the brahmā world.
Building on European philosophers, Radhakrishnan reduced religion "to the core experience of reality in its fundamental unity".  According to Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, "Hinduism is not just a faith. It is the union of reason and intuition that cannot be defined, but is only to be experienced." This emphasis on experience as validation of a religious worldview is a modern development, which started in the 19th century, and was introduced to Indian thought by western Unitarian missionaries. It has been popularized in Neo-Vedanta, which has dominated the popular understanding of Hinduism since the 19th century.[note 6] It emphasizes mysticism. Swami Vivekanada presented the teachings of Neo-Vedanta as radical nondualism, unity between all religions and all persons.
According to the syncretistic Indian spiritual teacher Meher Baba, "Spiritual experience involves more than can be grasped by mere intellect. This is often emphasised by calling it a mystical experience. Mysticism is often regarded as something anti-intellectual, obscure and confused, or impractical and unconnected with experience. In fact, true mysticism is none of these. There is nothing irrational in true mysticism when it is, as it should be, a vision of Reality. It is a form of perception which is absolutely unclouded, and so practical that it can be lived every moment of life and expressed in every-day duties. Its connection with experience is so deep that, in one sense, it is the final understanding of all experience."
Dr. R.R. Griffiths and colleagues at Johns Hopkins University had done a double blind study evaluating the psychological effects of psilocybin comparing with methylphenidate(Ritalin). 36 hallucinogen-naive adults were recruited. 22 of the 36 reported mystical experience. The effect persisted even at 2 and 14 months follow-up. The group continued to do studies in evaluating the effect with different dosing and the resulting mystical effect on personality.
A 2012 paper suggested that psychiatric conditions associated with psychotic spectrum symptoms may be possible explanations for revelatory driven experiences and activities such as those of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Saint Paul.
Neuroscience of religionEdit
Neuroscience of religion, also known as neurotheology, biotheology or spiritual neuroscience, is the study of correlations of neural phenomena with subjective experiences of spirituality and hypotheses to explain these phenomena. Proponents of neurotheology claim that there is a neurological and evolutionary basis for subjective experiences traditionally categorized as spiritual or religious.
The neuroscience of religion takes neural correlates as the basis of cognitive functions and religious experiences. These religious experience are thereby emergent properties of neural correlates. This approach does not necessitate exclusion of the Self, but interprets the Self as influenced or otherwise acted upon by underlying neural mechanisms. Proponents argue that religious experience can be evoked through stimulus of specific brain regions and/or can be observed through measuring increase in activity of specific brain regions.[note 7]
An alternate approach is influenced by personalism, and exists contra-parallel to the reductionist approach. It focuses on the Self as the object of interest,[note 8] the same object of interest as in religion. According to Patrick McNamara, a proponent of personalism, the Self is a neural entity that controls rather than consists of the cognitive functions being processed in brain regions.[note 9]
Neurological evolutionary basisEdit
A biological basis for religious experience may exist. References to the supernatural or mythical beings first appeared approximately 40,000 years ago. A popular theory posits that dopaminergic brain systems are the evolutionary basis for human intellect and more specifically abstract reasoning. The capacity for religious thought arises from the capability to employ abstract reasoning. There is no evidence to support the theory that abstract reasoning, generally or with regard to religious thought, evolved independent of the dopaminergic axis.
Religious behavior has been linked to "extrapersonal brain systems that predominate the ventromedial cortex and rely heavily on dopaminergic transmission." A biphasic effect exists with regard to activation of the dopaminergic axis and/or ventromedial cortex. While mild activation can evoke a perceived understanding of the supernatural, extreme activation can lead to delusions characteristic of psychosis. Stress can cause the depletion of 5-hydroxytryptamine, also referred to as serotonin. The ventromedial 5-HT axis is involved in peripersonal activities such as emotional arousal, social skills, and visual feedback. When 5-HT is decreased or depleted, one may become subject to "incorrect attributions of self-initiated or internally generated activity (e.g. hallucinations)."
Studies of the brainEdit
Early studies in the 1950s and 1960s attempted to use EEGs to study brain wave patterns correlated with spiritual states. During the 1980s Dr. Michael Persinger stimulated the temporal lobes of human subjects with a weak magnetic field. His subjects claimed to have a sensation of "an ethereal presence in the room." Some current studies use neuroimaging to localize brain regions active, or differentially active, during religious experiences. These neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of brain regions, including the limbic system, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior parietal lobe, and caudate nucleus. Based on the complex nature of religious experience, it is likely that they are mediated by an interaction of neural mechanisms that all add a small piece to the overall experience.
According to the neurotheologist Andrew B. Newberg, neurological processes which are driven by the repetitive, rhythmic stimulation which is typical of human ritual, and which contribute to the delivery of transcendental feelings of connection to a universal unity.[clarification needed] They posit, however, that physical stimulation alone is not sufficient to generate transcendental unitive experiences. For this to occur they say there must be a blending of the rhythmic stimulation with ideas. Once this occurs "...ritual turns a meaningful idea into a visceral experience." Moreover, they say that humans are compelled to act out myths by the biological operations of the brain due to what they call the "inbuilt tendency of the brain to turn thoughts into actions."
Temporal lobe epilepsyEdit
Temporal lobe epilepsy has become a popular field of study due to its correlation to religious experience. Religious experiences and hyperreligiosity are often used to characterize those with temporal lobe epilepsy. Visionary religious experiences, and momentary lapses of consciousness, may point toward a diagnosis of Geschwind syndrome. More generally, the symptoms are consistent with features of temporal lobe epilepsy, not an uncommon feature in religious icons and mystics. It seems that this phenomenon is not exclusive to TLE, but can manifest in the presence of other epileptic variates as well as mania, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia, conditions characterized by ventromedial dopaminergic dysfunction.
Integrating religious experienceEdit
Several psychologists have proposed models in which religious experiences are part of a process of transformation of the self.
Carl Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. One's main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfil deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential to become the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to well-being.
The notion of the numinous was an important concept in the writings of Carl Jung. Jung regarded numinous experiences as fundamental to an understanding of the individuation process because of their association with experiences of synchronicity in which the presence of archetypes is felt.
McNamara proposes that religious experiences may help in "decentering" the self, and transform it into an integral self which is closer to an ideal self.
Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, self-transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human experience. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology describes transpersonal psychology as "the study of humanity’s highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness" (Lajoie and Shapiro, 1992:91). Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other metaphysical experiences of living.
- Altered state of consciousness
- Astral projection
- Psychedelic experience
- Argument from religious experience
- Enlightenment (spiritual)
- Higher consciousness
- Near death experience
- Psychology of religion
- Religious ecstasy
- Religious Experience Research Centre
- Religious revival
- Spiritual crisis
- Theta rhythm
- Transcendence (religion)
- Such study may be said to have begun with the American psychologist and philosopher William James in his 1901/02 Gifford Lectures later published as The Varieties of Religious Experience.
- James also gives descriptions of conversion experiences. The Christian model of dramatic conversions, based on the role-model of Paul's conversion, may also have served as a model for Western interpretations and expectations regarding "enlightenment", similar to Protestant influences on Theravada Buddhism, as described by Carrithers: "It rests upon the notion of the primacy of religious experiences, preferably spectacular ones, as the origin and legitimation of religious action. But this presupposition has a natural home, not in Buddhism, but in Christian and especially Protestant Christian movements which prescribe a radical conversion." See Sekida for an example of this influence of William James and Christian conversion stories, mentioning Luther and St. Paul. See also McMahan for the influence of Christian thought on Buddhism.
- To form a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste, or colour.
- To encourage the study of comparative religion, philosophy, and science.
- To investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in man.
- Robert Sharf: "[T]he role of experience in the history of Buddhism has been greatly exaggerated in contemporary scholarship. Both historical and ethnographic evidence suggests that the privileging of experience may well be traced to certain twentieth-century reform movements, notably those that urge a return to zazen or vipassana meditation, and these reforms were profoundly influenced by religious developments in the west [...] While some adepts may indeed experience "altered states" in the course of their training, critical analysis shows that such states do not constitute the reference point for the elaborate Buddhist discourse pertaining to the "path".
- William Blake: "If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite. For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thru' narrow chinks of his cavern."
- Also called neo-Hinduism
- This is contrary to the view of William James and F.D.E. Schleirmacher who viewed religious experience as a "preconceptual, immediate affective event."
- According to the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "[personalism] emphasizes the significance, uniqueness and inviolability of the person, as well as the person's essentially relational or communitarian dimension."
- It is important[why?] to note that this school of thought evolved out of the thinking of St. Thomas Aquinas due to his focus on the individual uniqueness of the person and his subsequent discourse on the supposed nature of the Trinity and Jesus' divine/human existence. However, personalism and irreligiosity are not mutually exclusive as atheist personalism also functions within the greater school of thought.
- Samy 1998, p. 80.
- Sharf 2000.
- The Argument from Religious Experience http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/?page_id=41
- Batson, C. D., Schoenrade, P., & Ventis, W. L. (1993). Religion and the individual: A social psychological perspective. Oxford University Press.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Hori 1999, p. 47. Harv error: no target: CITEREFHori1999 (help)
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, page 68, 79
- Sharf 2000, p. 271.
- Carrithers 1983, p. 18.
- Sekida 1985, p. 196-197.
- Sekida 1985, p. 251.
- McMahan 2008.
- King 2001. Harv error: no target: CITEREFKing2001 (help)
- King 2002, p. 163.
- King 2002.
- Love Is Not Enough: A Kierkegaardian Phenomenology Of Religious Experience by Stephen Dunning (1995), Faith and Philosophy: Journal of the Society of Christian Philosophers, Volume 12(1), 22-39
- Sharf 1995. Harv error: no target: CITEREFSharf1995 (help)
- Lewis & Melton 1992, p. 16–18.
- Melton, Gordon J. (Sr. ed.) (1990). "Theosophical Society". New Age Encyclopedia. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale Research. pp. 458–461. ISBN 0-8103-7159-6
- McMahan 2010. Harv error: no target: CITEREFMcMahan2010 (help)
- Sharf 1995a.
- Mohr 2000, p. 282-286.
- Low 2006, p. 12.
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, page 114, 116-119
- Issues in Science and Religion, Ian Barbour, Prentice-Hall, 1966, p. 126-127
- Sharf 1995b, p. 1.
- Hori 1994, p. 30.
- Samy 1998, p. 82.
- Mohr 2000, p. 282.
- Samy 1998, p. 80-82.
- Quote DB
- Mohr 2000, p. 284.
- "Exploring the biology of religious experience". NRC online.
- Miller, Mandi M.; Strongman, Kenneth T. (2002). "The Emotional Effects of Music on Religious Experience: A Study of the Pentecostal-Charismatic Style of Music and Worship". Psychology of Music. 30: 8–27. doi:10.1177/0305735602301004.
- "ufis seek ultimate religious experience through mystic trances or altered states of consciousness, often induced through twirling dances". Sufism: New Age Spirituality Dictionary.
- "Self-inflicted Pain in Religious Experience". www.faithfaq.com. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
- "Divining the brain". Salon.com. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
- Daniélou, Alain: Yoga, methods of re-integration
- Watts, Alan (January 1968). "Psychedelics and Religious Experience". California Law Review. 56 (1): 74–85. doi:10.2307/3479497. JSTOR 3479497.
- "The Salvia divinorum FAQ". SageWisdom.org. July 30, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2007.
Those who think of the salvia experience in religious, spiritual, or mystical terms may speak of such things as enlightenment, satori, and "cleansing the doors of perception."
- "A Note on the Safety of Peyote when Used Religiously". www.csp.org Council on Spiritual Practices. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
- "Drug's Mystical Properties Confirmed". Washington Post. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
- "The Psychology of Religion: An Empirical Approach". Council on Spiritual Practices. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
- Adamson, Sophia; Metzner, Ralph. "The Nature of the MDMA Experience and Its Role in Healing, Psychotherapy, and Spiritual Practice". maps.org. MAPS. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- Moody, Raymond. Life After Life ISBN 0-06-251739-2
- Persinger, MA; et al. (2010). "The Electromagnetic Induction of Mystical and Altered States Within the Laboratory". Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research. 1 (7): 808–830. ISSN 2153-8212.
- "God on the Brain". BBC. Retrieved March 20, 2003.
- Taylor, Jill Bolte. "My Stroke of Insight". TED. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- Katie, Byron. Loving What Is page xi ISBN 1-4000-4537-1
- "Alcoholics Anonymous : Alcoholics Anonymous".
- John 7:16–39
- Christian Mysticism (1899 Bampton Lectures)
- Theologia Germanica, public domain
- Matthew 6:5–6
- Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths
- Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975) pg.99
- Ron Epstein. "Fifty Skandha Demon States: Forward".
- Bhikkhu Bodhi. The Connected Discourses of the Buddha. 2000. p. 1727
- Rinehart, Robin. Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 195.
- Bhagavad Gita, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
- King 1999.
- King 1999, p. 171.
- Muesse 2011, p. 3-4.
- Doniger 2010, p. 18.
- Irwin, Lee (2017). Reincarnation in America: An Esoteric History. Lexington Books. p. 218.
Neo-Vedanta teachings as an expression of a radical nondualism, an inherent unity within all religions and within all persons
- Dempsey, Corinne (2011). Bringing the Sacred Down to Earth: Adventures in Comparative Religion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199860326.
- Baba, Meher: Discourses, Sufism Reoriented, 1967, p. 20
- Griffiths, RR; Richards, WA; McCann, U; Jesse, R (August 2006). "Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance". Psychopharmacology. 187 (3): 268–83, discussion 284–92. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5. PMID 16826400.
- Griffiths, R; Richards, W; Johnson, M; McCann, U; Jesse, R (August 2008). "Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 22 (6): 621–32. doi:10.1177/0269881108094300. PMC 3050654. PMID 18593735.
- Griffiths, RR; Johnson, MW; Richards, WA; Richards, BD; McCann, U; Jesse, R (December 2011). "Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects". Psychopharmacology. 218 (4): 649–65. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2358-5. PMC 3308357. PMID 21674151.
- MacLean, KA; Johnson, MW; Griffiths, RR (November 2011). "Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford). 25 (11): 1453–61. doi:10.1177/0269881111420188. PMC 3537171. PMID 21956378.
- Murray, Evan D.; Cunningham, Miles G.; Price, Bruce H. (September 2011). "The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Psychiatric Association. 24 (4): 410–426. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.11090214. ISSN 1545-7222. OCLC 823065628. PMID 23224447.
- Biello, David (2007-10-03). "Searching for God in the Brain". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
- Gajilan, A. Chris (2007-04-05). "Are humans hard-wired for faith?". Cable News Network. Retrieved 2007-04-09.
- Azari, N. P.; Nickel, J.; Wunderlich, G.; Niedeggen, M.; Hefter, H.; Tellmann, L.; Herzog, H.; Stoerig, P.; Birnbacher, D. (April 2001). "Neural correlates of religious experience". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (8): 1649–1652. doi:10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01527.x. ISSN 0953-816X. PMID 11328359.
- Schleiermacher, F.D.E. (1958). On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers. [translation Oman, J.]. Harper & Row, New York
- James, W. (1902) Varieties of Religious Experience. Longs, Greens, New York
- Williams, Thomas D.; Bengtsson, Jan Olof (2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
- Schjoedt, Uffe (2011). "The neural correlates of religious experience". Religion. 41 (1): 91–95. doi:10.1080/0048721x.2011.553132.
- McNamara, Patrick (2009). The Neuroscience of Religious Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0521889582.
- D'Onofrio, B.M.; Eaves, L.J.; Murrelle, L.; Maes, H.H.; Spilka, B. (1999). "Understanding biological and social influences on religious affiliation, attitudes, and behaviors: A behavior genetic perspective". Journal of Personality. 67 (6): 953–984. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00079. PMID 10637988.
- S. Mithen. "The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art and science." Thames and Hudson, London (1996)
- Previc FH. The role of the extrapersonal brain systems in religious activity. Conscious Cogn. 2006;15:500–539.
- Previc, F.H. (1999). "Dopamine and the origins of human intelligence". Brain and Cognition. 41 (3): 299–350. doi:10.1006/brcg.1999.1129. PMID 10585240.
- Previc, Fred H. (2006). "The role of the extrapersonal brain systems in religious activity". Consciousness and Cognition. 15 (3): 500–539. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.09.009. PMID 16439158.
- Hoyer, D.; Clarke, D. E.; Fozard, J. R.; Hartig, P. R.; Martin, G. R.; Mylecharane, E. J.; Saxena, P. R.; Humphrey, P. P. (June 1994). "International Union of Pharmacology classification of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin)". Pharmacological Reviews. 46 (2): 157–203. ISSN 0031-6997. PMID 7938165.
- Bentall, R. P. (January 1990). "The illusion of reality: a review and integration of psychological research on hallucinations". Psychological Bulletin. 107 (1): 82–95. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.107.1.82. ISSN 0033-2909. PMID 2404293.
- "God on the Brain?". BBC.
- "This Is Your Brain on God". Wired. November 1999.
- Azari, N. P.; Nickel, J.; Wunderlich, G.; Niedeggen, M.; Hefter, H.; Tellmann, L.; Herzog, H.; Stoerig, P.; Birnbacher, D.; Seitz, R. J. (2001). "Neural correlates of religious experience". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (8): 1649–1652. doi:10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01527.x. PMID 11328359.
- "From Brain Imaging Religious Experience to Explaining Religion: A Critique". Ingenta Connect.
- "The new science of neurotheology". Neurophilosophy.
- Newberg, A.; Alavi, A.; Baime, M.; Pourdehnad, M.; Santanna, J.; Aquili, E. (2001). "The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during the complex cognitive task of meditation: A preliminary SPECT study". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. 106 (2): 113–122. doi:10.1016/s0925-4927(01)00074-9. PMID 11306250.
- Azari, N.P.; Missimer, J.; Seitz, R.J. (2005). "Religious experience and emotion: Evidence for distinctive cognitive neural patterns". International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 15 (4): 263–281. doi:10.1207/s15327582ijpr1504_1.
- Beauregard, M.; Paquette, V. (2006). "Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns". Neuroscience Letters. 405 (3): 186–190. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.06.060. PMID 16872743.
- Newberg, Andrew B.; D'Aquili, Eugene G.; Rause, Vince (2002). Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-345-44034-1.
- Ellison CG, Levin JS. The religion-health connection: evidence, theory, and future directions. Health Educ Behav 1998;25:700–20.
- Koening HG. Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: a review. Can J Psychiatry 2009;54:283–91.
- Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Höehr, Gabriela Chaves (2014). "Spirituality aspects in patients with epilepsy". Seizure. 23 (1): 25–28. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2013.09.005. PMID 24094727.
- Geschwind Ν (1983) Interictal behavioral changes in epilepsy. Epilepsia 24 Supplement 1:523-530
- Landtblom AM. The sensed presence: an epileptic aura with religious overtones. Epilepsy Behav 2006;9:186–8.
- Devinsky O. Religious experiences and epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2003;4:76–7
- Devinsky, J.; Schachter, S. (2009). "Norman Geschwind's contribution to the understanding of behavioral changes in temporal lobe epilepsy: The February 1974 lecture". Epilepsy & Behavior. 15 (4): 417–24. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.06.006. PMID 19640791.
- Trimble M, Freeman A. An investigation of religiosity and the Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome in patient with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2006;9:407–14.
- Sloan RP, Bagliella E, Powell T. Religion, spirituality, and medicine. Lancet 1999;353: 664–7.
- Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation:Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0-8356-0782-7.
- Jung, C. G. (1980). C. G. Jung speaking: Interviews and encounters(W. McGuire & R. F. C. Hull Eds.). London: Pan Books.
- Main, R. (2004). The rupture of time: Synchronicity and Jung's critique of modern western culture. Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge.
- McNamara 2014.
- Carrithers, Michael (1983), The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka
- Charlesworth, Max (1988). Religious experience. Unit A. Study guide 2 (Deakin University).
- Deida, David. Finding God Through Sex ISBN 1-59179-273-8
- Doniger, Wendy (2010), The Hindus: An Alternative History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199593347
- Habel, Norman, O'Donoghue, Michael and Maddox, Marion (1993). 'Religious experience'. In: Myth, ritual and the sacred. Introducing the phenomena of religion (Underdale: University of South Australia).
- Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), "Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery" (PDF), Journal of Japanese Studies, 20 (1): 5–35, doi:10.2307/132782, JSTOR 132782
- Jouhki, Jukka (2006), "Orientalism and India" (PDF), J@rgonia 8/2006
- Katie, Byron. Loving What Is page xi ISBN 1-4000-4537-1
- King, Richard (1999), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
- King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge eBook
- Lewis, James R.; Melton, J. Gordon (1992), Perspectives on the New Age, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1213-8
- Lewis, Ioan M (1986). Religion in context: cults and charisma (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
- Low, Albert (2006), Hakuin on Kensho. The Four Ways of Knowing, Boston & London: Shambhala
- McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276
- McNamara (2014), The neuroscience of religious experience (PDF)
- Mohr, Michel (2000), Emerging from Nonduality. Koan Practice in the Rinzai Tradition since Hakuin. In: steven Heine & Dale S. Wright (eds.)(2000), "The Koan. texts and Contexts in Zen Buddhism", Oxford: Oxford University Press
- Moody, Raymond. Life After Life ISBN 0-06-251739-2
- Moore, B and Habel N (1982). Appendix 1. In: When religion goes to school (Adelaide: SACAE), pages 184-218.
- Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press
- Otto, Rudolf (1972). Chapters 2-5. In: The idea of the holy (London: Oxford University Press), pages 5–30. [Originally published in 1923].
- Previous, Peter (1998). Omgaan met het transcendente (Dealing with the transcendent). Open University of the Netherlands.
- Roberts, T. B. (editor) (2001). Psychoactive Sacramentals: Essays on Entheogens and Religion. San Francosco: Council on Spiritual Practices.
- Roberts, T. B.; Hruby, P. J. (1995–2002), Religion and Psychoactive Sacraments An Entheogen Chrestomathy, archived from the original on 2007-11-11, retrieved 2007-11-17
- Roberts, T. B. "Chemical Input – Religious Output: Entheogens." Chapter 10 in Where God and Science Meet: Vol. 3: The Psychology of Religious Experience Robert McNamara (editor)(2006). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.
- Samy, AMA (1998), Waarom kwam Bodhidharma naar het Westen? De ontmoeting van Zen met het Westen, Asoka: Asoka
- Sekida, Katsuki (1985), Zen Training. Methods and Philosophy, New York, Tokyo: Weatherhill
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995a), "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience" (PDF), NUMEN, 42 (3): 228–283, doi:10.1163/1568527952598549, hdl:2027.42/43810
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995b), "Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions" (PDF), Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 22 (3–4), doi:10.18874/jjrs.22.3-4.1995.417-458
- Sharf, Robert H. (2000), "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion" (PDF), Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (11–12), p. 267–87
- Vardy, Peter (1990). The Puzzle of God. Collins Sons and Co. pp. 99–106.
- "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Transcendentalism". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Jone Johnson Lewis. "Jone John Lewis, What is Transcendentalism?". Transcendentalists.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Barry Andrews, The Roots Of Unitarian Universalist Spirituality In New England Transcendentalism ". Archive.uua.org. 1999-03-12. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Declaration of Principles (accessed 2008–09)
- New Thought info, Statement of beliefs (accessed 2008–09)
- "tHe HOme of Truth, Our History". Thehomeoftruth.org. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- Sharf, Robert H. "Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- "Hu Shih: Ch'an (Zen) Buddhism in China. Its History and Method". Thezensite.com. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- William James, The Varieties of religious Experience
- Batson, C. D., & Ventis, W. L. (1982). The religious experience: A social-psychological perspective. New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-503030-3
- Giussani, Luigi (1997). The Religious Sense. Mcgill Queens Univ Press, ISBN 978-0773516267
- Simon Dein (2011), Religious experience: perspectives and research paradigms, WCPRR June 2011: 3-9
- Ann Taves (1999), Fits, Trances, and Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James, Oxford University Press
- McNamara (2006), Where God and Science Meet: How Brain and Evolutionary Studies Alter Our Understanding of Religion
- McNamara (2009/2014): The neuroscience of religious experience
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Religious Experience
- "Self-transcendence enhanced by removal of portions of the parietal-occipital cortex" Article from the Institute for the Biocultural Study of Religion
- Peru: Hell and Back National Geographic explores the uses of Ayahuasca in Shamanic healing
- Is This Your Brain On God? (May 2009 week long NPR series)