Digi Communications, also known as RCS & RDS, is a Romanian telecommunication holding company operating in Romania, Hungary, Spain and Italy. Digi was founded by Zoltán Teszári, who is the majority owner, and it is listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange since 16 May 2017.
|Public limited company|
|Traded as||BVB: DIGI|
|Predecessor||TVS Holding Brasov (1992)|
2000 (Cable Communications NV holding company)
|Zoltán Teszári (President)|
Serghei Bulgac (CEO)
|Revenue||€1,186 billion (2019)|
|€40,584 million (2019)|
Number of employees
Having a market share of 51% on the internet in 2019, connecting almost all subscribers to internet via fiber optics since 2006, contributed to the Romanian's status as a country with one of the highest fixed broadband internet speeds in the world.
First cable networksEdit
In 1992 TVS Holding Brasov was developed by Zoltán Teszári, Ioan Bendei and other businessmen. The company offered cable television services in Brasov and Timisoara. In 1993 Zoltán Teszári co-founded Kappa cable company in Bucharest. In 1996, the shareholders decided to divide the Kappa network into two equal parts. Half owned by Zoltán Teszári merged with Analog CATV SA cable company in Bucharest. The other half was bought in 2000 by Astral Telecom, which in 2005 was merged with UPC Romania (now Vodafone Romania). This separation of the company led to the division of the areas in Bucharest between the two companies for 10 years.
In 1997 the company changed its name to Romania Cable Systems SA (RCS). Same year it is established Romania Data System SA (RDS) which offers internet services. Among the investors in the company from the beginning until the listing on the stock exchange were Carpathian Cable Investments S.a.R.L. from 1998 and Celest Limited from 1999.
The company entered Hungary in November 1998 after buying 15 small and medium cable companies in Budapest and 3 other cities. Between December 1999 and January 2000, the first cable networks were acquired in Slovakia, where Slovakia Cable Systems (SCS) was 95% owned by RCS.
In 2003, after the liberalization of the market, the fixed telephony service was launched in Romania. Digi TV satellite television platform was first launched in Romania in December 2004, followed by launches in Hungary in February 2006, in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in August 2006 and in Croatia and Serbia in December 2006.
RCS and RDS merged to form RCS & RDS on 26 April 2005. The company focused on rapid development both organically and through acquisitions. The C-Zone network was acquired in 2006, entering certain areas in Bucharest that were not covered due to zone exclusivity. In these areas RCS & RDS kept the brand until 2009.
Digi Slovakia, including the Digi Sport television channels in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, were sold to Slovak Telekom in 2013. Also, satellite television subsidiary in the Czech Republic was sold to Lama Energy in March 2015, which continued to use the Digi brand for other acquired internet and IPTV provider until 1 April 2020. The subsidiary in Croatia was sold to A1 Telekom Austria's Vipnet (now A1 Croatia).
In 2014, the mobile phone service was relaunched, followed by the launch of 4G service in 2015.
In 2017, Digi bought the Invitel cable company in Hungary. After initially receiving approval in May 2018, it was revoked in November 2018, due to finding non-competitive issues in certain areas. These have been resolved and the transaction was completed in March 2020.
RCS & RDS SA is the Romanian company founded in 1994 by Zoltán Teszári. It's incorporated in the Netherlands since 2000 when Cable Communications NV was established. It was renamed Digi Communications NV in 2017 when was listed.
Digi implemented FTTB technology on almost the entire network in Romania and Hungary in 2006. Then followed the implementation of GPON in 2008, covering the houses as well. In 2013 started replacing FFTB with FTTH. In 2018 Digi started offering internet services through FTTH in Spain.
The company launched Digi Mobil in Romania in December 2007 which offered mobile telephony limited to 3G service only at the time. In 2014, the mobile phone service was relaunched, followed by the launch of 4G service on band 38 in 2015 and on band 1 in 2018.
After winning a mobile operator license in 2014 and numerous delays, the company launched mobile services in Hungary in 2019.
In Spain, due to the number of Romanians, MVNO mobile telephony services were launched through Movistar in 2008. Initially, the company attracted Romanians because it offered cheap calls with Romanian networks. Vodafone Spain reacted after 1 year when it started losing customers by offering free calls with Vodafone Romania. This was followed by offers for Latin Americans. Then the company started offering internet at a low price, attracting Spanish customers. Digi became the second MVNO operator by number of customers.
Following the model in Spain, in 2010 Digi Mobil was launched as MVNO in Italy through TIM, but it was not as successful despite the fact that in Italy is a larger number of Romanians. Vodafone Italia began to offer free calls with Vodafone Romania and fixed networks before the launch of Digi Mobil.
The company offers all channels in one package except premium channels.
In July 2009, Digi launched the Digi Sport channels in Romania and Hungary. Then followed the Digi Sport channels in Slovakia and the Czech Republic in August 2010, which have been operated separately since 2013 following the takeover of Digi Slovakia by Slovak Telekom.
In the summer of 2010, it acquired 50% of Music Channel, which launched Hit Music Channel in January 2012. The company launched a generalist channel in December 2010, but due to the low audience it was closed. The premium movie channel Digi Film (now Film Now) was launched on 1 February 2011. In 2011 acquired the UTV music TV channel.
Digi 24 TV news channel was launched on 1 March 2012. Following disagreements with Discovery, the company launched 3 thematic channels in October 2012: Digi World, Digi Life and Digi Animal World. On 10 December 2018 was launched Digi 4K.
In April 2015, Digi launched the energy supply service. The company had in 2017 the most subscribers on the competitive market from the companies that do not have the distribution infrastructure. In 2019, it increased tariffs by 30% due to a tax added by the government and then by 20%. The company announced that it is gradually giving up the supply service due to the unusual volatility of the electricity price.
RCS & RDS introduced the Digi TV brand for satellite television services in December 2004 in Romania and in 2006 in Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Croatia and Serbia. In 2006 the company unified under the Digi brand the cable television, internet and telephony services in Hungary, followed by Slovakia in June 2007. In Romania all the services rebranded Digi in 2009 but it is used together with the old RCS & RDS brand.
The following is a list of Digi Mobil mobile frequencies in Romania and Hungary.
|226||05||900 MHz||8||GSM||2G||Voice only GSM network from refarming UMTS 900, used for better indoor coverage. |
|226||05||2100 MHz||1||UMTS/HSPA/HSPA+ (5Mhz ~21.6 Mbit/s/5.76 Mbit/s)||3G|
|226||05||2100 MHz||1||LTE (10Mhz ~75 Mbit/s/37.5 Mbit/s)||4G||FDD-LTE network launched on 6 October 2016|
|226||05||900 MHz||8||LTE (3Mhz ~22.5 Mbit/s/7.5 Mbit/s)||4G||FDD-LTE network launched in September 2019 from refarming UMTS 900|
|226||05||2600 MHz||38||LTE-TDD (20Mhz ~112 Mbit/s)||4G||TDD-LTE network launched on 1 October 2015|
|226||05||3700 MHz||n78||5G (50Mhz ~600 Mbit/s)||5G||TDD 5G network launched on 27 June 2019|
|216||03||1800 MHz||3||GSM||2G||GSM voice only, no data. Network launched on 28 May 2019 |
|216||03||1800 MHz||3||LTE (22.1/7.5 Mbit/s)||4G||LTE network launched on 28 May 2019|
|216||03||3500 MHz||42||5G (-- Mbit/s)||5G||TDD network Deployment|
- Zoltán Teszári – 59.23%
- Cable Communications Systems NV – 2.47%
- 8 individual associates – 38.30%
In 2012, the operator removed Discovery channels from the grid, motivating that it would have requested too much money for retransmission. During public discussions, Digi offered to redistribute all Discovery channels in a separate package, but Discovery refused. Only Discovery and TLC returned to the grid in December 2016.
In 2012, Digi removed the Antena TV Group channels from the satellite television grid following disagreements. In 2013, the director of Digi, Ioan Bendei was blackmailed to sign the distribution contract by the director of Antena Group, otherwise he will denounce him for corruption of the television rights of the national football league. The director of Antena Group was sentenced to prison for blackmail. After evidence of corruption made public by a journalist in 2013, the directors of Digi and of the Professional Football League were convicted in January 2019.  Digi and Antena Group have dropped the litigations in May 2018.
In Hungary, Digi was excluded from the auction for 5G licenses in 2019, motivating its decision on assumptions and facts that are supposed to happen. Digi filed an appeal that was not admitted, then sued NMHH, the regulator of the telecommunications market. Meanwhile, the 5G auction has been closed.
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- "Despre noi" (in Romanian). Digi Communications.
- "EXCLUSIV! Cine se află cu adevărat în spatele imperiului DIGI – RCS & RDS! Povestea secretă a miliardarului fără chip. Detalii pe care nimeni nu le-a știut până acum. Dezvăluiri în premieră din partea unor apropiați". capital.ro. 3 January 2019.
- "Akamai's state of the internet report Q3 2014" (PDF). akamai.com. 2014.
- "Global Speeds March 2020". speedtest.net. March 2020.
- "The Countries with the Fastest Internet". statis.com. 10 May 2019.
- "Romania Cable Systems". Archived from the original on 8 June 2004.
- "Slovak Telekom to buy Digi Slovakia". informa.com. 22 May 2013.
- "Czech Digi TV to be sold". broadbandtvnews.com. 23 March 2015.
- "Digi TV se od dubna mění na Telly, zavádí nové balíčky". mediaguru.cz. 18 March 2020.
- "RCS&RDS Sells Digi TV Croatia to Vipnet". filmneweurope.com. 13 March 2013.
- "Srbská Digi TV prodána společnosti Kopernikus. Ta srbskému Telekomu". parabola.cz. 17 December 2018.
- "Digi primeste o noua aprobare privind tranzactia Invitel". media-max.ro. 23 March 2020.
- "EXCLUSIV: Cable Communications Systems, firma mamă a RCS&RDS, se transformă în Digi Communications şi se listează la BVB". capital.ro. 11 April 2017.
- "Digi retrage furnizarea de energie din grila de programe a companiei". energyreport.ro. 3 June 2019.
- "Serviciile RCS&RDS, unificate sub brandul Digi". capital.ro. 20 July 2009.
- "List of Mobile Frequencies by Country". spectrummonitoring.com. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- "Digi Mobil introduce serviciul de date mobile 4G în bandă de frecvente de 900 Mhz". digiromania.ro. 16 October 2019.
- "Digi Mobil anunţă lansarea serviciului de date 4G și în banda de frecvențe 2100 Mhz". digi24.ro. 6 October 2019.
- "Digi Mobil 5G Smart disponobil, de zi în București și în curând în câteva orașe mari". digiromania.ro. 26 June 2019.
- "Digi Mobil debuts in Hungary". broadbandtvnews.com. 28 May 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2019.
- Adevărata faţă a conducerii RCS-RDS Archived 2013-06-09 at the Wayback Machine
- "RCS Management, firma controlata de patronul RCS&RDS, Zoltan Teszari, vrea sa rascumpere 10% din capital cu maxim 22,4 milioane de euro pana la sfarsitul acestui an". hotnews.ro. 9 November 2016.
- "RCS&RDS a scos toate canalele Discovery şi de pe reţelele sale de cablu". economica.net. 29 November 2012.
- "Directorul Antenelor a santajat RCS-RDS pentru un contract de 7,2 milioane de euro - DNA". ziare.com. 31 May 2013.
- "Mitică Dragomir și Ioan Bendei condamnați la 4 ani de închisoare cu executare în dosarul RDS". grupul.ro. 16 January 2019.
- "Dupa ani de zile de scandaluri si procese, RCS&RDS si Antena Group au incheiat un contract prin care sting litigiile". ziare.com. 18 June 2018.
- "Grupul DIGI cere anularea rezultatelor licitației 5G din Ungaria: Alți trei operatori, declarați câștigători, vor plăti aproximativ 360 de milioane de euro pe licențe". hotnews.ro. 30 March 2020.