This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
It is well known, both theoretically and observationally, that some massive stars collapse to form neutron stars at the end of their life cycle. Under the extreme temperatures and pressures inside neutron stars, the neutrons are normally kept apart by a degeneracy pressure, stabilizing the star and hindering further gravitational collapse. However, it is analyzed that under even more extreme temperature and pressure, the degeneracy pressure of the neutrons is overcome, and the neutrons are forced to merge and dissolve into their constituent quarks, creating an ultra-dense phase of quark matter based on densely packed quarks. In this state, a new equilibrium is supposed to emerge, as a new degeneracy pressure between the quarks, as well as repulsive electromagnetic forces, will occur and hinder gravitational collapse. If these ideas are correct, quark stars might occur, and be observable, somewhere in the universe. Theoretically, such a scenario is seen as scientifically plausible, but it has been impossible to prove both observationally and experimentally, because the very extreme conditions needed for stabilizing quark matter can not be created in any laboratory nor observed directly in nature. The stability of quark matter, and hence the existence of quark stars, is for these reasons among the unsolved problems in physics.
If quark stars can form, then the most likely place to find quark star matter would be inside neutron stars that exceed the internal pressure needed for quark degeneracy - the point at which neutrons break down into a form of dense quark matter. They could also form if a massive star collapses at the end of its life, provided that it is possible for a star to be large enough to collapse beyond a neutron star but not large enough to form a black hole.
If they exist, quark stars would resemble and be easily mistaken for neutron stars: they would form in the death of a massive star in a Type II supernova, be extremely dense and small, and possess a very high gravitational field. They would also lack some features of neutron stars, unless they also contained a shell of neutron matter, because free quarks are not expected to have properties matching degenerate neutron matter. For example, they might be radio-silent, or not have typical sizes, electromagnetic fields, or surface temperatures, compared to neutron stars.
The analysis about quark stars was first proposed in 1965 by Soviet physicists D. D. Ivanenko and D. F. Kurdgelaidze. Their existence has not been confirmed. The equation of state of quark matter is uncertain, as is the transition point between neutron-degenerate matter and quark matter. Theoretical uncertainties have precluded making predictions from first principles. Experimentally, the behaviour of quark matter is being actively studied with particle colliders, but this can only produce very hot (above 1012 K) quark-gluon plasma blobs the size of atomic nuclei, which decay immediately after formation. The conditions inside compact stars with extremely high densities and temperatures well below 1012 K can not be recreated artificially, as there are no known methods to produce, store or study "cold" quark matter directly as it would be found inside quark stars. The theory predicts quark matter to possess some peculiar characteristics under these conditions.
It is theorized that when the neutron-degenerate matter, which makes up neutron stars, is put under sufficient pressure from the star's own gravity or the initial supernova creating it, the individual neutrons break down into their constituent quarks (up quarks and down quarks), forming what is known as quark matter. This conversion might be confined to the neutron star's center or it might transform the entire star, depending on the physical circumstances. Such a star is known as a quark star.
Stability and strange quark matterEdit
Ordinary quark matter consisting of up and down quarks (also referred to as u and d quarks) has a very high Fermi energy compared to ordinary atomic matter and is only stable under extreme temperatures and/or pressures. This suggests that the only stable quark stars will be neutron stars with a quark matter core, while quark stars consisting entirely of ordinary quark matter will be highly unstable and dissolve spontaneously.
It has been shown that the high Fermi energy making ordinary quark matter unstable at low temperatures and pressures can be lowered substantially by the transformation of a sufficient number of up and down quarks into strange quarks, as strange quarks are, relatively speaking, a very heavy type of quark particle. This kind of quark matter is known specifically as strange quark matter and it is speculated and subject to current scientific investigation whether it might in fact be stable under the conditions of interstellar space (i.e. near zero external pressure and temperature). If this is the case (known as the Bodmer–Witten assumption), quark stars made entirely of quark matter would be stable if they quickly transform into strange quark matter.
Theoretical investigations have revealed that quark stars might not only be produced from neutron stars and powerful supernovas, they could also be created in the early cosmic phase separations following the Big Bang. If these primordial quark stars transform into strange quark matter before the external temperature and pressure conditions of the early Universe makes them unstable, they might turn out stable, if the Bodmer–Witten assumption holds true. Such primordial strange stars could survive to this day.
Quark stars have some special characteristics that separate them from ordinary neutron stars.
Under the physical conditions found inside neutron stars, with extremely high densities but temperatures well below 1012 K, quark matter is predicted to exhibit some peculiar characteristics. It is expected to behave as a Fermi liquid and enter a so-called color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of color superconductivity, where "color" refers to the six "charges" exhibited in the strong interaction, instead of the positive and the negative charges in electromagnetism. At slightly lower densities, corresponding to higher layers closer to the surface of the compact star, the quark matter will behave as a non-CFL quark liquid, a phase that is even more mysterious than CFL and might include color conductivity and/or several additional yet undiscovered phases. None of these extreme conditions can currently be recreated in laboratories so nothing can be inferred about these phases from direct experiments.
If the conversion of neutron-degenerate matter to (strange) quark matter is total, a quark star can to some extent be imagined as a single gigantic hadron. But this "hadron" will be bound by gravity, rather than the strong force that binds ordinary hadrons.
Observed overdense neutron starsEdit
At least under the assumptions mentioned above, the probability of a given neutron star being a quark star is low, so in the Milky Way there would only be a small population of quark stars. If it is correct however, that overdense neutron stars can turn into quark stars, that makes the possible number of quark stars higher than was originally thought, as observers would be looking for the wrong type of star.
Observations released by the Chandra X-ray Observatory on April 10, 2002 detected two possible quark stars, designated RX J1856.5-3754 and 3C58, which had previously been thought to be neutron stars. Based on the known laws of physics, the former appeared much smaller and the latter much colder than it should be, suggesting that they are composed of material denser than neutron-degenerate matter. However, these observations are met with skepticism by researchers who say the results were not conclusive; and since the late 2000s, the possibility that RX J1856 is a quark star has been excluded.
It was reported in 2008 that observations of supernovae SN 2006gy, SN 2005gj and SN 2005ap also suggest the existence of quark stars. It has been suggested that the collapsed core of supernova SN 1987A may be a quark star.
Other theorized quark formationsEdit
This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Apart from ordinary quark matter and strange quark matter, other types of quark-gluon plasma might theoretically occur or be formed inside neutron stars and quark stars. This includes the following, some of which has been observed and studied in laboratories:
- Jaffe 1977, suggested a four-quark state with strangeness (qsqs).
- Jaffe 1977 suggested the H dibaryon, a six-quark state with equal numbers of up-, down-, and strange quarks (represented as uuddss or udsuds).
- Bound multi-quark systems with heavy quarks (QQqq).
- In 1987, a pentaquark state was first proposed with a charm anti-quark (qqqsc).
- Pentaquark state with an antistrange quark and four light quarks consisting of up- and down-quarks only (qqqqs).
- Light pentaquarks are grouped within an antidecuplet, the lightest candidate, Ө+.
- This can also be described by the diquark model of Jaffe and Wilczek (QCD).
- Ө++ and antiparticle Ө−−.
- Doubly strange pentaquark (ssddu), member of the light pentaquark antidecuplet.
- Charmed pentaquark Өc(3100) (uuddc) state was detected by the H1 collaboration.
- Tetra quark particles might form inside neutron stars and under other extreme conditions. In 2008, 2013 and 2014 the tetra quark particle of Z(4430), was discovered and investigated in laboratories on Earth.
- Quantum chromodynamics
- Neutron stars – neutron matter – neutron-degenerate matter – neutron
- Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit on the mass of a neutron star.
- Compact star
- Degenerate matter
Sources and further readingEdit
- Blaschke, David and Sedrakian, David: "Superdense QCD Matter and Compact Stars", NATO Science Series, Springer (2003)
- Blaschke, David., Glendenning, Norman K. and Sedrakian, A.: "Physics of neutron star interiors", Lecture Notes in Physics (Vol. 578), Springer (2001)
- Plessas, W. and Mathelitsch, L. (Leopold): "Lectures on quark matter", Lecture Notes in Physics (Vol. 583), Springer (2002)
- D. D. Ivanenko; D. F. Kurdgelaidze (1965). "Hypothesis concerning quark stars". Astrophysics. 1 (4): 251–252. Bibcode:1965Ap......1..251I. doi:10.1007/BF01042830.
- D. D. Ivanenko; D. F. Kurdgelaidze (1969). "Remarks on quark stars". Lettere al Nuovo Cimento. 2: 13–16. Bibcode:1969NCimL...2...13I. doi:10.1007/BF02753988.
- Shapiro and Teukolsky: Black Holes, White Dwarfs and Neutron Stars: The Physics of Compact Objects, Wiley 2008
- Blaschke et.al "Physics of neutron star interiors"
- Witten, Edward (1984). "Cosmic separation of phases". Physical Review D. 30 (2): 272–285. Bibcode:1984PhRvD..30..272W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.30.272.
- E. Farhi; R. L. Jaffe (1984). "Strange matter". Physical Review D. 30 (11): 2379. Bibcode:1984PhRvD..30.2379F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.30.2379.
- Fridolin Weber; et al. (1994). "Strange-matter Stars". Proceedings: Strangeness and Quark Matter.
- Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schäfer, Thomas (2008). "Color superconductivity in dense quark matter". Reviews of Modern Physics. 80 (4): 1455–1515. arXiv:0709.4635. Bibcode:2008RvMP...80.1455A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.80.1455.
- Truemper, J. E.; Burwitz, V.; Haberl, F.; Zavlin, V. E. (June 2004). "The puzzles of RX J1856.5-3754: neutron star or quark star?". Nuclear Physics B: Proceedings Supplements. 132: 560–565. arXiv:astro-ph/0312600. Bibcode:2004NuPhS.132..560T. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.314.7466. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2004.04.094.
- Fastest spinning star may have exotic heart
- Yue, Y. L.; Cui, X. H.; Xu, R. X. (2006). "Is PSR B0943+10 a low-mass quark star?". Astrophys. J. 649 (2): L95–L98. arXiv:astro-ph/0603468. doi:10.1086/508421.
- Astronomy Now Online – Second Supernovae Point to Quark Stars
- Chan; Cheng; Harko; Lau; Lin; Suen; Tian (2009). "Could the compact remnant of SN 1987A be a quark star?". Astrophysical Journal. 695 (1): 732–746. arXiv:0902.0653. Bibcode:2009ApJ...695..732C. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/732.
- Quark star may hold secret to early universe New Scientist
- Dai, Z. G.; Wang, S. Q.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, L. J.; Yu, Y. W. (2015-08-31). "The Most Luminous Supernova ASASSN-15lh: Signature of a Newborn Rapidly-Rotating Strange Quark Star". The Astrophysical Journal. 817 (2): 132. arXiv:1508.07745. Bibcode:2016ApJ...817..132D. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/817/2/132.
- H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; et al. (2004). "Evidence for a Narrow Anti-Charmed Baryon State of mass". Physics Letters B. 588 (1–2): 17–28. arXiv:hep-ex/0403017. Bibcode:2004PhLB..588...17A. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2004.03.012.
- Brian Koberlein (April 10, 2014). "How CERN's Discovery of Exotic Particles May Affect Astrophysics". Universe Today. Retrieved 14 April 2014./
- Jaffe, R. (1977). "Perhaps a Stable Dihyperon". Physical Review Letters. 38 (5): 195–198. Bibcode:1977PhRvL..38..195J. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.195.
- Neutron Star/Quark Star Interior (image to print)
- Quark star glimmers, Nature, April 11, 2002.
- Debate sparked on quark stars, CERN Courier 42, #5.
- Wish Upon a Quark Star, Paul Beck, Popular Science, June 2002.
- Drake; Marshall; Dreizler; Freeman; Fruscione; Juda; Kashyap; Nicastro; et al. (2002). "Is RX J185635-375 a Quark Star?". Astrophysical Journal. 572 (2): 996–1001. arXiv:astro-ph/0204159. Bibcode:2002ApJ...572..996D. doi:10.1086/340368.
- Perhaps a 1,700-year-old quark star in SNR MSH 15-52
- Curious About Astronomy: What process would bring about a quark star?
- RX J185635-375: Candidate Quark Star, Astronomy Picture of the Day, April 14, 2002.
- Quarks or Quirky Neutron Stars?, Mark K. Anderson, Wired News, April 19, 2002.
- Strange Quark Stars, Ask an Astrophysicist, question submitted April 12, 2002.
- Seeing "Strange" Stars, physorg.com, February 8, 2006.
- Quark Stars Could Produce Biggest Bang, spacedaily.com, June 7, 2006.
- Meissner Effect in Strange Quark Stars, Brian Niebergal, web page, University of Calgary.
- Irina Sagert; Mirjam Wietoska; Jurgen Schaffner-Bielich (2006). "Strange Exotic States and Compact Stars". Journal of Physics G. 32 (12): S241–S249. arXiv:astro-ph/0608317. Bibcode:2006JPhG...32S.241S. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.257.2063. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/32/12/S30.
- Quark Stars Involved in New Theory of Brightest Supernovae – The first-ever evidence of a neutron star collapsing into a quark star is announced, Space.com, 3 June 2008
- Quark Stars, Alternate View Column AV-114, John G. Cramer, Published in the November-2002 issue of Analog Science Fiction & Fact Magazine