The Pyrenees (//; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos]; French: Pyrénées [piʁene]; Aragonese: Pirineus; Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛws]; Occitan: Pirenèus; Basque: Pirinioak [piɾini.o.ak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus).
|The Pyrenees Mountains|
Basque: Pirinioak, Auñamendiak
|Elevation||3,404 m (11,168 ft)|
|Length||491 km (305 mi)|
|Etymology||Named for Pyrene|
|Countries||Spain, France and Andorra|
|Age of rock||Paleozoic and Mesozoic|
|Type of rock||granite, gneiss, limestone|
For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The Basque Country straddles the western Pyrenees. Historically, the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Aragon, Occitania and the Kingdom of Navarre extended on both sides of the mountain range.
In Greek mythology, Pyrene is a princess who gave her name to the Pyrenees. The Greek historian Herodotus says Pyrene is the name of a town in Celtic Europe. According to Silius Italicus, she was the virgin daughter of Bebryx, a king in Mediterranean Gaul by whom the hero Hercules was given hospitality during his quest to steal the cattle of Geryon during his famous Labours. Hercules, characteristically drunk and lustful, violates the sacred code of hospitality and rapes his host's daughter. Pyrene gives birth to a serpent and runs away to the woods, afraid that her father will be angry. Alone, she pours out her story to the trees, attracting the attention of wild beasts who tear her to pieces.
After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. As is often the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, and lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name: "struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges; he kept crying out with a sorrowful noise 'Pyrene!' and all the rock-cliffs and wild-beast haunts echo back 'Pyrene!' … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania, but rejects it as fabulosa, highly fictional.
Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek: πῦρ (IPA: /pŷːr/). According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus "in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was entirely consumed; and due to this fire, since it raged continuously day after day, the surface of the earth was also burned and the mountains, because of what had taken place, were called the Pyrenees."
The Spanish Pyrenees are part of the following provinces, from east to west: Girona, Barcelona, Lleida (all in Catalonia), Huesca (in Aragon), Navarra (in Navarre) and Gipuzkoa (in the Basque Country).
The French Pyrenees are part of the following départements, from east to west: Pyrénées-Orientales (North Catalonia and Fenolheda), Aude, Ariège, Haute-Garonne, Hautes-Pyrénées, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques (the latter two of which include the Pyrenees National Park).
Physiographically, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic (or Western), the Central, and the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division.
- Pico d'Aneto 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) in the Maladeta ridge,
- Pico Posets 3,375 metres (11,073 ft),
- Monte Perdido 3,355 metres (11,007 ft).
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises in the Ariège area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères.
Most foothills of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia, almost reaching the Mediterranean coast with summits reaching 2,600 m (8,500 ft). At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees.
The Pyrenees are older than the Alps: their sediments were first deposited in coastal basins during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras. Between 100 and 150 million years ago, during the Lower Cretaceous Period, the Bay of Biscay fanned out, pushing present-day Spain against France and applying intense compressional pressure to large layers of sedimentary rock. The intense pressure and uplifting of the Earth's crust first affected the eastern part and moved progressively to the entire chain, culminating in the Eocene Epoch.
The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists largely of granite and gneissose rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone. The massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, which is particularly resistant to erosion, as well as weak glacial development.
The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain. This peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene times. Presumably it formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base level considerably.
Conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are:
- the absence of great lakes, such as those that fill the lateral valleys of the Alps
- the rarity and relative high elevation of usable passes
- the large number of the mountain torrents locally called gaves, which often form lofty waterfalls, surpassed in Europe only by those of Scandinavia
- the frequency with which the upper end of a valley assumes the form of a semicircle of precipitous cliffs, called a cirque.
The highest waterfall is Gavarnie (462 m or 1,515 ft), at the head of the Gave de Pau; the Cirque de Gavarnie, in the same valley, together with the nearby Cirque de Troumouse and Cirque d'Estaubé, are notable examples of the cirque formation.
Low passes are lacking, and the principal roads and the railroads between France and Spain run only in the lowlands at the western and eastern ends of the Pyrenees, near sea level. The main passes of note are:
- the Col de la Perche (1,581 m (5,187 ft)), towards the east, between the valley of the Têt and the valley of the Segre,
- the Pas de la Casa or Port d'Envalira, the highest road pass in the Pyrenees at 2,408 m (7,900 ft), and one of the highest points of the European road network, which provides the route from France to Andorra,
- the nearby Col de Puymorens (1,920 m (6,300 ft)), on European route E09 between France and Spain.
- the Port de la Bonaigua (2,070 m (6,790 ft)), in the middle of the range at the head of the Aran Valley, although the nearly col at Plan de Beret (1,870 m (6,140 ft)) is the lowest point in the main ridge between the Col de la Perche, almost 100 km (62 mi) to the east and the Col du Pourtalet (1,794 m (5,886 ft)), over 100 km (62 mi) to the west.
- the Col de Somport or Port de Canfranc (1,632 m (5,354 ft)), where there were old Roman roads.
- the Roncevaux Pass (1,057 m (3,468 ft)), entirely in Navarre (Spain) is an important point on the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route
The metallic ores of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance now, though there were iron mines at several locations in Andorra, as well as at Vicdessos in Ariège, and the foot of Canigou in Pyrénées-Orientales long ago. Coal deposits capable of being profitably worked are situated chiefly on the Spanish slopes, but the French side has beds of lignite. The open pit of Trimoun near the commune of Luzenac (Ariège) is one of the greatest sources of talc in Europe.
Mineral springs are abundant and remarkable, and especially noteworthy are the hot springs. The hot springs, among which those of Les Escaldes in Andorra, Panticosa and Lles in Spain, Ax-les-Thermes, Bagnères-de-Luchon and Eaux-Chaudes in France may be mentioned, are sulfurous and mostly situated high, near the contact of the granite with the stratified rocks. The lower springs, such as those of Bagnères-de-Bigorre (Hautes-Pyrénées), Rennes-les-Bains (Aude), and Campagne-sur-Aude (Aude), are mostly selenitic and not hot.
The amount of precipitation the range receives, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees because of the moist air that blows in from the Atlantic Ocean over the Bay of Biscay. After dropping its moisture over the western and central Pyrenees, the air is left dry over the eastern Pyrenees. The winter average temperature is −2 °C (28 °F).
Sections of the mountain range vary in more than one respect. There are some glaciers in the western and snowy central Pyrenees, but there are no glaciers in the eastern Pyrenees because there is insufficient snowfall to cause their development. Glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down into the valleys but rather have their greatest lengths along the direction of the mountain chain. They form, in fact, in a narrow zone near the crest of the highest mountains. Here, as in the other great mountain ranges of central Europe, there is substantial evidence of a much wider expanse of glaciation during the glacial periods. The best evidence of this is in the valley of Argeles Gazost, between Lourdes and Gavarnie, in the département of Hautes-Pyrénées.
The annual snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from about 2,700 to 2,800 metres (8,900 to 9,200 ft) above sea level. In average the seasonal snow is observed at least 50% of the time above 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) between December and April.
Flora and faunaEdit
A still more marked effect of the preponderance of rainfall in the western half of the chain is seen in the vegetation. The lower mountains in the extreme west are wooded, but the extent of forest declines as one moves eastwards. The eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and barren, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail. Also moving from west to east, there is a change in the composition of the flora, with the change becoming most evident as one passes the centre of the mountain chain from which point the Corbières stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France. Though the difference in latitude is only about 1°, in the west the flora resembles that of central Europe while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean in character. The Pyrenees are nearly as rich in endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the monotypic genus Xatardia (family Apiaceae), which grows only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia. Other examples include Arenaria montana, Bulbocodium vernum, and Ranunculus glacialis. The genus most abundantly represented in the range is that of the saxifrages, several species of which are endemic here.
In their fauna the Pyrenees present some striking instances of endemism. The Pyrenean desman is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains; the only other desmans are confined to the rivers of the Caucasus in southern Russia. The Pyrenean euprocte (Euproctus pyrenaicus), an endemic relative of the salamander, also lives in streams and lakes located at high altitudes. Among other peculiarities of Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariège, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus and Adelops.
The Pyrenean ibex mysteriously became extinct in January 2000; the native Pyrenean brown bear was hunted to near-extinction in the 1990s, but it was re-introduced in 1996 when three bears were brought from Slovenia. The bear population has bred successfully, and there are now believed to be about 15 brown bears in the central region around Fos, but only four native ones are still living in the Aspe Valley.
Principal nature reserves and national parks:
- Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park (Spain)
- Pyrénées National Park (France)
- Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park (Spain)
- Posets-Maladeta Natural Park (Spain)
Demographics and cultureEdit
The Pyrenean region possesses a varied ethnology, folklore and history: see Andorra; Aragon; Ariège; Basque Country; Béarn; Catalonia; Navarre; Roussillon. For their history, see also Almogavars, Marca Hispanica.
The principal languages spoken in the area are Spanish, French, Aragonese, Catalan (in Catalonia and Andorra), and Basque. Also spoken, to a lesser degree, is the Occitan language, consisting of the Gascon and Languedocien dialects in France and the Aranese dialect in the Aran Valley.
An important feature of rural life in the Pyrenees is 'transhumance', the moving of livestock from the farms in the valleys up to the higher grounds of the mountains for the summer. In this way the farming communities could keep larger herds than the lowland farms could support on their own. The principal animals moved were cows and sheep, but historically most members of farming families also moved to the higher pastures along with their animals, so they also took with them pigs, horses and chickens. Transhumance thus took the form of a mass biannual migration, moving uphill in May or June and returning to the farms in September or October. During the summer period, the families would live in basic stone cabins in the high mountains.
Nowadays, industrialisation and changing agriculture practices have diminished the custom. However, the importance of transhumance continues to be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals.
No big cities are in the range itself. The largest urban area close to the Pyrenees is Toulouse (Haute-Garonne), France with a population of 1,330,954 in its metropolitan area. On the Spanish side Pamplona, (Navarre) is the closest city with a population of 319,208 in its metropolitan area. Inside the Pyrenees the main towns are Andorra la Vella (22,256), Jaca (12,813) in Spain and Lourdes (13,976) and Foix (10,046) in France.
The following is the complete list of the summits of the Pyrenees above 3,000 meters:
- Aneto (3,404 m) (Aragon)
- Posets (3,375 m) (Aragon)
- Monte Perdido (3,355 m) (Aragon)
- Punta de Astorg (3,355 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Maldito (3,350 m) (Aragon)
- Espalda del Aneto (3,350 m) (Aragon)
- Pico del Medio (3,346 m) (Aragon)
- Espadas Peak (3,332 m) (Aragon)
- Cilindro de Marboré (3,325 m) (Aragon)
- Maladeta (3,312 m) (Aragon)
- Vignemale (3,298 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Coronas (3,293 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Tempestades (3,290 m) (Aragon)
- Clot de la Hount (3,289 m) (Aragon-France)
- Soum de Ramond (3,259 m) (Aragon)
- 1st Western Peak Maladeta (3,254 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Marboré (3,252 m) (Aragon-France)
- Cerbillona (3,247 m) (Aragon-France)
- Perdiguero (3,221 m) (Aragon-France)
- 2nd Western Peak Maladeta (3,220 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Montferrat (3,219 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Russell (3,205 m) (Aragon)
- Pointe Chausenque (3,204 m) (France)
- Piton Carré (3,197 m) (France)
- Pic Long (3,192 m) (France)
- 3rd Western Peak Maladeta (3,185 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Schrader (3,177 m) (Aragon-France)
- Campbieil (3,173 m) (France)
- Pic de la cascade oriental (3,161 m) (Aragon-France)
- Les Jumeaux Ravier (3,160 m) (Aragon)
- Grand Tapou (3,160 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Badet (3,150 m) (France)
- Balaïtous (3,144 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic du Taillon (3,144 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pica d'Estats (3,143 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Punta del Sabre (3,136 m) (Aragon)
- Diente de Alba (3,136 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de la Munia (3,134 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pointe de Literole (3,132 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Verdaguer (3,131 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Pic du Milieu (3,130 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic des Gourgs Blancs (3,129 m) (Aragon-France)
- Les Veterans (3,125 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Pavots (3,121 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Royo (3,121 m) (Aragon-France)
- Punta Ledormeur (3,120 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Alba (3,118 m) (Aragon)
- Pic des Crabioules (3,116 m) (Aragon-France)
- Seil Dera Baquo (3,110 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Maupas (3,109 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Lézat (3,107 m) (France)
- Western Crabioules (3,106 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Brulle (3,106 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de la cascade occidental (3,095 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Néouvielle (3,091 m) (France)
- Serre Mourene (3,090 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Troumouse (3,085 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Posets (3,085 m) (Aragon)
- Infierno central (3,083 m) (Aragon)
- Pics d'Enfer (3,082 m) (France)
- Pico de Bardamina (3,079 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de la Paul (3,078 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Montcalm (3,077 m) (France)
- Infierno oriental (3,076 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Maou (3,074 m) (France)
- Infierno occidental (3,073 m) (Aragon)
- Épaule du Marboré (3,073 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic du port de Sullo (3,072 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Frondella NE (3,071 m) (Aragon)
- Grand pic d' Astazou (3,071 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico de Vallibierna (3,067 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Marcos Feliu (3,067 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic des Spijeoles (3,066 m) (France)
- Pico Jean Arlaud (3,065 m) (Aragon)
- Tuca de Culebras (3,062 m) (Aragon-France)
- Grand Quayrat (3,060 m) (France)
- Pic Maubic (3,058 m) (France)
- Pico Gran Eriste (3,053 m) (Aragon)
- Garmo negro (3,051 m) (Aragon)
- Pic du Portillon (3,050 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Argualas (3,046 m) (Aragon)
- Baudrimont NW) (3,045 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Eristé sur (3,045 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Camboue (3,043 m) (France)
- Trois Conseillers (3,039 m) (France)
- Pico Aragüells (3,037 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Algas (3,036 m) (Aragon)
- Turon de Néouvielle (3,035 m) (France)
- Pic de Batoua (3,034 m) (Aragon)
- Gabietou occidental (3,034 m) (Aragon-France)
- Comaloforno (3,033 m) (Catalonia)
- Petit Vignemale (3,032 m) (France)
- Gabietou oriental (3,031 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Bugarret (3,031 m) (France)
- South Besiberri Massif (3,030 m) (Catalonia)
- Pic de l'Abeille (3,029 m) (Aragon-France)
- Baudrimont SE (3,026 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Béraldi (3,025 m) (Aragon)
- Pico de la Pez (3,024 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Lustou (3,023 m) (France)
- Pic Heid (3,022 m) (France)
- Pic de Crabounouse (3,021 m) (France)
- Pico de Clarabide (3,020 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico del puerto de la pez (3,018 m) (Aragon-France)
- Dent d'Estibère male (3,017 m) (France)
- North Besiberri Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia)
- Punta Alta Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia)
- Petit Astazou (3,012 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Ramougn (3,011 m) (France)
- Pico de Gias (3,011 m) (Aragon)
- Tuc de Molières (3,010 m) (Catalonia-Aragon)
- Tour du Marboré (3,009 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Belloc (3,008 m) (France)
- Pic Forqueta (3,007 m) (Aragon)
- Pic d'Estaragne (3,006 m) (France)
- Pico de Boum (3,006 m) (Aragon-France)
- Casque du Marboré (3,006 m) (Aragon-France)
- Arnales (3,006 m) (Aragon)
- Grande Fache (3,005 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Robiñera (3,005 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Saint Saud (3,003 m) (France)
- Middle Besiberri S (3,003 m) (Catalonia)
- Middle Besiberri N (3,002 m) (Catalonia)
- Pointe Célestin Passet (3,002 m) (Catalonia)
- Punta de las Olas (3,002 m) (Aragon)
- Frondella SW (3,001 m) (Aragon)
Notable summits below 3,000 metresEdit
- Pic de Palas (2,974 m)
- Pic de Comapedrosa (2,942 m) - highest point of Andorra
- Pic Carlit (2,921 m)
- Puigmal (2,913 m)
- Cotiella (2,912 m)
- Pic de Sanfonts (2,894 m)
- Pic d'Envalira (2,827 m)
- Collarada (2,886 m)
- Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,885 m)
- Pic du Midi de Bigorre (2,876 m)
- Mont Valier (2,838 m)
- Petit Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,812 m)
- Pic du Canigou (2,786 m)
- Peña Telera (2,764 m)
- Casamanya (2,740 m)
- Cap de la cometa del forn (2,691 m)
- Visaurin (2,668 m)
- Pic del Port Vell (2,655 m)
- Aspe peak (2,645 m)
- Pic dels Aspres (2,562 m)
- Pedraforca (2,506 m)
- Pic d'Anie (2,504 m)
- Pic de Pedraforca (2,498 m)
- Pic de Madrès (2,469 m)
- Mesa de los Tres Reyes (2,428 m)
- Grande Aiguille d'Ansabère (2,376 m)
- Pic du Soularac (2,368 m)
- Pic du Saint Barthélémy (2,348 m)
- Peña Montañesa (2,291 m)
- Peña Foratata (2,282 m)
- Pic des Trois Seigneurs (2,199 m)
- Pic d'Orhy (2,017 m)
- Chamanchoya (1,935 m)
- Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m)
- Pic de Cagire (1,912 m)
- Pic du Gar (1,785 m)
- Urkulu (1,419 m)
- Larrun (905 m)
Sports and leisureEdit
Both sides of the Pyrenees are popular spots for winter sports such as alpine skiing and mountaineering. The Pyrenees are also a good place for athletes to do high-altitude training in the summertime, such as by bicycling and cross-country running.
In the summer and the autumn, the Pyrenees are usually featured in two of cycling's grand tours, the Tour de France held annually in July and the Vuelta a España held in September. The stages held in the Pyrenees are often crucial legs of both tours, drawing hundreds of thousands of spectators to the region.
Three main long-distance footpaths run the length of the mountain range: the GR 10 across the northern slopes, the GR 11 across the southern slopes, and the HRP which traverses peaks and ridges along a high altitude route. In addition, there are numerous marked and unmarked trails throughout the region.
Ski resorts in the Pyrenees include:
- Alp 2500 (Spain)
- Arette (France)
- Astún (Spain)
- Artouste (France)
- Ax-les-Thermes (France)
- Baqueira-Beret (Spain)
- Boí Taüll Resort (Spain)
- Bareges-La Mongie (Tourmalet) (France)
- Luz Ardiden (France)
- Bourg-d'Oueil (France)
- Cauterets (France)
- Candanchú (Spain)
- Cerler (Spain)
- Espot Esquí (Spain)
- Font-Romeu (France)
- Formigal (Spain)
- Gavarnie Gèdre (France)
- Gourette (France)
- Guzet-Neige (France)
- Hautacam (France)
- La Molina (Spain)
- La Pierre Saint Martin
- Le Mourtis (France)
- Les Angles (France)
- Luchon-Superbagnères (France)
- Luz-Ardiden (France)
- Nistos cap nestes (France)
- Panticosa-Los Lagos (Spain)
- Pas de la Casa (Andorra)
- Peyragudes (France)
- Piau-Engaly (France)
- Port Ainé (Spain)
- Port del Comte (Spain)
- Somport (France-Spain)
- Saint Lary (France)
- Soldeu / El Tarter (Andorra)
- Superbagnères (France)
- Tavascan (Spain)
- Vall de Núria (Spain)
- Vallnord (Andorra)
- Vallter 2000 (Spain)
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- "El monte del lobo rojo. Otsogorrigaina (1.922 m). El Correo". El Correo. Archived from the original on 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- Pays Toy Ski Resort Archived 2009-03-29 at the Wayback Machine (archive)
- Belloc, Hilaire (1909). The Pyrenees. Methuen & Co., London.
- Edelmayer, Friedrich (2012). The Pyrenees Region (in German and English). Institute of European History.
- Paegelow, Claus (2008). Pyrenäen Bibliografie. Andorra, spanische & französische Pyrenäen, Pyrenees Bibliography. Andorra, Spain & French Pyrenees (in German and English). Verlag Claus Paegelow. ISBN 978-3-00-023936-6.
- Milne, Tony (2015). 10 Manuels and a Manolete. Handmaid Books, Herblay.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyrenees.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyrenees.|
- (in English) Official website of France's Pyrenees National Park
- (in French) Archives of Pyrenees-Atlantiques department
- Great Routes: Pirineos, from a website of the Instituto de Turismo de España
- Les Amis du Livre Pyrénéen (bibliography and history of the Pyrenees)