Provisional Priamurye Government

The Provisional Priamurye Government (or Provisional Priamur Government, Russian: Приамурский земский край) existed in the Far East Russian region of Priamurye, Russia, between May 27, 1921 and October 25, 1922. It was the last Russian state enclave during the Russian Civil War.

Provisional Priamurye Government

Flag of Provisional Priamurye Government
Common languagesRussian
GovernmentProvisional government
• May 1921 – June 1922
Spiridon Merkulov
• June – October 1922
Mikhail Diterikhs
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Far Eastern Republic
Far Eastern Republic
Foreign Minister N. D. Merkulov, Admiral G. K. Stark, Chairman S. D. Merkulov of the Provisional Priamurye Government


The government had its origin in a White Army coup in Vladivostok and its environs whose aim was to break away from the Far Eastern Republic, surviving behind a cordon sanitaire of Japanese troops involved in the Siberian Intervention. The coup was started on May 23 1922 by the Kappelevtsy, the remnants of Vladimir Kappel's People's Army of Komuch.

The government was headed by the Merkulov brothers: Spiridon Dionisovich Merkulov, former functionary of the Ministry of Agriculture and head of the Priamurye government; and Nikolai Merkulov, a merchant. Both had been deputies of the State Duma of the Russian Empire and supporters of the Russian Provisional Government. Somewhat later, the Cossack ataman Grigory Semyonov attempted to take power, but had no backing from the Japanese and eventually withdrew. Kappelevtsy and Semyonovtsy despised each other.[citation needed]

Gradually the enclave was expanded to Khabarovsk and then Spassk, 125 miles north of Vladivostok.[1] The Merkulovs were deposed in June 1922 and replaced by one of Admiral Alexander Kolchak's generals, Mikhail Diterikhs.

In July 1922, a Zemsky Sobor (Приамурский Земский Собор) was convened in the territory. This sobor called all Russian people to repent for the overthrow of the Tsar and proclaimed a new Tsar, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolayevich. Patriarch Tikhon was named as the honorary chairman of the sobor. Neither the Grand Duke nor the Patriarch was present. The territory was renamed Priamursky Zemsky Krai and Diterikhs styled himself voyevoda. The army was renamed the Zemskaya Rat (rat' is an archaic Slavic term meaning "military force").

When the Japanese withdrew, the Soviet army of the Far Eastern Republic retook the territory. The Civil War was declared over, although the Ayano-Maysky District was still controlled by Anatoly Pepelyayev at that time.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ HAROLD VAN VECHTEN FAY: WITNESS TO JAPAN'S APRIL 1920 OFFENSIVE IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST. Reports by Capt Fay are used in the chapter "Ataman's exile and White Russia's last spasms 9 October 1920-November 1922)" of Jamie Bisher's book White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian, 2005, ISBN 0-7146-5690-9.


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