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In film and television, a production designer is the person responsible for the overall visual look of the story. The production design gives the viewers a sense of the time period, the location where the protagonist is existing, what the characters are doing or feeling and why. Working directly with the director, cinematographer, and producer, they have a key creative role in the creation of motion pictures and television. The term production designer was coined by William Cameron Menzies while he was working on the film Gone with the Wind. Previously (and often subsequently) the people with the same responsibilities were called art directors; however, accurately, production designers decide the visual concept and manage the budget to create it while the art directors manage the process of making the visuals, which is done by graphic designers, set designers, costume designers, lighting designers, etc.
Firstly, the production designer will read the script and break it down into categories such as interior, exterior, location, graphic, vehicles, etc., which will be highlighted for better following. Depending on the scene, the production designer will have different approach and focus, thus, discussing with the director is essential and always done in the beginning of the process.
Secondly, the PD will move to researching which is important in every design process. They will use mood board which consists of images, sketches, inspiration, color swatches, photos, textiles, etc. that help with the ideation. Learning about the time period, the place and the culture also assists with coming up with an idea. Moreover, the PD has to plan to create a convincing space within a budget, therefore, it is important that the space can speak about the character or enhance the flow of the story, rather than being filled with unnecessary decoration. Additionally, it also affects the location of filming, whether it is in a studio or at a specific location.
Finally, the PD will ensure that every visuals is made and ready to be used or re-used or re-made. It is their responsibility to be at the set all the time. A production designer never works in isolation. They are the head of a team of people known as the art department, which they lead along with the art director, who has a role much like that of a project manager. This is when all other creative artists come in to help. The art director’s role is to manage the realization of the production designer’s vision and deal with the many and varied logistics of filmmaking including, schedules, budgets, and staffing. Depending on the size of the production the rest of the team can include set decorators, buyers, dressers, runners, graphic designers, draftspeople, props makers, and set builders.
The Importance of Production DesignEdit
Production design plays an essential role in storytelling, for instance, in the movie Titanic, when the characters Jack and Rose are in the cold water after the ship sank, we know that they are cold because of the setting: it is nighttime and there is ice on their hair. A more specific example is The Wizard of Oz, in which we know the story takes place on a farm because of the bale of hay Dorothy leans on and the animals around, as well as the typical wooden fence. In the scene in which Dorothy’s dog is taken away, we know that it happens in her aunt and uncle’s house, which adds more tension because her beloved friend, Toto is not killed, lost or kidnapped on the street, but is forced to leave by an outsider, Ms. Gulch, who enters Dorothy’s private and safe zone (her home). Jane Barnwell states that the place the characters exist in gives information about them and enhances the fluency of the narrative (175). Imagine Dorothy’s home was dirty and everyone in her house were dressed untidily, the viewer would have supported the outsider instead, perhaps thinking that the outsider in a way, rescued the dog from an unhealthy environment. Additionally, the characters’ clothing, especially that of Ms. Gulch, makes the description “own half the county” more reliable in portraying Ms. Gulch, and also supports the reason why Dorothy cannot rebel against Ms. Gulch by making the dog stay. However, this does not mean that the setting or costume should be extremely detailed and cluttered with information. The goal is to not let the viewer notice these elements, which, however, is how production design works. Jon Boorstin states in his book, Making Movies Work Thinking Like a Filmmaker, that the background, the camera motion or even the sound effect is considered well-done if the viewer does not notice their appearance.
Societies and trade organizationsEdit
In the United States and British Columbia, production designers are represented by several local unions of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE). Local 800, the Art Directors Guild, represents production designers in the U.S., with the exception of New York City and its vicinity. Those members are represented by Local 829, the United Scenic Artists. In the rest of Canada, production designers are represented by the Director's Guild of Canada. In the United Kingdom, members of the art department are represented by the non-union British Film Designers Guild.
The production design credit must be requested by a film's producer, prior to completion of photography, and submitted to the Art Directors Guild Board of Directors for the credit approval.
- Cairns, David (2011). "The Dreams of a Creative Begetter". The Believer. No. 79. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
- Preston, Ward (1994). What an Art Director Does: An Introduction to Motion Picture Production Design. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-879505-18-6.
- Barnwell, Jane (2017). Production Design for Screen: Visual Storytelling in Film and Television. London: Bloomsbury Visual Arts. pp. 23–25. ISBN 9781474223409.
- Salom, Leon (17 March 2014). "Explainer: what is production design?". The Conversation.
- Barnwell, Jane (2017). Production Design for Screen: Visual Storytelling in Film and Television. London: Bloomsbury Visual Arts. p. 175. ISBN 9781474223409.
- Boorstin, Jon (1995). Making Movies Work Thinking Like a Filmmaker. Silman-James Press.
- Rizzo, Michael (2014). The Art Direction Handbook for Film & Television. Routledge. p. 394. ISBN 978-0415842792.
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- Barnwell, Jane (2004). Production Design: Architects of the Screen. London: Wallflower. ISBN 978-1-903364-55-0.
- Block, Bruce (2001). The Visual Story: Seeing the Structure of Film, TV, and New Media. Boston: Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-80467-5.
- Ede, Laurie N. (2010). British Film Design: A History. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84-885108-5.
- Katz, Ephraim (2005). The Film Encyclopedia (5th ed.). New York: Collins. ISBN 978-0-06-074214-0.
- Tast, Hans-Jürgen, ed. (2005). Anton Weber (1904–1979): Filmarchitekt bei der UFA. Schellerten, Germany: Kulleraugen. ISBN 978-3-88842-030-6.
- Art Directors Guild, IATSE Local 800 Union local representing Art Directors and Production Designers
- ADG Art Direction Wiki Online community and knowledge base relating to film design
- British Film Designers Guild
- The Austrian Filmdesigners Association (VÖF - Verband Österreichischer FilmausstatterInnen).
- Production Design Training Toi Whakaari: NZ Drama School
- Production Design training in Auckland NZ at Unitec Performing and Screen Arts
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