The present tense (abbreviated PRES or PRS) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in the present time. The present tense is used for actions which are happening now. In order to explain and understand present tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which the past tense, the present and the future tense are positioned. The term present tense is usually used in descriptions of specific languages to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the English sentence "My train leaves tomorrow morning", the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past.
There are two common types of present tense form in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood). The present tense is mainly classified into four parts:
- Simple present
- Present perfect
- Present continuous
- Present perfect continuous
The present indicative of most verbs in modern English has the same form as the infinitive, except for the third-person singular form, which takes the ending -[e]s. The verb be has the forms am, is, are. For details see English verbs. For the present subjunctive, see English subjunctive.
A number of multi-word constructions exist to express the combinations of present tense with the basic form of the present tense is called the simple present; there are also constructions known as the present progressive (or present continuous) (e.g. am writing), the present perfect (e.g. have written), and the present perfect progressive (e.g. have been writing).
Use of the present tense does not always imply the present time. In particular, the present tense is often used to refer to future events (I am seeing James tomorrow; My train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon). This is particularly the case in condition clauses and many other adverbial subordinate clauses: If you see him,...; As soon as they arrive... There is also the historical present, in which the present tense is used to narrate past events.
For details of the uses of present tense constructions in English, see Uses of English verb forms.
Modern Greek present indicative tenseEdit
In Modern Greek, the present tense is used in a similar way to the present tense in English and can represent the present continuous as well. As with some other conjugations in Greek, some verbs in the present tense accept different (but equivalent) forms of use for the same person. What follows are examples of present tense conjugation in Greek for the verbs βλέπω (see), τρώω (eat) and αγαπώ (love).
|βλέπω||τρώω, τρώγω||αγαπώ, αγαπάω|
|εγώ I||βλέπω||τρώω, τρώγω||αγαπώ, αγαπάω|
|εσύ thou||βλέπεις||τρως, τρώεις||αγαπάς|
|αυτός/αυτή/αυτό he/she/it||βλέπει||τρώει, τρώγει||αγαπά(ει)|
|εμείς we||βλέπουμε||τρώμε, τρώγομε, τρώγουμε||αγαπάμε, αγαπούμε|
|εσείς you (pl.)||βλέπετε||τρώτε, τρώγετε||αγαπάτε|
|αυτοί/αυτές/αυτά they||βλέπουν(ε)||τρών(ε), τρώγουν(ε)||αγαπούν(ε), αγαπάν(ε)|
Bulgarian present indicative tenseEdit
In Bulgarian, the present indicative tense of imperfective verbs is used in a very similar way to the present indicative in English. It can also be used as present progressive. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Bulgarian.
|той, тя, то
toj, tja, to
*Archaic, no infinitive in the modern language.
Macedonian present tenseEdit
The present tense of the Macedonian language is made of the imperfective verbs. The following table shows the conjugation of the verbs write (пишува/pišuva), speak (зборува/zboruva), want (сака/saka) and open (отвaра/otvara).
|тој, таа, тоа
toj, taa, toa
- Comrie, Bernard (1985). Tense. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23652-5.
- =Romance lantern Vulgar Latin. As a result, their usages and forms are similar.
Latin present indicative tenseEdit
plicāre debēre dicere cupere scīre conjugation 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd 4th ego plicō debeō dīcō cupiō sciō tu plicās debēs dīcis cupis scīs is, ea, id plicat debet dicit cupit scit nos plicāmus debēmus dīcimus cupimus scīmus vos plicātis debētis dīcitis cupitis scītis ei, eae, ea plicant debent dīcunt cupiunt sciunt
French present indicative tenseEdit
parler je parle perds finis pars tu parles perds finis pars il/elle/on parle perd finit part nous parlons perdons finissons partons vous parlez perdez finissez partez ils/elles parlent perdent finissent partent
The present indicative is commonly used to express the present continuous. For example, Jean mange may be translated as John eats, John is eating. To emphasise the present continuous, expressions such as "en train de" may be used. For example, Jean est en train de manger may be translated as John is eating, John is in the middle of eating. On est en train de chercher un nouvel appartement may be translated as We are looking for a new apartment, We are in the process of finding a new apartment.
Italian present indicative tenseEdit
parlare vedere sentire io parlo vedo sento tu parli vedi senti egli/ella parla vede sente noi parliamo vediamo sentiamo voi parlate vedete sentite essi/esse parlano vedono sentono
Portuguese and Spanish present indicative tenseEdit
Pronoun falar comer insistir ter ser eu falo como insisto tenho sou tu falas comes insistes tens és ele/ela/você fala come insiste tem é nós falamos comemos insistimos temos somos vós falais comeis insistis tendes sois eles/elas/vocês falam comem insistem têm são
There follow examples of the corresponding conjugation in Spanish.
Pronoun hablar comer insistir tener ser yo hablo como insisto tengo soy tú hablas comes insistes tienes eres él/ella/usted habla come insiste tiene es nosotros hablamos comemos insistimos tenemos somosguages=
The Romance languages are derived from Latin, and in particular wes
vosotros habláis coméis insistís tenéis sois ellos/ellas/ustedes hablan comen insisten tienen son