The Red Badge of Courage
is a war novel
by American author Stephen Crane
. Taking place during the American Civil War
, the story is about a young private
of the Union Army, Henry Fleming, who flees from the field of battle. Overcome with shame, he longs for a wound—a "red badge of courage"—to counteract his cowardice. When his regiment once again faces the enemy, Henry acts as standard-bearer
. Although Crane was born after the war, and had not at the time experienced battle firsthand, the novel is known for its realism
. He began writing what would become his second novel in 1893, using various contemporary and written accounts (such as those published previously by Century Magazine
) as inspiration. It is believed that he based the fictional battle on that of Chancellorsville
; he may also have interviewed veterans of the 124th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
, commonly known as the Orange Blossoms. Initially shortened and serialized in newspapers in December 1894
, the novel was published in full in October 1895
. Several of the themes that the story explores are maturation, heroism, cowardice, and the indifference of nature. Adapted several times for the screen, the novel became a bestseller. It has never been out of print, and is now thought to be Crane's most important work and a major American text.
was an American archaeologist
, and Mayanist
scholar who made significant contributions toward the study of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization
in the early twentieth century.
Morley is particularly noted for the extensive excavations of the Maya site of Chichen Itza that he directed on behalf of the Carnegie Institution. He also published several large compilations and treatises on Maya hieroglyphic writing, and wrote popular accounts on the Maya for a general audience.
To his contemporaries, he was one of the leading Mesoamerican archaeologists of his day. Although more recent developments in the field have resulted in a re-evaluation of his theories and works, his publications, particularly on calendric inscriptions, are still cited.
Morley also conducted espionage in Mexico on behalf of the United States during World War I, but the scope of those activities only came to light well after his death. His archaeological field work in Mexico and Central America provided suitable cover for investigating German activities and anti-American activity. His espionage was undertaken at the behest of the United States' Office of Naval Intelligence.