(; October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher
, and educational reformer
whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey is one of the primary figures associated with the philosophy of pragmatism
and is considered one of the fathers of functional psychology
. A Review of General Psychology
survey, published in 2002, ranked Dewey as the 93rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century. A well-known public intellectual
, he was also a major voice of progressive education
. Although Dewey is known best for his publications about education, he also wrote about many other topics, including epistemology
, social theory
, and ethics
. He was a major educational reformer for the 20th century.
Known for his advocacy of democracy, Dewey considered two fundamental elements—schools and civil society—to be major topics needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and plurality. Dewey asserted that complete democracy was to be obtained not just by extending voting rights but also by ensuring that there exists a fully formed public opinion, accomplished by communication among citizens, experts, and politicians, with the latter being accountable for the policies they adopt.