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Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna]), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in south-central Europe, and it is also considered a part of western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with its capital in Rome, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.
Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed. Italy remained the homeland of the Romans and the metropole of the empire, whose legacy can also be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments, Christianity and the Latin script.
Selected article -
Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 1499 – 12 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian. His early work as a reformer in Catholic Italy and his decision to flee for Protestant northern Europe influenced many other Italians to convert and flee as well. In England, he influenced the Edwardian Reformation, including the Eucharistic service of the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. He was considered an authority on the Eucharist among the Reformed churches, and engaged in controversies on the subject by writing treatises. Vermigli's Loci Communes, a compilation of excerpts from his biblical commentaries organised by the topics of systematic theology, became a standard Reformed theological textbook.
Born in Florence
, Vermigli entered a religious order
and was appointed to influential posts as abbot
. He came in contact with leaders of the Italian spirituali
reform movement, and read Protestant theologians such as Martin Bucer
and Ulrich Zwingli
. Through reading these works and studying the Bible and the Church Fathers
, he came to accept Protestant beliefs about salvation
and the Eucharist. To satisfy his conscience and avoid persecution by the Roman Inquisition
, he fled Italy for Protestant northern Europe. He ultimately arrived in Strasbourg
where he taught on the Old Testament
of the Bible under Bucer. English reformer Thomas Cranmer
invited him to take an influential post
at Oxford University
where he continued to teach on the Bible. He also defended his Eucharistic beliefs against Catholic proponents
in a public disputation. Vermigli was forced to leave England on the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary
. As a Marian exile
he returned to Strasbourg and his former teaching position. Vermigli's beliefs regarding the Eucharist and predestination
clashed with those of leading Lutherans
in Strasbourg, so he transferred to Reformed Zürich
where he taught until his death in 1562. Read more...
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Did you know... -
Selected fare or cuisine -
Carbonara (Italian: [karboˈnaːra]) is an Italian pasta dish from Rome made with egg, hard cheese, cured pork, and black pepper. The dish arrived at its modern form, with its current name, in the middle of the 20th century.
The cheese is usually Pecorino Romano
, or a combination of the two. Spaghetti
is the most common pasta, but fettuccine
, or bucatini
are also used. Normally guanciale
are used for the meat component, but lardons
of smoked bacon
are a common substitute outside Italy. Read more...
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General images -
The following are images from various Italy-related articles on Wikipedia.
Ötzi the oldest mummy in the world discovered in the southern Alps (region of Trentino-Alto Adige) with extremely sophisticated equipment to that time. 4th millennium BC.
Italy has been a home for innovation in science in the centuries since Galileo formulated his theories of planetary movement.
Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was murdered a few days after he openly denounced Fascist violence during the 1924 elections.
Italian states (1815–1859).
A Prada shop in Singapore.
The Roman Empire provided an inspiration for the medieval European. Although the Holy Roman Empire rarely acquired a serious geopolitical reality, it possessed great symbolic significance.
Commedia dell'arte troupe Gelosi in a late 16th-century Flemish painting.
Physician attire for protection from the Bubonic plague or Black death, 1656.
Sergio Mattarella, President of the Italian Republic, elected on 3 February 2015.
Mussolini reviewing adolescent soldiers, late 1944.
The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci, possibly one of the most famous and iconic examples of Italian art
Italian Lombard kingdom (781–1014).
Neapolitan pizza Margherita.
the EUR in Rome is a perfect example of modern Italian architecture
Mussolini and Hitler in June 1940.
This mosaic depicts some of the Gladiators entertainments that would have been offered at the games.
Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy for almost ten years between 1994 and 2011.
From left to right, Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini and Italian Foreign Minister Count Ciano at the signing of Munich Agreement.
Italian prisoners in El Alamein, November 1942.
The Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence, which has the biggest brick dome in the world, and is considered a masterpiece of Italian architecture and world architecture.
Insurgents celebrating the liberation of Naples after the Four days of Naples (27–30 September 1943).
Imperial ambitions of Fascist Italy in Europe, 1936.
Italy and the nearby islands in the 1st century BCE.
Ancient Greek colonies and their dialect
groupings in Southern Italy.
Regional seat of RAI in Cosenza.
A 1905 Fiat advertisement.
Giuseppe Verdi, one of Italy's greatest opera composers. Portrait by Giovanni Boldini.
St. Peter's Basilica is the world's largest Christian church. It is the second church to stand above the crypt (tomb) believed to hold the body of Saint Peter, the first pope.
Attack of the far-right terrorist group NAR at the Bologna railway station on 2 August 1980, which caused the death of 85 people.
Sheets with the iconic picture of Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, exposed as a sign of protest against Italian Mafia. They read: "You did not kill them: their ideas walk on our legs".
The espresso comes from the Italian esprimere, which means "to express," and refers to the process by which hot water is forced under pressure through ground coffee.
Secondary, widely spoken or understood.
Understood by some due to former colonisation.
Residents of Fiume cheering D'Annunzio and his Legionari, September 1919. At the time, Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants.
Map of Etruscan civilisation.
Fiat 600, iconic middle-class dream car and status symbol of the 1950-60s.
The Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government.
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the EEC, forerunner of the present-day EU.
A chocolate gelato ice cream dessert.
Umberto II, the last King of Italy, was exiled to Portugal.
The Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire.