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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.

England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

The Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland (through another Act of Union) to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Read more...

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Theatre Royal Drury Lane

The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, is a West End theatre in Covent Garden, in the City of Westminster, a borough of London. The building faces Catherine Street (earlier named Bridges or Brydges Street) and backs onto Drury Lane. The building standing today is the most recent in a line of four theatres at the same location dating back to 1663, making it the oldest London theatre.[1] For its first two centuries, Drury Lane could "reasonably have claimed to be London's leading theatre"[2] and thus one of the most important theatres in the English-speaking world. Through most of that time, it was one of a small handful of patent theatres that were granted monopoly rights to the production of "legitimate" (meaning spoken plays, rather than opera, dance, concerts, or plays with music)[3] drama in London.

The first theatre on the location was built at the behest of Thomas Killigrew in the early years of the English Restoration. Actors appearing at this "Theatre Royal in Bridges Street" included Nell Gwyn and Charles Hart. It was destroyed by fire in 1672. Killigrew built a larger theatre in the same spot, designed by Christopher Wren; renamed the "Theatre Royal in Drury Lane," it opened in 1674.

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Mary II of England
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and Queen of Scotland from 11 April 1689 until her death.

Born at St James's Palace in London, she was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York (the future James II of England) and his first wife, Anne Hyde. Mary's uncle was Charles II; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor. Although her mother bore eight children, only Mary and her younger sister Anne survived into adulthood. Mary, a Protestant, became queen following the Glorious Revolution, which deposed her Roman Catholic father. Mary reigned jointly with her husband and first cousin, William III and II, who became sole ruler on her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to the joint reign as that of "William and Mary". Mary wielded less power than William during the parts of her reign when William remained in England, ceding most of her authority to her husband, though he heavily relied on her. She did, however, govern the realms alone when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler. She was very active in the Church of England, of which she was Supreme Governor. Though she shared the post with her husband, she largely exercised its power alone.

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27 September 2019 –
UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson is formally referred to the Independent Office for Police Conduct (IOPC) amid allegations of corruption during his tenure as Mayor of London. Johnson is alleged to have awarded a close friend, American technology entrepreneur Jennifer Arcuri, "thousands of pounds" in public business funding, according to the The Sunday Times. (The Guardian)
25 September 2019 –
Northern Irish bus manufacturer Wrightbus collapses into administration after buyout talks fail, with 1,200 jobs lost. Local politicians urge action from UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson, who commissioned the so-called "Boris Bus" from the company when he was Mayor of London and previously promised to "do everything we can to ensure the future of" Wrightbus. (Sky News)
22 September 2019 – World Car-Free Day
Over 12 miles (19 km) of roads are closed for traffic in central London. (The Guardian)
21 September 2019 – Individual and political action on climate change
Global warming protesters glue themselves to a road near the Port of Dover in England, blocking it. Police arrest ten people, believed to be members of Extinction Rebellion. Further scheduled protests take place in a dedicated area set up by police. (BBC)
20 September 2019 –
A woman who previously accused late United States financier Jeffrey Epstein of sexually abusing her when she was a teenager says she was "trafficked" to Prince Andrew of the United Kingdom and was abused by him at a house in London. She calls him "an abuser" and "a participant". Prince Andrew denies the allegations. (BBC)
19 September 2019 – Brexit
The UK Supreme Court finishes hearing arguments on the lawfulness of Prime Minister Boris Johnson's prorogation of Parliament. The court states it expects to rule next week. It is jointly considering appeals against two rulings. One, made by the High Court in London under English law, ruled prorogation was an entirely political decision over which courts had no jurisdiction. The other, made by the Court of Session in Edinburgh under Scots law, ruled Johnson acted unlawfully and the prorogation was a nullity that must be reversed. (BBC)

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Governance: Kingdom of EnglandPrime Minister of the United KingdomParliament of the United KingdomHome SecretaryLocal Government Boundary Commission for EnglandAdministrative divisions of EnglandEnglish law

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