Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with elements and compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances.
In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant chemistry (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (cosmochemistry), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).
Chemistry addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are two types of chemical bonds: 1. Primary Chemical bonds e.g covalent bonds, in which atoms share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which an atom donates one or more electrons to another atom to produce ions (cations and anions); Metallic bonds and 2. Secondary chemical bonds e.g. hydrogen bonds;Van der Waals force bonds, ion-ion interaction, ion-dipole interaction etc. (Full article...)
History and Philosophy of Chemistry
(1776-1856) was an Italian chemist, most noted for his contributions to the theory of molarity
and molecular mass
. Avogadro's law
implies that the relationship occurring between the weights
of same volumes
of different gases
(at the same temperature
) corresponds to the relationship between respective molecular weights. Hence, relative molecular masses can be calculated from the masses of gas samples. One of the most important contributions of Avogadro's work was clearly distinguishing atoms
, admitting that simple particles too could be composed of molecules, and that these are composed of atoms.
Techniques used by chemists
Equipment used by chemists
Chemistry in society
Chemistry in industry
Background color shows subcategory in the metal–metalloid–nonmetal trend: