Plot of Mariner 10 flyby of planet Venus in February 1974.

A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.[1] This is a subset of the overall concept of a flyby in spaceflight.

Flybys commonly use gravity assists to "slingshot" a space probe on its journey to its primary objective, but may themselves be used as primary means.

The first flyby of another planet with a functioning spacecraft took place on December 14, 1962, when Mariner 2 zoomed by the planet Venus.[2]

New Horizons performed flyby maneuvers of Jupiter, Pluto and its moons in the 21st century. This type of maneuver allowed it to reach Pluto at high velocity without the complications of slowing down, after which it proceeded into the Kuiper belt on a solar system escape trajectory.

For comparison, New Horizons reached Jupiter in just over year (launched in January 2006) it flewby in February 2007.[3] In contrast, Galileo spacecraft took about six years (launched 1989, arrive at Jupiter 1995) and when it got there it had expend fuel to slow down to enter orbit, and was overall much heavier.[4] The atmospheric entry probe did not slow down but required an advanced entry shield and the atmosphere of Jupiter to slow down.[5] (See also Aerobraking)

There also an even closer version of flyby, a sort of fly in where the spacecraft actually enters and passes through a bodies atmosphere, called a Aerogravity assist. This could be compared to the natural phenomenon of Earth-grazing fireball

List of planetary flybysEdit

Flyby date Launch date Operator Spacecraft Details Mission result
19 May 1961 12 February 1961   Venera 1 First Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby)[6] Failure
14 December 1962 27 August 1962   Mariner 2 First successful non-lunar planetary encounter and first successful Venus flyby[7] Success
19 June 1963 1 November 1962   Mars 1 First Mars flyby (contact lost)[8] Failure
19 July 1964 2 April 1964   Zond 1 Venus flyby (contact lost)[9] Failure
15 July 1965 28 November 1964   Mariner 4 First successful Mars flyby[10] Success
6 August 1965 30 November 1964   Zond 2 Mars flyby (contact lost)[11] Failure
27 February 1966 12 November 1965   Venera 2 Venus flyby (contact lost)[12] Failure
19 October 1967 14 June 1967   Mariner 5 Venus flyby[13] Success
31 July 1969 25 February 1969   Mariner 6 Mars flyby[14] Success
5 August 1969 27 March 1969   Mariner 7 Mars flyby[15] Success
3 December 1973 3 March 1972   Pioneer 10 First Jupiter flyby[16] Success
5 February 1974 4 November 1973   Mariner 10 Venus flyby[17] Success
10 February 1974 21 July 1973   Mars 4 Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars orbiter)[18] Failure
9 March 1974 9 August 1973   Mars 7 Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars lander)[19] Failure
12 March 1974 5 August 1973   Mars 6 Mars flyby (flyby succeeded but lander failed)[20] Failure
29 March 1974 4 November 1973   Mariner 10 First Mercury flyby[17] Success
21 September 1974 4 November 1973   Mariner 10 Mercury flyby[17] Success
3 December 1974 5 April 1973   Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby[21] Success
16 March 1975 4 November 1973   Mariner 10 Mercury flyby[17] Success
19 December 1978 14 September 1978   Venera 12 Venus flyby and lander[22] Success
25 December 1978 9 September 1978   Venera 11 Venus flyby and lander[23] Success
5 March 1979 5 September 1977   Voyager 1 Jupiter flyby[24] Success
9 July 1979 20 August 1977   Voyager 2 Jupiter flyby[25] Success
1 September 1979 5 April 1973   Pioneer 11 First Saturn flyby[21] Success
12 November 1980 5 September 1977   Voyager 1 Saturn flyby[24] Success
25 August 1981 20 August 1977   Voyager 2 Saturn flyby[25] Success
1 March 1982 30 October 1981   Venera 13 Venus flyby and lander[26] Success
5 March 1982 4 November 1981   Venera 14 Venus flyby and lander[27] Success
11 June 1985 15 December 1984   Vega 1 Venus flyby, lander, and first balloon[28] Success
15 June 1985 21 December 1984   Vega 2 Venus flyby, lander, and balloon[29] Success
24 January 1986 20 August 1977   Voyager 2 First and only Uranus flyby[25] Success
25 August 1989 20 August 1977   Voyager 2 First and only Neptune flyby[25] Success
10 February 1990 13 October 1989   Galileo Venus flyby, first of three gravity assists to Jupiter[30] Success
2 July 1990 2 July 1985   Giotto First Earth flyby, gravity assist for extended mission to 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup[31] Success
8 October 1990 13 October 1989   Galileo Earth flyby, second of three gravity assists to Jupiter[30] Success
8 January 1992 7 January 1985   Sakigake Earth flyby[32] Success
8 February 1992 6 October 1990    Ulysses Jupiter flyby, inclination change gravity assist for solar mission[33] Success
8 December 1992 13 October 1989   Galileo Earth flyby, last of three gravity assists to Jupiter[30] Success
24 August 1993 25 September 1992   Mars Observer Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars orbiter)[34] Failure
23 January 1998 17 February 1996   NEAR Shoemaker Earth flyby, gravity assist to 433 Eros[35] Success
26 April 1998 15 October 1997    Cassini–Huygens Venus flyby, first of four gravity assists to Saturn[36] Success
24 June 1999 15 October 1997    Cassini–Huygens Venus flyby, second of four gravity assists to Saturn[37] Success
18 August 1999 15 October 1997    Cassini–Huygens Earth flyby, third of four gravity assists to Saturn[38] Success
30 December 2000 15 October 1997    Cassini–Huygens Jupiter flyby, last of four gravity assists to Saturn[39] Success
15 January 2001 27 February 1999   Stardust Earth flyby, gravity assist to 81P/Wild[40] Success
21 April 2002 4 July 1998   Nozomi Earth flyby, first of two gravity assists to Mars[41] Success
19 June 2003 4 July 1998   Nozomi Earth flyby, last of two gravity assists to Mars[41] Success
14 December 2003 4 July 1998   Nozomi Mars flyby (inadvertent; planned Mars orbiter)[41] Failure
19 May 2004 9 May 2003   Hayabusa Earth flyby, gravity assist to 25143 Itokawa[42] Success
4 March 2005 2 March 2004   Rosetta Earth flyby, first of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[43] Success
2 August 2005 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Earth flyby, first gravity assist to Mercury[44] Success
15 January 2006 27 February 1999   Stardust Earth flyby and sample return capsule reentry[40] Success
24 October 2006 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Venus flyby, second gravity assist to Mercury[44] Success
25 February 2007 2 March 2004   Rosetta Mars flyby, second of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[43] Success
28 February 2007 19 January 2006   New Horizons Jupiter flyby, gravity assist to Pluto/Charon system Success
5 June 2007 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Venus flyby, third gravity assist to Mercury. Also characterized the planet's atmosphere.[44] Success
13 November 2007 2 March 2004   Rosetta Earth flyby, third of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[43] Success
31 December 2007 12 January 2005   Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[45] Success
14 January 2008 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Mercury flyby, fourth gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[44] Success
6 October 2008 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Mercury flyby, fifth gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[44] Success
29 December 2008 12 January 2005   Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[45] Success
14 January 2009 27 February 1999   Stardust Earth flyby, gravity assist to 9P/Tempel[40] Success
18 February 2009 27 September 2007   Dawn Mars flyby, gravity assist to 4 Vesta[46] Success
29 June 2009 12 January 2005   Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby (distant)[47] Success
29 September 2009 3 August 2004   MESSENGER Mercury flyby, sixth and final gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[44] Success
13 November 2009 2 March 2004   Rosetta Earth flyby, last of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[43] Success
28 December 2009 12 January 2005   Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby (distant)[47] Success
27 June 2010 12 January 2005   Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[45] Success
6 December 2010 20 May 2010   Akatsuki Venus flyby (inadvertent; was intended to be orbit insertion; later successfully inserted into orbit in 2015)[48] Failure
8 December 2010 20 May 2010   IKAROS Venus flyby, probe was a technological demonstrator that launched with Akatsuki[49] Success
9 October 2013 5 August 2011   Juno Earth flyby, gravity assist to Jupiter[50] Success
14 July 2015 19 January 2006   New Horizons First and only Pluto/Charon flyby[Note 1][51] Success
3 December 2015 3 December 2014   Hayabusa2 Earth flyby, gravity assist to 162173 Ryugu[52] Success
22 September 2017 8 September 2016   OSIRIS-REx Earth flyby, gravity assist to 101955 Bennu Success
3 October 2018 12 August 2018   Parker Solar Probe Venus flyby Success
26 November 2018 5 May 2018   Mars Cube One Mars flyby Success

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The International Astronomical Union classifies Charon as a moon. See Charon (moon)#Classification for details.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Flyby | Define Flyby at Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  2. ^ "First Planetary Flyby Occurred 50 Years Ago Today". Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  3. ^ Talbert, Tricia (2015-03-25). "New Horizons: The First Mission to the Pluto System and the Kuiper Belt". NASA. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  4. ^ "Spacecraft Galileo: To Jupiter and Its Moons". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  5. ^ "Spacecraft Galileo: To Jupiter and Its Moons". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  6. ^ "Venera 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  7. ^ "Mariner 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  8. ^ "Mars 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  9. ^ "Zond 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  10. ^ "Mariner 4". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  11. ^ "Zond 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  12. ^ "Venera 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  13. ^ "Mariner 5". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  14. ^ "Mariner 6". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  15. ^ "Mariner 7". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  16. ^ "Pioneer 10". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  17. ^ a b c d "Mariner 10". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  18. ^ "Mars 4". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  19. ^ "Mars 7". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  20. ^ "Mars 6". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  21. ^ a b "Pioneer 11". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  22. ^ "Venera 12". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  23. ^ "Venera 11". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  24. ^ a b "Voyager 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  25. ^ a b c d "Voyager 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  26. ^ "Venera 13". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  27. ^ "Venera 14". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  28. ^ "Vega 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  29. ^ "Vega 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  30. ^ a b c "Galileo - In Depth | Missions - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  31. ^ "Giotto". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  32. ^ "Sakigake". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  33. ^ "Ulysses - In Depth | Missions - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  34. ^ "Mars Observer". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  35. ^ "NEAR Shoemaker". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  36. ^ "Cassini Completes First Venus Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  37. ^ "Cassini Completes Second Venus Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  38. ^ "Cassini Completes Earth Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  39. ^ "Press release: Cassini Celebrates 10 Years Since Jupiter Encounter". NASA. December 29, 2010.
  40. ^ a b c "Stardust/NExT". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  41. ^ a b c "Nozomi". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  42. ^ "Hayabusa". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  43. ^ a b c d "Rosetta". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  44. ^ a b c d e f "MESSENGER". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  45. ^ a b c "Deep Impact/EPOXI". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  46. ^ "Dawn". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  47. ^ a b "NASA - EPOXI Mission - Mission". epoxi.umd.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  48. ^ "Akatsuki". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  49. ^ "IKAROS". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
  50. ^ "Juno". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  51. ^ "New Horizons Pluto Kuiper Belt Flyby". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
  52. ^ "Hayabusa 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.