Panjnad River

Panjnad River (Urdu/Punjabi Shahmukhi: پنجند, (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river at the extreme end of Bahawalpur district in Punjab, Pakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence or merger of the five rivers of the Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.[1][2][3] Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad 10 miles north of Uch Sharif in Muzaffar Garh district. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins the Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues and then drains into the Arabian Sea. A barrage on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sindh provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.[4]

Panjnad River
Path of the Panjnad [1]
Native nameپنجند

Beyond the confluence of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, which is believed to be in earlier times the Saraswati/Ghaggar/Hakra river which eventually dried and became a seasonal river due to seismic shifts in the glacial region of Himachal Pradesh where it originated and later on Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab.


  1. ^, Topography and Drainage of Pakistan on website, Retrieved 2 Oct 2016
  2. ^ Panjnad River with major tributaries of Indus River
  3. ^ "Trimmu and Panjnad Barrages Improvement Project: Rehabilitation and Upgrading of Panjnad Barrage - Asian Development Bank Project Document Page No. 25".
  4. ^, Panjnad River on Encyclopædia Britannica, Retrieved 2 Oct 2016

See alsoEdit

Coordinates: 28°57′N 70°30′E / 28.950°N 70.500°E / 28.950; 70.500