Orchitis

Orchitis is inflammation of the testes.[1] It can also involve swelling, pains and frequent infection, particularly of the epididymis, as in epididymitis. The term is from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις meaning "testicle"; same root as orchid.

Orchitis
Other namesOrchiditis
Pronunciation
SpecialtyUrology

Signs and symptomsEdit

Symptoms of orchitis are similar to those of testicular torsion. These can include:[citation needed]

CausesEdit

Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles (then called "epididymo-orchitis"), sometimes caused by the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and gonorrhea. It has also been reported in cases of males infected with brucellosis.[2] Orchitis can also be seen during active mumps, particularly in adolescent boys.

Ischemic orchitis may result from damage to the blood vessels of the spermatic cord during inguinal herniorrhaphy, and may in the worst event lead to testicular atrophy.[3]

DiagnosisEdit

 
Doppler ultrasound of the scrotum, in the axial plane, showing orchitis (as part of epididymo-orchitis) as hypoechogenic and slightly heterogenic left testicular tissue (right in image), with an increased blood flow. There is also swelling of peritesticular tissue.
  • Blood – ESR high
  • Urine – Cultural & Sensitivity test
  • Ultrasound scanning

TreatmentEdit

In most cases where orchitis is caused by epididymitis, treatment is an oral antibiotic such as cefalexin or ciprofloxacin until infection clears up. In both causes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen or ibuprofen are recommended to relieve pain. Sometimes stronger pain medications in the opiate category are called for and are frequently prescribed by experienced emergency department physicians.[citation needed]

Other animalsEdit

 
Severe orchitis in rooster

Orchitis is not rare in bulls and rams.[citation needed] It has also been described in roosters.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "orchitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Brucellosis in Humans and Animals World Health Organization Publication number WHO/CDS/EPR/2006.7 [1][page needed]
  3. ^ Simons MP, Aufenacker T, Bay-Nielsen M, et al. (August 2009). "European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients". Hernia. 13 (4): 343–403. doi:10.1007/s10029-009-0529-7. PMC 2719730. PMID 19636493.
  4. ^ Monleon R, Martin MP, John Barnes H (December 2008). "Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders". Avian Pathology. 37 (6): 613–7. doi:10.1080/03079450802499134. PMID 19023758.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

Classification
External resources