Oral-formulaic composition

Oral-formulaic composition is a theory that originated in the scholarly study of epic poetry and was developed in the second quarter of the twentieth century. It seeks to explain two related issues:

  1. The process by which oral poets improvise poetry.
  2. The reasons for orally improvised poetry (or written poetry deriving from traditions of oral improvisation) having the characteristics that it does.

The key idea of the theory is that poets have a store of formulas (a formula being 'an expression that is regularly used, under the same metrical conditions, to express a particular essential idea')[1] and that by linking the formulas in conventionalised ways, poets can rapidly compose verse.

In the hands of Milman Parry and Albert Lord, the approach transformed the study of ancient and medieval poetry and oral poetry generally. The main exponent and developer of their approaches was John Miles Foley.

Homeric verseEdit

In Homeric verse, a phrase like eos rhododaktylos ("rosy fingered dawn") or oinops pontos ("winedark sea") occupies a certain metrical pattern that fits, in modular fashion, into the six-colon Greek hexameter, which aids the aoidos or bard in extemporaneous composition. Moreover, such phrases would be subject to internal substitutions and adaptations, permitting flexibility in response to narrative and grammatical needs: podas okus axilleus ("swift footed Achilles") is metrically equivalent to koruthaiolos ektor ("glancing-helmed Hector"). Formulas can also be combined into type-scenes, longer, conventionalised depictions of generic actions in epic like the steps taken to arm oneself or to prepare a ship for sea.

Work of Parry and successorsEdit

Oral-formulaic theory was originally developed, principally by Parry in the 1920s, to explain how the Homeric epics could have been passed down through many generations purely through word of mouth and why its formulas appeared as they did. His work was influential (see Homeric scholarship#Oral Theory and Homeric Question). The locus classicus for oral-formulaic poetry, however, was established by the work of Parry and his student Lord on the Serbian oral epic poetry of what was then of Yugoslavia, where oral-formulaic composition could be observed and recorded ethnographically. Formulaic variation is apparent, for example, in the following lines:

a besjedi od Orasca Tale ("But spoke of Orashatz Tale")
a besjedi Mujagin Halile ("But spoke Mujo's Halil").

Lord, and more prominently Francis Peabody Magoun, also applied the theory to Old English poetry (principally Beowulf) in which formulaic variation such as the following is prominent:

Hrothgar mathelode helm Scildinga ("Hrothgar spoke, protector of the Scildings")
Beowulf mathelode bearn Ecgtheowes ("Beowulf spoke, son of Ecgtheow")

Magoun thought that formulaic poetry was necessarily oral in origin. That sparked a major and ongoing debate over the extent to which Old English poetry, which survives only in written form, should be seen as, in some sense, oral poetry.

The oral-formulaic theory of composition has now been applied to a wide variety of languages and works. A provocative new application of oral-formulaic theory is its use in explaining the origin of at least some parts of the Quran.[2] Oral-Formulaic theory has also been applied to early Japanese works[3] The oral-formulaic theory has also been helpfully applied to the Olonko epic of the Sakha people of Siberia.[4]

Precursors of ParryEdit

Before Parry, at least two other folklorists also noted the use of formulas among the epic tale singers of Yugoslavian (known as guslars),[5] (something acknowledged by Parry):[6][7]

  1. Friedrich Salomon Krauss (1859-1938), a specialist in Yugoslavian folklore, who had done fieldwork with guslars, believed these storytellers depended on "the fixed formulas from which he neither can nor wishes to vary".[8]
  2. Arnold van Gennep (1873-1957), suggested that "the poems of the guslars consist of a juxtaposition of cliches relatively few in number and with which it suffices merely to be conversant … A fine guslar is one who handles these cliches as we play with cards, who orders them differently according to the use he wishes to make of them".[9][10]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Milman Parry, L’epithèt traditionnelle dans Homère (Paris, 1928), p. 16; cf. Albert B. Lord, The singer of tales (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960), p. 4
  2. ^ Bannister, Andrew G. 2014. An Oral-Formulaic Study of the Qur'an. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-739183571
  3. ^ Tokita, Alison McQueen. 2015. Japanese Singers of Tales: Ten Centuries of Performed Narrative. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
  4. ^ Harris, Robin. 2017. Storytelling in Siberia: The Olonkho Epic in a Changing World. Urbana-Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
  5. ^ Foley, John Miles (1988). The Theory of Oral Composition: History and Methodology. Bloomington: Indian University Press. p. 13. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  6. ^ Parry, Adam, ed. 1971. The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry, Oxford: Clarendon Press, p.270 n.1
  7. ^ Dundes, Fables of the Ancients?, 2003: p.16
  8. ^ 1908 paper, ‘Von wunderbaren Guslarengeldachtnis’, by Friedrich Krauss
  9. ^ Arnold van Gennep. 1909. (tretise) "La Question d’Homere", p. 52
  10. ^ Dundes, Fables of the Ancients?, 2003: p.16-17


  • Dundes, Alan (2003). Fables of the Ancients?: Folklore in the Qur'an. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  • Foley, John Miles (ed. and trans.), An eEdition of The Wedding of Mustajbey’s Son Bećirbey as performed by Halil Bajgorić (2005), http://oraltradition.org/zbm.
  • Lord, Albert B. The Singer of Tales. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960 (there is also a second edition, edited by Stephen Mitchell and Gregory Nagy, Harvard Studies in Comparative Literature 24. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000).
  • Magoun, Francis P., Jr. "Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry", Speculum, 28 (1953): 446–67.
  • Parry, Milman. "Studies in the Epic Technique of Oral Verse-Making. I: Homer and Homeric Style." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology Vol. 41 (1930), 73–143.
  • Parry, Milman. "Studies in the Epic Technique of Oral Verse-Making. II: The Homeric Language as the Language of an Oral Poetry." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology Vol. 43 (1932), 1–50.
  • Parry, Milman; Parry, Adam (editor) (1971), The making of Homeric verse. The collected papers of Milman Parry, Oxford: Clarendon PressCS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Reece, Steve. "Orality and Literacy: Ancient Greek Literature as Oral Literature," in David Schenker and Martin Hose (eds.), Companion to Greek Literature (Oxford: Blackwell, 2015) 43-57. Ancient_Greek_Literature_as_Oral_Literature
  • Reece, Steve. "Greek Epic Formulae," in Giorgios Giannakis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics (Leiden: Brill, 2014) 613-615. Greek_Epic_Formulas
  • Windelberg, Marjorie and  D. Gary Miller (1980): " How (Not) to Define the Epic Formula," Olifant,8, 29-50. https://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/olifant/article/download/19120/25241/0