Omri (Hebrew: עמרי, ‘Omri; fl. 9th century BC) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the sixth king of Israel. He was a successful military campaigner who extended the northern kingdom of Israel. Other monarchs from the House of Omri are Ahab, Ahaziah, Joram, and Athaliah. Like his predecessor, king Zimri, who ruled for only seven days, Omri is the second king mentioned in the Bible without a statement of his tribal origin. One possibility, though unproven, is that he was of the tribe of Issachar.
Omri from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum
|King of Northern Israel|
|Reign||884 BC – 873 BC|
|House||House of Omri|
Omri is credited with the construction of Samaria and establishing it as his capital. Although the Bible is silent about other actions taken during his reign, he is described as doing more evil than all the kings who preceded him.
An alternative modern hypothesis maintains that, as founder of the House of Omri, an Israelite royal house, his kingdom formed the first state in the Land of Israel, and that the Kingdom of Judah only achieved statehood later.
Extrabiblical sources such as the Mesha Stele and the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III also mention his name; however, in the case of the Black Obelisk the reference is to the dynasty named for Omri rather than to Omri himself. A minor thesis, argued by Thomas Thompson and Niels Peter Lemche, suggests that Omri may be a dynastic name indicating the apical founder of the Kingdom of Israel rather than one denoting an actual historical king.
Struggle for the successionEdit
According to the biblical narrative, Omri was "commander of the army" of King Elah when Zimri, "commander of half the king's chariots", murdered Elah and made himself king. Instead, the troops at Gibbethon chose Omri as king, and he led them to Tirzah where they trapped Zimri in the royal palace. "To avoid the certain tortures of capture," Zimri set fire to the palace and died after a reign of only seven days. Although Zimri was eliminated, "half of the people" supported Tibni in opposition to Omri. It took Omri four years to subdue Tibni and at last proclaim himself undisputed king of Israel.
Omri became king of Israel in the 31st year of Asa, king of Judah and reigned for 12 years, 6 years of which were in Tirzah. The biblical reference to the period of rivalry with Tibni is from the 27th year of Asa to the 31st year. There are several possible dates: William F. Albright has dated his reign to 876–869 BC, E. R. Thiele offers the dates of 888 BC to 880 BC for his rivalry with Tibni and 880–874 BC for his sole reign. while Paul L. Maier affirms that it happened between 881–873 BC.
Initially, Omri's capital was in Tirzah, which had been besieged and the royal palace had been burned down. The Jewish Encyclopedia suggests that "the associations of Tirzah were so repellent and sanguinary, and the location so poor for a capital, that Omri purchased a new site" for his residence. This was in Samaria, on a hill purchased from Shemer for two talents of silver (about 60 kg), where Omri built a new capital for the kingdom.
Omri's rule over Israel was secure enough that he could bequeath his kingdom to his son Ahab, thus beginning a new dynasty (sometimes called the "Omrides"), and his descendants not only ruled over the kingdom of Israel for the next 40 years, but also briefly over Judah.
In archaeological sourcesEdit
The fortress at Jezreel was situated on one of the main east-west routes through the kingdom. Hugh Williamson believes it served not only a military function, but also a political one; a very visible example of grandiose public works used as a means of social control and to assert claims of legitimacy.
The Moabite Mesha stele (on display in the Louvre) indicates that Omri expanded his holdings to include northern Moab east of the Jordan River. It makes reference to the oppression of Moab by "Omri King of Israel". Israel would later become identified in sources[which?] as the "House of Omri" (Bit-Humria), with the term "Israel" being used less and less as history progressed (the other defining term for "Israel" is "Samaria", beginning in the reign of Joash). Thomas L. Thompson (The Bible in History),[full citation needed] however, interprets the Mesha stele as suggesting that Omri is an eponym, or legendary founder of the kingdom rather than an historical person.
The Omride DynastyEdit
The short-lived dynasty founded by Omri constituted a new chapter in the history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. It ended almost fifty years of constant civil war over the throne. There was peace with the Kingdom of Judah to the south, and even cooperation between the two rival states, while relations with neighboring Sidon to the north were bolstered by marriages negotiated between the two royal courts. This state of peace with two powerful neighbors enabled the Kingdom of Israel to expand its influence and even political control in Transjordan, and these factors combined brought economic prosperity to the kingdom.
On the other hand, peace with Sidon also resulted in the penetration of Phoenician religious ideas into the kingdom and led to a kulturkampf between traditionalists (as personified by the prophet Elijah and his followers) and the aristocracy (as personified by Omri's son and heir Ahab and his consort Jezebel). In foreign affairs, this period paralleled the rise of the Kingdom of Aram based in Damascus, and Israel soon found itself at war in the northeast. Most threatening, however, was the ascendancy of Assyria, which was beginning to expand westward from Mesopotamia: the Battle of Qarqar (853 BC), which pitted Shalmaneser III of Assyria against a coalition of local kings, including Ahab, was the first clash between Assyria and Israel. It was the first in a series of wars that would eventually lead to the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC and the reduction of the Kingdom of Judah to an Assyrian tributary state.
In 841 BC, the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III campaigned along the Mediterranean coast and forced Jehu to pay tribute. Assyrian kings frequently referred to Omri's successors as belonging to the "House of Omri" (Bit Hu-um-ri-a).
- "A History of Ancient Israel and Judah". James Maxwell Miller, John Haralson Hayes. 2006. Retrieved 2015-01-25. Cite journal requires
- Thiel, W., "Omri", The Anchor Bible Dictionary, p. 17, vol. 5, D.N. Freedman (ed.). New York: Doubleday (1992)
- 1 Kings 16:25
- Lester L. Grabbe, 'The Kingdom of Israel to the Fall of Samaria: If We Had Only the Bible', in Lester L. Grabbe, Ahab Agonistes: The Rise and Fall of the Omri Dynasty, A&C Black, 2007 pp.54-99 p.70; pp.82-4 (Lemche-Thompson hypothesis)
- "Omri", Jewish Encyclopedia (1906)
- 1 Kings 16:21-22
- 1 Kings 16:23
- 1 Kings 16:15
- Edwin Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, 1951; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1965; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983). ISBN 0-8254-3825-X, 9780825438257
- Paul L. Maier Josephus: The Essential Writings, 1988; Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan
- 1 Kings 16:17–18
- Williamson, Hugh G.M., "Tel Jezreel and the Dynasty of Omri", Palestine Exploration Quarterly 128: p.49, (1996)
- McCarter, P. Kyle "'Yaw, Son of Omri': A Philological Note on Israelite Chronology." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 216 (Dec., 1974), pp. 5-7.
- Edwin R. Thiele, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 222 (Apr., 1976), pp. 19-23
- Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament - Robert William Rogers
- Bezold, Carl; King, L. W. (1889). Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets in the Kouyunjik Collection of the British Museum. British Museum Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan. ISBN 1145519350.
- James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3rd ed.; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969) 283. ISBN 0-691-03503-2