Offenbach am Main (German pronunciation: [ˈʔɔfn̩bax ʔam ˈmaɪn] (About this soundlisten)) is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the left bank of the river Main. It borders Frankfurt and is part of the Frankfurt urban area and the larger Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It has a population of 138,335 (december 2018).[3]

Offenbach am Main
The downtown of Offenbach from above
The downtown of Offenbach from above
Flag of Offenbach am Main
Flag
Coat of arms of Offenbach am Main
Coat of arms
Location of Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main is located in Germany
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main is located in Hesse
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main
Coordinates: 50°6′0″N 8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000Coordinates: 50°6′0″N 8°48′0″E / 50.10000°N 8.80000°E / 50.10000; 8.80000
CountryGermany
StateHesse
Admin. regionDarmstadt
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • MayorFelix Schwenke[1] (SPD)
Area
 • Total44.90 km2 (17.34 sq mi)
Elevation
98 m (322 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[2]
 • Total128,744
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,400/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
63001 - 63075
Dialling codes069
Vehicle registrationOF
Websitewww.offenbach.de

In the 20th century, the city's economy was built on machine-building, leather-making, typography and design, and the automobile and pharmaceutical industries.

GeographyEdit

SubdivisionEdit

The inner city area of Offenbach is quite large and consists of the historic center of the city and its expansions of the 1800s. Three formerly independent suburbs were incorporated in the first half of the 20th century: Bürgel being the first in 1908, then Bieber and Rumpenheim in 1938 and 1942.

South of the inner city area are the suburbs Lauterborn, Rosenhöhe and Tempelsee. Kaiserlei is a commercial district in the far west of the city bordering Frankfurt. In the west Waldheim is a residential neighborhood on the city limits with Mühlheim am Main. In 2010 the eastern part of the city center was officially named Mathildenviertel, as the area was already inofficially called by the locals.[4]

Unlike most larger cities in Germany, Offenbach was not completely divided in to districts. Only the nine neighborhoods mentioned above were officially districts, leaving the largest parts of the city officially unnamed. Although specific names for neighborhoods and areas were already in use among the locals and residents.

In June 2019 the city council approved a new act that subdivdes the city's area entirely into 21 districts. The nine existing districts largely remained the same, most of them were even expanded. The new districts were layed out after the already by locals commonly known neighborhoods, such as the Westend, the Nordend or Buchhügel. A completely new name was only needed to be found for one neighborhood south of the city center, which never had commonly used name before: Lindenfeld. The name derived from a old name of a land lot in this area, when it was still fields in agricultural use prior to the 1800s.[5]

As of July 2019 there are the following 21 districts:

  • Bieber
  • Bieberer Berg
  • Buchhügel
  • Buchrain
  • Bürgel
  • Carl-Ulrich-Siedlung
  • Hafen
  • Kaiserlei
  • Lauterborn
  • Lindenfeld
  • Mathildenviertel
  • Musikerviertel
  • Nordend
  • Offenbach-Ost
  • Rosenhöhe
  • Rumpenheim
  • Senefelderquartier
  • Tempelsee
  • Waldheim
  • Westend
  • Zentrum

HistoryEdit

 
Offenbach in 1655
 
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900

The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770.[6] In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach.[7] During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.

In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis I. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.

The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.

During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built. Offenbach is a so-called ´Sozialer Brennpunkt`(= multiple social problems area) because of unemployment, poverty, gang related crime and migration.[8]

GovernanceEdit

Mayors from 1824–presentEdit

 
Mayor Felix Schwenke
  • 1824–1826: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1826–1834: Heinrich Philipp Schwaner
  • 1834–1837: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1837–1849: Jonas Budden
  • 1849–1859: Friedrich August Schäfer
  • 1859–1867: Johann Heinrich Dick
  • 1867–1874: Johann Martin Hirschmann
  • 1874–1882: Hermann Stölting
  • 1883–1907: Wilhelm Brink
  • 1907–1919: Andreas Dullo
  • 1919–1933: Max Granzin
  • 1947–1949: Johannes Rebholz
  • 1950–1957: Hans Klüber
  • 1957–1974: Georg Dietrich
  • 1974–1980: Walter Buckpesch
  • 1980–1986: Walter Suermann
  • 1986–1994: Wolfgang Reuter
  • 1994–2006: Gerhard Grandtke
  • 2006–2018: Horst Schneider
  • 2018–: Felix Schwenke

Town twinningEdit

Offenbach am Main is twinned with:[9]

DemographicsEdit

Offenbach has a large non-German population. In 2016, foreign nationals made up 37% of the population.[11] The largest communities are, in that order, from Turkey, Greece, Romania, Poland and Italy.[12] According to census data Offenbach and Duisburg had the highest share of Muslim migrants of all German districts in 2011.[13]

Population historyEdit

 
The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997.

Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand inhabitants. With the coming into power of the count Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold.[14] Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people with at least one non-German grandparent.[15] The largest of those groups are:[16]

Turks: 15,000 or 12.2%

People from the former Yugoslavia (e.g. Serbs, Croats): 13,000 or 10.5%

Arabs: 8,000 or 6.5%

Italians: 8,000 or 6.5%

Greeks: 7,500 or 6.0%

Poles: 4,000 or 3.2%

Afghans: 3,600 or 3%

Pakistanis: 2,700 or 2.2%

Year Population
1540 480
1685 600
1718 1,500
1800 5,000
1816 6,210
1825 7,147
1828 7,466
1830 7,498
December 1, 1834 9,433
December 1, 1840 9,597
December 3, 1843 9,883
December 3, 1846 11,565
December 3, 1852 11,087
December 3, 1855 13,724
December 3, 1861 16,708
December 3, 1864 19,390
Year Population
December 3, 1867 20,322
December 1, 1871 22,689
December 1, 1875 26,012
December 1, 1880 28,597
December 1, 1885 31,704
December 1, 1890 35,064
December 2, 1895 39,388
December 1, 1900 50,468
December 1, 1905 59,765
December 1, 1910 75,583
December 1, 1916 67,197
December 5, 1917 67,483
October 8, 1919 75,380
June 16, 1925 79,362
June 16, 1933 81,329
May 17, 1939 85,140
Year Population
December 31, 1945 70,600
October 29, 1946 75,479
September 13, 1950 89,030
September 25, 1956 104,283
June 6, 1961 116,195
December 31, 1965 117,893
May 27, 1970 117,306
December 31, 1975 115,251
December 31, 1980 110,993
December 31, 1985 107,090
May 25, 1987 111,386
December 31, 1990 114,992
December 31, 1995 116,533
December 31, 2000 117,535
September 30, 2005 119,833
March 31, 2007 117,224
Year Population
December 31, 2008 118,103
December 31, 2009 117,718
December 31, 2010 119,734
December 31, 2011 121,970
December 31, 2012 116,945
December 31, 2013 126,934
Rank Nationality Population (30.06.2019)
1   Turkey 6,039
2   Romania 5,441
3   Greece 5,188
4   Bulgaria 4,675
5   Poland 4,251
6   Italy 3,975
7   Croatia 3,905
8   Serbia 2,337
9   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,876
10   Morocco 1,257

EconomyEdit

 
The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini

Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.

Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach am Main (HfG) design school and the Klingspor Museum.

In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda,[17] Hyundai Motors[18] and Kumho Tires.[19]

Image galleryEdit

Arts and cultureEdit

AttractionsEdit

 
Klingspor Museum
 
The Büsing-Park in winter
 
French Protestant church and City Tower

In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the Neo-baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Today it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's fiancée Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburger Schloss [de] (Isenburg Palace), a renaissance palace from 1576. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.

  • Isenburger Schloss, a Renaissance building, now used by the Offenbach Design University
  • Büsingpalais with Büsingpark
  • Wilhelmsplatz a square with coffee houses and three times a week a market.
  • Buildings of the French Protestant Church and the French Protestant Community.
  • Rumpenheim Palace.
  • Former Synagogue "Capitol" (now a concert hall next to the new Synagogue).
  • The Westend Quarter (19th century).
  • Several art deco apartment houses.
  • Buildings by early 20th century architect Hugo Eberhardt: "Heyne" Factory, main building of the Design University, AOK Insurance building.
  • Prefabricated houses by Egon Eiermann in Lauterborn

EventsEdit

There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:

  • Lichterfest im Büsing-Park (festival of lights in the park of the Büsing palais)
  • Nacht der Museen (with Frankfurt)
  • Mainuferfest
  • Cross Media Night

MuseumsEdit

GalleryEdit

SportsEdit

 
home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg"

Kickers Offenbach football club was founded in 1901.

InfrastructureEdit

TransportEdit

 
S-Bahn station: Marktplatz
 
S-Bahn network in Offenbach

RoadsEdit

The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).

Public transportEdit

The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. Trains run every 5–10 minutes between Offenbach and Frankurt. A 24 hours Service between both cities was introduced in 2013. The journey from Offenbach Marktplatz to Frankfurt Main Station takes 15 minutes, Frankfurt Airport can be reached within 26 minutes. The city's public transportation services OVB and NIO connect all city districts to downtown by bus lines. Since the construction of the S-Bahn, the central train station, the Offenbach Hauptbahnhof, is no longer considered important.

Frankfurt AirportEdit

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 25 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.

Notable residentsEdit

Notable people born in Offenbach include:

  • Johann André (1741–1799), founder of the music publishing firm named after him
 
Johann Andre composer

Others who have resided in Offenbach include:

People from Offenbach

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Thomas Kirstein (2018-01-20). "Rührung im Blitzlichtgewitter: Ära Schneider geht in die Ära Schwenke über". op-online.de (in German). Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  2. ^ "Bevölkerungsstand am 31.12.2018". Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt (in German). July 2019.
  3. ^ "Statistischer Vierteljahresbericht der Stadt Offenbach IV/2018" (PDF). Stadt Offenbach. Stadt Offenbach am Main, Amt für Arbeitsförderung, Statistik und Integration. 2018. Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  4. ^ "Antrag Magistratsvorlage Nr. 144/10". City of Offenbach. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  5. ^ Germany, hessenschau de, Frankfurt (2019-06-28). "Aus 9 mach 21: Offenbach verpasst sich 12 neue Stadtteile". hessenschau.de (in German). Retrieved 2019-07-15.
  6. ^ Braun, Lothar (12 February 2004). "Offenbach und seine Vororte". City of Offenbach. Retrieved 4 February 2014.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Offenbach - Facts and Figures" (PDF). City of Offenbach. 2012. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ Presse, Frankfurter Neue. "Nach dem Tod von Tugce A.:". Archived from the original on 2017-02-11. Retrieved 9 February 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  9. ^ "Offenbach und seine Partnerstädte". City of Offenbach. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  10. ^ "Puteaux - Qu'est-ce que le jumelage?". Mairie de Puteaux [Puteaux Official Website] (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-11-26. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
  11. ^ "Official statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-29. Retrieved 2017-03-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  12. ^ Official statistics for nationalities in 2016
  13. ^ "Kartenseite: Muslime in Deutschland - Landkreise". kartenseite.wordpress.com. 2017-04-05. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
  14. ^ "Offenbach - die kleine Großstadt am Main". City of Offenbach. Archived from the original on 2014-02-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ "Einwohner mit Migrationshintergrund am 31.12.2012" (PDF). Melderegister Offenbach, MigraPro. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ "Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in Offenbach am Main : Erhebungsmethode und Ergebnisse" (PDF). Offenbach.de. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-01. Retrieved 2015-03-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ "Impressum." Honda. Retrieved on 22 April 2012. "Sprendlinger Landstraße 166 63069 Offenbach"
  18. ^ "News & Events Archived 2012-02-11 at the Wayback Machine." Hyundai. Retrieved on 22 April 2012. "Kaiserleipromenade 5 63067 Offenbach"
  19. ^ "Impressum Archived 2011-11-04 at the Wayback Machine." Kumho Tyres. Retrieved on 9 November 2011. "Brüsseler Platz 1 63067 Offenbach am Main"

External linksEdit