Oberführer

Oberführer (short: Oberf, [ˈoːbɐ.fyːʀɐ], lit. 'Senior leader') was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) dating back to 1921. An Oberführer was typically a NSDAP member in charge of a group of paramilitary units in a particular geographical region.[1] From 1921 to 1925, the phrase Oberführer was used as a title in the Sturmabteilung (SA), but became an actual SA rank after 1926.

Oberführer
Oberfuhrer colletto.JPG
SS Gorget patch
Country Nazi Germany
Service branch Schutzstaffel
Sturmabteilung
National Socialist Motor Corps
National Socialist Flyers Corps
AbbreviationOberf
NATO rankOF-5
Formation1921
Abolished1945
Next higher rankBrigadeführer
Next lower rankStandartenführer
Equivalent ranksOberst
Emil Maurice as an Oberführer

Oberführer was also a rank of the Schutzstaffel (SS, at that time a branch of the SA), established in 1925 as Gauführer, a rank for SS officers in charge of SS personnel in the several Gaue throughout Germany; in 1928 the rank was renamed Oberführer, and used of the commanders of the three regional SS-Oberführerbereiche. In 1930, the SS was reorganized into SS-Gruppen and Brigaden, at which time Oberführer became subordinate to the higher rank of Brigadeführer. By 1932, Oberführer was an established rank of the SA, SS and NSKK.[1][2]

Oberführer wore two oak leaves on the uniform collar rank patch, along with the shoulder boards and lapels of a general officer.[3] In 1938, the status of SS-Oberführer began to change with the rise of the SS-Verfügungstruppe which would later become the Waffen-SS. Since Brigadeführer was rated equal to a Generalmajor, and Standartenführer to an Oberst, Oberführer had no military equivalent and quickly became regarded as a senior colonel rank.[4] This distinction continues in historical circles with most texts referring to Oberführer as a senior colonel rank[4][5] while some others state it has a military equivalent to a British Army brigadier.[6]

Rank insigniaEdit

Oberführer SS, SA, NSKK, and NSFK
Rank insignia
 
Schutzstaffel (SS)
 
Sturmabteilung (SA)
 
NS Motor Corps (NSKK)
 
NS Flyers Corps (NSFK)
   
       
only Waffen-SS collar insignia


Junior Rank
Standartenführer
SS rank and SA rank
Oberführer
Senior Rank
Brigadeführer

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b McNab 2009b, p. 15.
  2. ^ McNab 2009, pp. 29, 30.
  3. ^ Flaherty 2004, p. 148.
  4. ^ a b Yerger 1997, p. 235.
  5. ^ Miller 2006, p. 521.
  6. ^ McNab 2009, p. 186.

BibliographyEdit

  • Flaherty, T. H. (2004) [1988]. The Third Reich: The SS. Time-Life Books, Inc. ISBN 1-84447-073-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • McNab, Chris (2009b). The Third Reich. Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-906626-51-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Miller, Michael (2006). Leaders of the SS and German Police, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 93-297-0037-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)