Nucleariida is a group of amoebae[1] with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater. They are distinguished from the superficially similar vampyrellids mainly by having mitochondria with discoid cristae.

Nucleariids
Nuclearia sp Nikko.jpg
Nuclearia thermophila
Scientific classification e
Class: Cristidiscoidea
(unranked): Discicristoidea
Order: Nucleariida
Genera

ClassificationEdit

Nucleariids are opisthokonts,[2] the group which includes animals, fungi and several smaller groups. Several studies place the nucleariids as a sister group to the fungi.[3][4]

The genera Rabdiophrys, Pinaciophora, and Pompholyxophrys, freshwater forms with hollow siliceous scales or spines, were formerly included in Nucleariida, but are now placed in Rhizaria.[5] In the past, nucleariids were included among the heliozoa as the Rotosphaerida.

According to a 2009 paper, Fonticula, a cellular slime mold, is an opisthokont and more closely related to Nuclearia than to fungi.[6]

CharacteristicsEdit

Nucleariids (Nuclearia[2] and Micronuclearia) are usually small, up to about 50 μm in size.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zettler; Nerad, T.; O'Kelly, C.; Sogin, M. (May 2001). "The nucleariid amoebae: more protists at the animal-fungal boundary". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 48 (3): 293–297. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00317.x. PMID 11411837.
  2. ^ a b Yoshida M, Nakayama T, Inouye I (January 2009). "Nuclearia thermophila sp. nov. (Nucleariidae), a new nucleariid species isolated from Yunoko Lake in Nikko (Japan)". European Journal of Protistology. 45 (2): 147–155. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2008.09.004. PMID 19157810.
  3. ^ Steenkamp, E.T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S.L. (January 2006). "The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj011. PMID 16151185.
  4. ^ Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, et al. (7 May 2008). Aramayo R (ed.). "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals". PLoS ONE. 3 (5): e2098. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2098S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098. PMC 2346548. PMID 18461162.
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E. (July 2012). "Oxnerella micra sp. n. (Oxnerellidae fam. n.), a Tiny Naked Centrohelid, and the Diversity and Evolution of Heliozoa". Protist. 163 (4): 574–601. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.12.005. PMID 22317961.
  6. ^ Matthew W. Brown, Frederick W. Spiegel and Jeffrey D. Silberman (December 2009). "Phylogeny of the "Forgotten" Cellular Slime Mold, Fonticula alba, Reveals a Key Evolutionary Branch within Opisthokonta". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (12): 2699–2709. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp185. PMID 19692665.