November 1901

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The following events occurred in November 1901:

November 26, 1901: "Auguste D.", dementia patient...
November 15, 1901: The Acousticon, first battery-powered hearing aid, is patented
... becomes textbook case for Dr. Alois Alzheimer

November 1, 1901 (Friday)Edit

  • Prince George, heir apparent to the British throne (and future King George V), the Duke of Cornwall and York, returned to Great Britain with his wife, disembarking at Portsmouth after worldwide tour of the British Empire.[1][2]
  • The Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity was founded, in Richmond, Virginia.

November 2, 1901 (Saturday)Edit

  • The Pan-American Exposition, marred by the assassination of President McKinley and inadequate revenues, closed in Buffalo. "At midnight," the press reported, "President John G. Milburn pressed an electric button and the lights in the famous electric tower grew dim for the last time. Slowly one by one, the lights on the post and pinnace and tower faded away. A corps of buglers standing in the tower sounded 'taps' and one of the greatest glories of the exposition, the electric illumination, passed and away and the exposition was ended." [3] During its six-month run, the Exposition's losses were estimated at three million dollars.[4]
  • An assassin attempted to kill China's Dowager Empress, Tzu Hsi, as she and her entourage were making their journey through the Henan Province back to Beijing. One of the Empress's attendants killed the attacker with a spear, and the party continued onward the next day.[5]
  • The town of Elk Horn, Iowa, home of the Museum of Danish America and a center of American settlers from Denmark, was founded.[6]
  • Born: Magda Trocmé, Italian-born French humanitarian who, along with her husband Pastor André Trocmé, saved 3,500 Jewish refugees in Nazi-occupied France during World War II and one of the designated Righteous Among the Nations; in Firenze as Magda Grilli di Cortona (d. 1971)

November 3, 1901 (Sunday)Edit

November 4, 1901 (Monday)Edit

  • The committee of the Paris Aero-Club, faced with a public outcry for denying the Deutsch Prize to Alberto Santos-Dumont, voted 12 to 9 to award him the prize of 100,000 francs for navigating an airship from Longchamps to the Eiffel Tower and back within 30 minutes.[10] In October, Santos-Dumont had been denied the prize because he had arrived 30 minutes and 40 seconds after he departed.
  • The Wandervogel, described by one historian as "the first independent youth movement",[11] was founded in Germany by Karl Fischer and nine other young men, at a meeting in the basement of the Town Hall in Steglitz, a suburb of Berlin.[12] The full name of the association was Wandervogel, Ausschuß für Schülerfahrten (Association for Student Excursions); The word Wandervogel itself literally means "wandering birds".[13]
  • The Philippine Commission, composed of five American officials and three Filipino members who served as the lawmaking body of the American occupied Philippine Islands, passed the Philippine Sedition Act, making it a crime to "utter seditious words or speeches, write, publish or circulate scurrilous libels" against the occupation government or the United States government.[14] American author Mark Twain was one of the critics of the strict law, and wrote, "What is treason in one part of our States... is doubtless law everywhere under the flag," and added, "On these terms, I would rather be a traitor than an archangel." [15]
  • France's Chamber of Deputies voted, 305–77, to authorize the nation's Navy to take action in pressing demands against the Ottoman Empire.[1]
  • King Edward VII of the United Kingdom was given a new title, Edward VII. Dei Gratia Britannorum et Terrarum Transarinarum Quae in Dicione Sunt Britannica Rex. Fidel Defensor. Indiae Imperator ("Edward the Seventh, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British dominions beyond the sea, King, defender of the faith, and Emperor of India").[16]
  • Born:

November 5, 1901 (Tuesday)Edit

British Foreign Secretary Lansdowne

November 6, 1901 (Wednesday)Edit

November 7, 1901 (Thursday)Edit

  • Twenty-six federal inmates, who had been working on construction of the new prison at Leavenworth, Kansas, overpowered their guards and escaped.[30]
  • Mexico introduced a proposed arbitration treaty at the Pan-American Conference, modeled after the Hague Treaty signed by European states.[1]
  • Born: Norah McGuinness, Irish painter and illustrator (died 1980)
  • Died: Li Hongzhang, 78, Chinese general [31]

November 8, 1901 (Friday)Edit

November 9, 1901 (Saturday)Edit

  • Prince George, Duke of York, son of King Edward VII and heir apparent to the British throne, was named Prince of Wales and received the additional designation of Earl of Chester.[33][34] He would become King George V on May 6, 1910, upon the death of his father.
  • A division of French Army troops was killed in Africa while attempting to attack the Senussi village of Bir 'Alali in what is now the Republic of Chad. The French would return in greater force and capture the area on January 20, 1902.[35]
  • The Glasgow Exhibition closed in Scotland.[1]
  • Sergei Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18 was performed for the first time, played by him in Moscow, and "fully restored his belief in himself" after a five-year absence from classical music that had followed the poor reception given his First Symphony in 1897.[36]
  • Thomas Edison completed a newsreel showing a re-enactment of the execution of presidential assassin Leon Czolgosz in the electric chair at Auburn State Prison in October, after being denied a request to film the actual event. Edwin Porter and George S. Fleming had taken a movie of the outside of the prison, then recreated the scene using actors posing as prison guards and technicians, and one portraying Czolgosz himself. "As depicted by Edison's men," an author would later note, "the apparent painlessness of Czolgosz's death promoted the belief that electrocution was indeed a kindly method of dispatch," and cinema audiences enjoyed the recreated death scene.[37]

November 10, 1901 (Sunday)Edit

Japan's Emperor Meiji
  • The train on which Japan's Emperor Meiji was riding was almost involved in an collision with another train stalled on the same track, when the Traffic Section Chief at the Semine Station allowed the Imperial Train to depart. The near miss involving the Imperial Train would be used by the Nippon Railway Company as the basis for the dissolution of the recently formed labor union of engine drivers, the Kyoseikai.[38]
  • The Gulf Refining Company, forerunner of the major oil conglomerate Gulf Oil, was chartered in Texas.[39]
  • On his way home after a Saturday night state dinner on the occasion of King Edward's birthday, Ottawa Mayor W. D. Morris committed a minor criminal offense that would lead to his resignation only a week later. Morris, who had been inaugurated as the Canadian capital's mayor at the beginning of the year, was with two friends and the group stopped by the Russell House hotel for drinks. When he bought more drinks liquor for himself and his friends after the bar closed at midnight, he was charged by the Ottawa Chief of Police with violating the provincial law against "buying liquor during prohibited hours". Under Ontario's municipalities law at the time, a violator of provincial acts was disqualified from voting or holding public office for a period of two years, and Mayor Morris pled guilty on November 16, then resigned.[40][41]
  • Seven men aboard the British battleship HMS Royal Sovereign were killed, and 14 injured, including Commander Robert Keith Arbuthnot, when a 12-inch gun exploded while being fired during maneuvers in the Aegean Sea.[42] As Rear Admiral of the Royal Navy, Arbuthnot would die along with 900 members of his crew in the sinking of HMS Defence during the Battle of Jutland during World War One.[43]

November 11, 1901 (Monday)Edit

  • Voters in Alabama approved a new state constitution that severely restricted the rights of African-Americans to vote, favoring it by a margin of 108,613 to 81,734.[44][45] Many of the votes in favor had come from African-Americans who were unaware of the provisions that would ultimately remove their power to cast ballots. During the years from 1901 to 1908, the number of registered African-American voters in Alabama would decline from 79,000 to fewer than 4,000, and the Alabama model would be followed by other states in the Deep South.[46]
  • Ioseb "Koba" Jughashvili, who would become the absolute ruler of the Soviet Union as Joseph Stalin, went on trial before his fellow Marxists of the Tiflis (now Tbilisi) branch of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, to investigate slander against party leaders. The local Party committee voted unanimously to expel him from membership, describing him to be "a slanderer and an intriguer", and he left the Georgian capital to move to Batumi.[47]
  • After his New York Journal morning newspaper suffered a decline of readership because of its continued criticism of President William McKinley prior to McKinley's assassination, publisher William Randolph Hearst rebranding the daily as the New York Journal and American, as a prelude to selling it as the New York American in 1902.[48]
  • France and the Ottoman Empire resumed diplomatic relations.[1]
  • Born:
    • Sam Spiegel, Austrian-born American film producer, three-time winner of the Academy Award (for On the Waterfront, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Lawrence of Arabia; in Jaroslau, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Jaroslaw, Poland) (d. 1985)
    • Dorothy Whitelock, English historian and specialist on the medieval history of Britain; in Leeds (d. 1982)
    • Magda Goebbels, German wife of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels; as Johanna Magdalena Ritschel in Berlin. She and her husband poisoned their six children before committing suicide on May 1, 1945.

November 12, 1901 (Tuesday)Edit

  • The Northern Securities Company was chartered, with starting capital of $400,000,000, to serve as a holding company for James J. Hill's 76% share of Northern Pacific Railway and 96% share of Great Northern Railway, along with E. H. Harriman's interests in Union Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad, and J.P. Morgan's share of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, with Hill serving as Northern Securities' President.[49][50][51] The combine, which controlled rail travel in almost all of the states west of the Mississippi River, would eventually be broken up by an antitrust lawsuit filed by the U.S. Department of Justice, which would be finally resolved by the U.S. Supreme Court on March 14, 1904, in the landmark decision of Northern Securities Co. v. United States.
  • The most powerful recorded storm in British history, up to that time, struck southern Ireland, Wales, the Midlands, Lincolnshire and into the English Channel,[52] killing more than 200 people over 48 hours.[53] Winds averaging nearly 70 miles an hour, with gusts up to 100 mph, sank ships in the Channel and at the South-west Approaches.[54] Among the ships that went down were the revenue cutter Active, with the captain and 19 of its crew of 24 being drowned at the Granton breakwater; an unidentified French ship with 19 aboard wrecked at Sunderland; seven people on the Swedish barque Trio; and 16 crewmen on the Norwegian barque Inga.[55]
  • The United States government warned the government of Bulgaria not to interfere with American negotiations to free hostage Ellen Stone, and the Bulgarian government would be held responsible if she were killed.[1]
  • Born: James Luther Adams, American Unitarian theologian and philosopher; in Ritzville, Washington (d. 1994)
  • Died: Sister Julia McGroarty, 74, founder of the prestigious all-female Trinity College (now Trinity Washington University.

November 13, 1901 (Wednesday)Edit

November 14, 1901 (Thursday)Edit

November 15, 1901 (Friday)Edit

  • Inventor Miller Reese Hutchison of New York applied for two patents for the components of what would become the first battery-powered hearing aid, which he marketed under the brand name "Acousticon". U.S. Patent 707,699-A for the battery and charging apparatus would be granted on August 26, 1902, and 718,204-A for the electrical amplifier on January 13, 1903. The device would be used by Queen Alexandra on the United Kingdom at the coronation ceremony for her husband, King Edward VII, on August 9, 1902, and she would present Hutchinson with a medal in appreciation of his invention. Hutchinson also invented the extremely loud klaxon, leading Mark Twain to remark, "You invented the Klaxon horn to make people deaft, so they'd have to use your acoustic device in order to make them hear again!" [61]
  • At the Sandy Hook Proving Ground in New Jersey, the U.S. Army's unveiled its new 12-inch diameter cannon in a competition against the 18-inch "dynamite shell" cannon invented by Louis Gathmann. The Army cannon proved to be a weapon powerful enough to sink enemy ships, in that it "not only fired a shell completely through the armor but exploded the shell on the inside, wrecking the target and absolutely destroying the steel construction representing the cofferdam structure of the modern big battleship" [62] A reporter noted that "This feat of sending an armor piercing shell through a thick piece of armor and then exploding it has never before been accomplished in the world." As for Gathmann's weapon, which he had claimed "would reduce an armorplate to powder", "the largest gun in the world proved to be a disastrous failure... barely denting the big armor plate against which it was fired at point blank range."
  • The Alpha Sigma Alpha sorority was founded by five students at Virginia State Female Normal School (now Longwood University) in Farmville, Virginia. It now has chapters at 91 universities and colleges, with a chartered purpose "to cultivate friendship among its members, and in every way to create pure and elevating sentiments, to perform such deeds and to mold such opinions as will tend to elevate and ennoble womanhood in the world.” [63]

November 16, 1901 (Saturday)Edit

November 17, 1901 (Sunday)Edit

  • Mehmed Said Pasha was appointed as the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire for a second time, succeeding Halil Rifat Pasha.[1]
  • The "Dance of the Forty-One" scandal (El baile de los cuarenta y uno) began when police in Mexico City carried out a raid on a transvestite ballroom dance and arrested 41 young men from Mexico's wealthy families, who "were found dancing with each other, half of them dressed and made up as women".[70] Although the men were not charged nor tried before a court, the Governor of the Federal District found the 41 men guilty of depravity and sentenced them to hard labor [71] or the choice of serving in the Mexican Army.[72]
  • U.S. Marine Corps Captain David Dixon Porter led several columns of soldiers in an invasion of the island of Samar in the Philippines, that included climbing up makeshift bamboo ladders to reach enemy fortifications 200 feet above his men. For his gallantry in battle, Porter would be awarded the Medal of Honor until more than three decades later, in 1934.[73]
  • Ten workmen were killed, and 28 injured on the Great Northern Railway when their train was struck by a freight train near Culbertson, Montana.[74]
  • Born:

November 18, 1901 (Monday)Edit

Secretary Hay and Ambassador Pauncefote
  • The Hay–Pauncefote Treaty, acknowledging neutrality and partial American control of the proposed Isthmian Canal across Nicaragua, was signed in Washington by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, and the British Ambassador to the U.S., Lord Julian Pauncefote. The new pact, ratified on February 21, 1902, superseded the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and let the United States the right to construct, operate and defend (with fortifications) a canal, in return for guaranteeing that the ships of all nations would be allowed to use it and that the tolls would be equal and fair for users.[75] By agreement of the two nations, the text of the treaty was required to remain a secret until the U.S. Senate could act upon it. Lord Pauncefote had been sick for several days, and was not expected to sign as scheduled, but had recovered enough to be driven to the U.S. Department of State for the private signing ceremony.[76]
  • Born:

November 19, 1901 (Tuesday)Edit

November 20, 1901 (Wednesday)Edit

  • The European Arbitration Court at The Hague ruled that it had no jurisdiction to recognize requests by the two Boer nations (the South African Republic and the Orange Free State) to seek an intervention in the war with the British Empire.[80]
  • Near Telluride, Colorado, 30 employees of the Smuggler-Union Coal Company Mine died from smoke inhalation produced by a fire in an outlying building. Because of wind conditions and lower air pressure inside the mine, the smoke was pulled into the mine tunnels, where 100 men had been working.[80][81][82]
  • Almost 33 centuries after his death in 1397 BC, the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep II was pilfered by grave robbers. Archaeologist Howard Carter had kept the king's sarcophagus and a display of objects behind a locked iron gate, which the burglars were able to pick. Police would track footprints from the Valley of Kings at Biban el Moluk to village of Goorneh (Qena) and arrest three men, albeit without recovering any stolen items.[83]
  • Following a two-day trial in Palatka, Florida, J. B. Brown, a black railroad employee was convicted of an October 17 murder, and a death warrant was issued the same day by the Putnam County court. On the day of the hanging, the death warrant would be read aloud as Brown stood on the gallows with the rope around his neck "but to the great astonishment of all... it ordered the execution of the foreman of the jury which had found Brown guilty," as Yale University law professor Edwin Borchard would note later, adding "It is perhaps needless to remark that no one was hanged on that warrant." [84] The Governor would commute Brown's death sentence to life imprisonment, but Brown would be freed in 1913 after the verified deathbed confession of the real killer, who exonerated Brown. After almost 12 years incarceration, Governor Park Trammell would pardon Brown at the urging of the judge and the prosecuting attorney.
  • Born: P. R. Stephensen, Australian publisher and political activist who changed his orientation from the leftist Communist Party of Australia to the rightist Australia First Movement during his career; in Maryborough, Queensland (d. 1965)

November 21, 1901 (Thursday)Edit

November 22, 1901 (Friday)Edit

  • Diplomats from the United Kingdom and Italy signed an agreement at Rome to discuss the boundary of the frontier between Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the Italian colony of Eritrea.[87]
  • President Cipriano Castro of Venezuela ordered the arrest of his Minister of War, Ramon Guerra.[88]
  • Prokopios, the Metropolitan of Greece and spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Church, resigned after student protests over the translation of the New Testament from classical Greek into the modern Greek language. The Commissioner of the Greek Police and the prefect resigned as well.[80]
  • With the Ottoman Empire treasury empty, the ministerial council at Constantinople voted to borrow 40,000 pounds from the Sacred Caravan.[89]
  • The government of Colombia informed the United States that its government could not guarantee protection from rebels for American transit across the Isthmus of Panama, at that time still a part of Colombia.[80] In response, USS Iowa landed a battalion of men on the Pacific coast as a show of force.[90]
  • Florida Agricultural College, which would become the University of Florida in 1903 and relocate from Lake City, Florida to a new campus in Gainesville in 1905, played its first ever college football game (and the first college football game in Florida), traveling to Jacksonville to play against Stetson University. Stetson took a 6–0 lead and held on to it after a tree stump in the middle of the field blocked the FAC Aggies' drive. When the teams were relocated to face the other end zone, the Florida drive lost its momentum and was halted.[91] Although FAC was the predecessor to the University of Florida, the 1901 game (FAC's only game that year) is not considered by the university to be part of its official scores, and the first Florida Gators football game is recorded as a 16–6 win over the Gainesville Athletic Club on October 13, 1906.[92]
  • Born: Joaquín Rodrigo, Spanish composer and pianist; in Sagunto (d. 1999)

November 23, 1901 (Saturday)Edit

  • Harvard University (11–0–0) and Yale University (11–0–1), both unbeaten, met each other for the unofficial national championship of college football on the Harvard campus at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The game was no contest (Walter Camp would write that "It was Harvard's day from start to finish" [93]) and Harvard won, 22–0, in front of a crowd of 37,000 people.[94] The University of Michigan, which would also go unbeaten, is recognized as well by the NCAA as the 1901 champion.
  • Troops of the British Army made the first of four raids on rebel Mahsud tribesmen in the Waziristan section of what is now Pakistan, but was part of British India at the time. The first engagement lasted about four days and successfully drove the rebels out of the Khaisara valley; the Mahsuds would finally comply with the British government on March 10, 1902.[95]
  • Albert Einstein submitted his first doctoral dissertation to Switzerland's Federal Institute of Technology (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich, under the supervision of Alfred Kleiner of the University of Zurich. At Dr. Kleiner's suggestion, Einstein would withdraw the dissertation on February 2 because its criticism of physicist Ludwig Boltzmann was too harsh.[96]
  • The Broadway theatre district of Manhattan acquired its nickname of "The Great White Way", conferred by New York Morning Telegram columnist Shep Friedman. "By sheer coincidence," a writer would note later, "when people woke up that morning to read the Telegram, the city had been blanketed by snow and Broadway was, indeed, a "great white way".[97]
  • Popular American singer and comedian Len Spencer recorded one of the first novelty songs available for a record player, preserving his comic skit set to the tune of The Arkansas Traveler, providing the voices for the two speakers, an inquisitive stranger traveling through Arkansas, and a fiddle-playing bumpkin who give sarcastic answers.[98]
  • The office of British Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain gave its formal approval for the October 17, 1900 concessions between His Majesty's Government and King Lewanika of Barotseland in southern Africa.[99]
  • A campaign to create a national soccer football league in Paraguay was commenced with a match in Asunción, the capital of the South American nation. The impetus came from a physical education teacher from the Netherlands, Willem Paats, who would field the first major team, Club Olimpia, on July 25, 1902.[100]
  • Born: Marieluise Fleisser, German author and playwright, at Ingolstadt (d. 1974)

November 24, 1901 (Sunday)Edit

Prime Minister Theotokis

November 25, 1901 (Monday)Edit

November 26, 1901 (Tuesday)Edit

  • Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist at the Hospital for the Mentally Ill and Epileptics in Frankfurt, had his first meeting with the patient who would become the first person to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease. Auguste Deter, the 51 year old wife of an office clerk, had been admitted to the hospital the day before, after having gradually deteriorated over eight months that had started with delusions and memory loss in March.[109] After her death on April 8, 1906, Alzheimer would examine samples of her brain taken at autopsy, and publish his findings about "Auguste D." in a paper titled On a Peculiar, Severe Disease Process of the Cerebral Cortex.[110][111][112]
  • Twenty-seven employees of the Penberthy Injector Company in Detroit were killed by the explosion of a boiler. The blast, which happened at the company's factory at Abbott Street and Brooklyn Avenue, happened at 9:30 in the morning and leveled the three-story-high manufacturing building.[113][114]
Former U.S. citizen Estrada
  • Cuban native Tomás Estrada Palma who had been a U.S. citizen for more than 20 years had served as a schoolmaster in New York state, renounced his American citizenship so that he could run for President of Cuba. He would win the election and take office as Cuba's first President on May 20, 1902,[115]
  • Born: William "Deak" Parsons, U.S. Navy officer and ordnance expert who served as the weaponeer who armed the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945; in Evanston, Illinois (d. 1953). Captain Parsons traveled with the nuclear weapon on the airplane Enola Gay and inserted the powder charge and detonator as the plane approached its target. He was promoted to rear admiral after the end of World War II.

November 27, 1901 (Wednesday)Edit

  • Seventy-five people were killed in the collision of two express trains on the Wabash Railroad, near Seneca Township, Michigan. Wabash No. 13 from Detroit was westbound, bringing several coaches of passengers, most of them contract workers from Italy. The "Continental Limited", Wabash's No. 4 train, was eastbound on the same track, and its engineer had an order which he had misread as "Pass at Sand Creek", when it actually said "Pass at Seneca", a few miles closer, meaning that he was to pull over at Seneca to give a pass to oncoming trains. Instead, the engineer took the train past Seneca and, shortly after 7:00 in the evening, the crew of the Continental found itself on a collision course with the No. 13.[116][117]
  • The United States Army War College was ordered created by General Order 155 from U.S. Secretary of War Elihu Root,[118] and would admit its first students in 1904. Initially opened in Washington, D.C., it would be relocated 50 years later to Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
  • Led by Matti Kurrika and Matti Halminen of Finland, the Kalevan Kansa Colonization Company leased Malcolm Island from the provincial government of British Columbia in order to found a colony that they named Sointula, from the Finnish word for a musical chord, sointu.[119] Within less than a year, Kurrika would resign from the company and depart the Island with about half of the colonists and attempt to set up a new utopian community in another part of the province,[120]
  • Born: Ted Husing, pioneering American sports broadcaster; in the Bronx, New York (d. 1962)
  • Died: Clement Studebaker, 70, American blacksmith who created the world's largest manufacturer of horse-drawn wagons and carriages. At the time of his death, he and his family were working upon making the transition to manufacturing motor vehicles, and the first Studebaker automobile would be produced in 1902.

November 28, 1901 (Thursday)Edit

  • The British Army commenced an attack on the slave trading Aro tribesmen with an assault on their stronghold of Aro Chukwu in Nigeria, subduing the area by December 24.[121] Within five months, the British were able to take control of the 6,000 square mile African kingdom.[122]
  • Sultan Mubarak Al-Sabah of Kuwait was given an ultimatum by the Ottoman Empire, by way of the naqib al-ashraf of Basra, directed to report to Constantinople for an "honorable retirement", or be removed by an invasion force. Mubarak appealed to the Royal Navy of Britain for assistance and was able to keep his throne.[123]
  • The University of Michigan (9–0–0) closed out its football schedule with a 50–0 win over the University of Iowa (6–2–0), playing before 10,000 people at West Side Park in Chicago, the stadium for the Chicago Cubs baseball team.[124] On the same day in Chicago, the University of Wisconsin (8–0–0) closed out its season against the University of Chicago (8–5–2), with a 35–0 win. Michigan and Wisconsin were both members of what would become the Big Ten Conference, but were not scheduled to meet; Michigan was considered the conference champion because it had played four conference games while Wisconsin had played only two. With their win, the Michigan Wolverines finished unbeaten, untied, and unscored upon (501 points against a combined zero for their opponents), and qualified to be invited to the first postseason college football game, the 1902 Rose Bowl (which they would win, 49–0).
  • The new Constitution of Alabama went into effect, along with a provision that required voters in the state to pass a literacy test in order to qualify to vote. However, people who had an ancestor who fought in the American Civil War were exempted, effectively requiring most African-Americans to pass the test to the satisfaction of the voting registrar.[125]
  • Featherweight boxing champion "Terrible Terry" McGovern lost his title to Young Corbett II (William J. Rothwell) in the second round of a bout in Hartford, Connecticut. The two would fight a rematch in San Francisco on March 23, 1902, and McGovern would lose again,[126][127]
  • Born:
  • Died:
    • Moses Dickson, 77, African-American abolitionist who organized the Knights of Liberty paramilitary organization prior to the American Civil War, and the International Order of Twelve of Knights and Daughters of Tabor self-help organization afterward
    • Brigadier General William Hugh Young, 63, Confederate Army officer who was captured as a prisoner of war at the Battle of Allatoona, later serving as editor of the San Antonio Express

November 29, 1901 (Friday)Edit

  • John Francis Queeny, a chemist in St. Louis, Missouri, filed the paperwork to incorporate the Monsanto Chemical Works, Inc. as a manufacturer of food additives [128]. During the 20th century, Monsanto would become one of the world's largest chemical and biotechnology corporations.
  • The Colombian (now Panamanian) city of Colón was peacefully transferred to the control of Colombian Government Forces under the command of General Alban, after foreign warships arrived at the port.[129]
  • Led by Thomas J. Hickey, baseball team owners met at the Leland Hotel in Chicago and founded the American Association, a minor baseball league that would be independent of the minor league organization because it "considers itself out of the minor class, although admittedly not on a par in playing strength with the National or American Leagues." [130] The new AA took three of the cities of the Western League that had been created in 1901 by the National League, with Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota; Kansas City, Missouri, as well as moving into Milwaukee, which had recently been vacated by the American League, and added new franchises in Columbus and Toledo, Ohio; Indianapolis, and Louisville. Those eight cities would remain in the AA from 1902 until the end of the 1952 season. The old Western League would reorganize with six teams in Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado; Des Moines and Sioux City, Iowa; St. Joseph, Missouri; and Lincoln Nebraska.
  • Russian playwright Zinaida Gippius and her husband, novelist Dmitry Merezhkovsky, held the first meeting of the "Religious-Philosophical Society" (Religiozno-Filosofskie Sobraniya) in Saint Petersburg, convening at the Ministry of Public Education building [131] after being granted permission by Russian Orthodox Church Procurator Konstantin Pobedonostsev and after the Metropolitan Bishop of Petersburg gave his assent for clerical participation.[132] The Society, "which sought to bring about a rapprochement between the intelligentsia and the church" [133] would hold 22 meetings between members of the clergy and university scholars, before Pobedonostsev ordered it closed on April 5, 1903.
  • Born: Mildred Harris, American actress (died 1944)
  • Died: Francisco Pi y Margall, Spanish politician, former president of the Republic (born 1824)

November 30, 1901 (Saturday)Edit

  • In order to capitalize on Henry Ford's recent fame as the winner of an auto race on October 10, investors reorganized the Detroit Automobile Company and incorporated it as the Henry Ford Company, giving Ford a one-sixth share of ownership in return for the use of his name.[134] Despite the use of the Ford name, the Henry Ford Company was not an early name for the Ford Motor Company; instead, it was the ancestor of the luxury car division of General Motors Corporation, which would rebrand itself in 1902 as the Cadillac Motor Company after Henry Ford's parting of ways with his co-investors.[135][136]
  • Hallam Tennyson, Lord Tennyson, the Governor of South Australia, ordered that the dry lakebed of Lake Callabonna be put off limits to the general public, in order to protect the rich Pleistocene era fossils that had been unearthed for nearly ten years.[137]
  • President Theodore Roosevelt fired Oklahoma Territory Governor William M. Jenkins, writing that "Governor Jenkins of Oklahoma is hereby removed because of his improper connection with a contract between the Territory and the Oklahoma Sanitarium Company," a deal which had included a reservation of $10,000 worth of company stock for Jenkins to own. Thompson B. Ferguson was appointed as the new Governor.[138]
  • Seminary student Angelo Roncalli, who would become Pope John XXIII more than 50 years later, was inducted into the Italian Army as a private, reporting to the Umberto Barracks in Bergamo for compulsory military service. His diocese would pay a 1,200 lire fee to have his term in the army reduced, but Private Roncalli, who would later describe 1902 as "my year of the Babylonian Captivity", still had to serve for twelve months,[139]
  • Died: Edward John Eyre, 86, English explorer


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The American Monthly Review of Reviews (December 1901) pp665-668
  2. ^ "Few Cheers for Heir to Throne— Royal Welcome to Duke of Cornwall and York Lacks Popular Enthusiasm", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 2, 1901, p2
  3. ^ "Lights Out—— Pan American Exposition Gates Are Closed", Louisville Courier-Journal, November 3, 1901, p5
  4. ^ "Riotous Scenes at Close of Fair", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 3, 1901, p2
  5. ^ "Tries to Kill Empress— Assassin Attacks Chinese Dowager at Honan", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 3, 1901, p5
  6. ^ Tom Savage, A Dictionary of Iowa Place-Names (University of Iowa Press, 2007) p80
  7. ^ Jeffrey W. Alexander, Japan's Motorcycle Wars: An Industry History (University of British Columbia Press, 2009) p24
  8. ^ Chris Willis, The Columbus Panhandles: A Complete History of Pro Football's Toughest Team (Scarecrow Press, 2007) p7
  9. ^ "Royal Child Born in Belgium— Princess Elisabeth Valerie, Wife of Prince Albert, Gives Birth to a Son", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 4, 1901, p4
  10. ^ "Give Prize to Santos-Dumont", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 5, 1901, p4
  11. ^ Arpad Szakolczai, Reflexive Historical Sociology (Routledge, 2003) p9
  12. ^ Robbert-Jan Adriaansen, The Rhythm of Eternity: The German Youth Movement and the Experience of the Past, 1900–1933 (Berghahn Books, 2015) p32
  13. ^ John B. Thompson, Studies in the Theory of Ideology (University of California Press, 1984) p217
  14. ^ Leonard Davis, Revolutionary Struggle In The Philippines (Springer, 1989) p34
  15. ^ Susan K. Harris, God's Arbiters: Americans and the Philippines, 1898 — 1902 (Oxford University Press, 2011)
  16. ^ "King Adopts His New Title— Signs Proclamation at Meeting of Privy Council", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 5, 1901, p5
  17. ^ Ian Nish, The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy of Two Island Empires, 1894–1907 (A&C Black, 2013)
  18. ^ Szu Ping Chan, Anthem Guide to the Opera, Concert Halls and Classical Music Venues of Europe (Anthem Press, 2009) p349
  19. ^ "Low and Fusion Win Big Victory in New York City", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 6, 1901, p1
  20. ^ "Croker Is Out; Carroll Leads— Tammany Chief, Broken in Defeat, Says Another Must Take His Place", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 6, 1901, p3
  21. ^ Joseph Fagan, Stories of West Orange (Arcadia Publishing, 2014)
  22. ^ "Nikola Tesla U.S. Patent 685,957— Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy",
  23. ^ "France Holds Turkish Port— Island of Mitylene in Grecian Archipelago Seized by Caillard's Fleet", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 6, 1901, p5
  24. ^ Donna B. Ernst, The Sundance Kid: The Life of Harry Alonzo Longabaugh (University of Oklahoma Press, 2011)
  25. ^ Douglas Deuchler, Images of America: Berwyn (Arcadia Publishing, 2005)
  26. ^ "Division Wins in Cicero— Oak Park and Berwyn Voted out by Big Majority", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 6, 1901, p7
  27. ^ Beatriz Garcia, The Amazon from an International Law Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2011) pp56-57
  28. ^ "Plan for Pan-American Court", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 7, 1901, p2
  29. ^ "Kate Greenaway Dead— Creator of Type of Pictures Bearing Her Name Dies", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 8, 1901, p2
  30. ^ "Convicts Rise, Shoot Guards, and 26 Escape", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 8, 1901, p1
  31. ^ "Death Claims Li Hung Chang— Chinese Soldier, Statesman and Diplomat Dies at Pekin After a Brilliant Career", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 7, 1901, p1
  32. ^ "Death of Mrs. Bickerdyke; Famous as an Army Nurse", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 9, 1901, p4
  33. ^ Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Random House, 2011) p320
  34. ^ "Duke Is Prince of Wales— King Edward Confers New Title and Rank Upon the Heir Apparent to the Crown", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 10, 1901, p2
  35. ^ Jay Spaulding and Lidwien Kapteijns, An Islamic Alliance: Ali Dinar and the Sanusiyya, 1906–1916 (Northwestern University Press, 2011) p17
  36. ^ Paul Griffiths, The Penguin Companion to Classical Music (Penguin UK, 2004)
  37. ^ Michael Newton, Age of Assassins: A History of Conspiracy and Political Violence, 1865–1981 (Faber & Faber, 2012)
  38. ^ Tetsuji Okazaki, Production Organizations in Japanese Economic Development (Routledge, 2007) pp90, 106
  39. ^ Betty Dooley Awbrey and Stuart Awbrey, Why Stop?: A Guide to Texas Roadside Historical Markers (Taylor Trade Publishing, 2013) p374
  40. ^ "Mayor Fined Quits Office", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 17, 1901, p1
  41. ^ "A Mayor Disqualified— Mr. Morris, of Ottawa, Bought Liquor During Prohibited Hours", Montreal Gazette, November 18, 1901, p8
  42. ^ "Disaster on British Warship— Big Gun on Battleship Royal Sovereign Bursts, Killing Seven Men, Injuring Fourteen", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 11, 1901, p2
  43. ^ "Arbuthnot, Sir Robert Keith", in Admirals of the World: A Biographical Dictionary, 1500 to the Present, William Stewart, ed. (McFarland, 2009) p10
  44. ^ Bailey Thomson, A Century of Controversy: Constitutional Reform in Alabama (University of Alabama Press, 2002) p30
  45. ^ "Alabama Adopts a New Charter— Revised Constitution Ratified by an Overwhelming Majority of Citizens; Cuts Down Negro Vote", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 12, 1901, p2
  46. ^ Brent J. Aucoin, Thomas Goode Jones: Race, Politics, and Justice in the New South (University of Alabama Press, 2016) p115
  47. ^ Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Routledge, 2004) pp16-17
  48. ^ Ben Procter, William Randolph Hearst: The Early Years, 1863–1910 (Oxford University Press, 1998)
  49. ^ Edward Wagenknecht, American Profile, 1900–1909 (University of Massachusetts Press, 1982) p31
  50. ^ Jean Strouse, Morgan: American Financier (Random House, 2012)
  51. ^ "Giant Company to Rule Roads of the West", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 14, 1901, p1
  52. ^ "British Isles Swept by Storm—Heavy Gales Endanger Lives and Shipping along the Eastern Coast", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 13, 1901, p4
  53. ^ a b "British Gales Still Continue—Thirty-four Vessels Wrecked and Death List Reaches 190", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 15, 1901, p4
  54. ^ Philip Eden, Change in the Weather (A&C Black, 2006) p104
  55. ^ "Storms Cost 116 Lives—Gales Continue to Sweep the British Coasts", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 14, 1901, p2
  56. ^ Nicholas Leach, The Lifeboat Service in South East England (Amberley Publishing Limited, 2014)
  57. ^ Neil R. Storey, The Little Book of Norfolk (The History Press, 2011)
  58. ^ Arnold H. Taylor, The Dance of Air and Sea: How Oceans, Weather, and Life Link Together (Oxford University Press, 2011)
  59. ^ Welcome to the Land of the Navajo, by J. Lee Correll and Editha L. Watson (Navajo Tribe, 1972) p114
  60. ^ Peter Iverson, Diné: A History of the Navajos (University of New Mexico Press, 2002) p73
  61. ^ Patrick Robertson, Robertson's Book of Firsts: Who Did What for the First Time (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011)
  62. ^ "Army Gun Wins; Gathmann Fails", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 16, 1901, p1
  63. ^ "Alpha Sigma Alpha Sorority founded – Alpha Sigma Alpha – Alpha Sigma Alpha Interactive Timeline".
  64. ^ Noel Maurer and Carlos Yu, The Big Ditch: How America Took, Built, Ran, and Ultimately Gave Away the Panama Canal (Princeton University Press, 2010) p74
  65. ^ "Panama" in Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914, by Carl Cavanagh Hodge (Greenwood Publishing, 2008) p539
  66. ^ John Nauright and Charles Parrish, Sports Around the World: History, Culture, and Practice (ABC-CLIO, 2012) p53
  67. ^ Edward Ellis, The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History (Basic Books, 2011)
  68. ^ "Auto Mile Under Minute— Three Machines Show Wonderful Spee in Test", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 17, 1901, p1
  69. ^ "Steamer Sinks; All Hands Lost", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 18, 1901, p3
  70. ^ Claudio Lomnitz, The Return of Comrade Ricardo Flores Magón (Zone Books, 2014) p310
  71. ^ Robert McKee Irwin, et al., Centenary of the Famous 41: Sexuality and Social Control in Mexico, 1901 (Springer, 2016) p3
  72. ^ Ben Sifuentes-Jáuregui, Transvestism, Masculinity, and Latin American Literature: Genders Share Flesh (Springer, 2002) p17
  73. ^ Glenn M. Harned, Marine Corps Generals, 1899–1936: A Biographical Encyclopedia (McFarland, 2015) p282-283
  74. ^ "Ten Workmen Killed in Great Northern Wreck", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 19, 1901, p2
  75. ^ "Hay–Pauncefote Treaty (1901)", in The A to Z of U.S. Diplomacy from the Civil War to World War I, by Kenneth J. Blume (Scarecrow Press, 2010) p162
  76. ^ "Isthmian Canal Treaty Is Signed— Agreement Which Abrogates Clayton-Bulwer Compact Is Complete", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 19, 1901, p2
  77. ^ Carroll Gantz, The Vacuum Cleaner: A History (McFarland, 2012) p49
  78. ^ Alison Bruce, Billington: Victorian Executioner (The History Press, 2011)
  79. ^ A Dictionary of Iowa Place-Names, by Tom Savage (University of Iowa Press, 2007) p92
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  81. ^ Carol Turner, Notorious Telluride: Wicked Tales from San Miguel County (Arcadia Publishing, 2010)
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  83. ^ Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen (Penguin, 2005)
  84. ^ Edwin M. Borchard, Convicting the Innocent: Sixty-Five Actual Errors of Criminal Justice (Garden City Publishing, 1932) pp36-37
  85. ^ Bryan Gilliam, The Life of Richard Strauss (Cambridge University Press, 1999) p78
  86. ^ "Boer Colonel Is Sent to Commons", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 22, 1901, p1
  87. ^ Rushdi Said, The River Nile: Geology, Hydrology and Utilization (Pergammon Press, 2013) p260
  88. ^ "Venezuela Faces New Revolution— President Castro Discovers a Plot and Arrests His Minister of War", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 23, 1901, p4
  89. ^ "Victims of Riots in Athens Buried — Metropolitan Quits", Chicago Daily Inter Ocean, November 23, 1901, p2
  90. ^ Miles P. DuVal, Cadiz to Cathay: The Story of the Long Struggle for a Waterway Across the American Isthmus (Stanford University Press, 1940) p183
  91. ^ Bill Chastian, The Steve Spurrier Story: From Heisman to Head Ball Coach (Taylor Trade Publishing, 2002) p23
  92. ^ Kevin M. McCarthy, Fightin' Gators: A History of University of Florida Football (Arcadia Publishing, 2000)
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  94. ^ "Harvard Beats Yale by 22 to 0", Chicago Sunday Tribune, November 24, 1901, p17
  95. ^ C. Collin Davies, The Problem of the North-West Frontier, 1890–1908 (Cambridge University Press, 2013) p132
  96. ^ Robert E. Kennedy, A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers (Oxford University Press, 2012) pp19-20
  97. ^ Michelle Nevius and James Nevius, Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City (Simon and Schuster, 2009)
  98. ^ Tim Gracyk, with Frank Hoffmann, Popular American Recording Pioneers: 1895–1925 (Routledge, 2012) p316
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  100. ^ "Football", in Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, by R. Andrew Nickson (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015) p237
  101. ^ "Greek Cabinet Is Out — Ministry Resigns as Result of Recent Riots", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 25, 1901, p4
  102. ^ "Sleep at Bottom of Sea — Holland Submarine Boat Test Proves Successful", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 25, 1901, p1
  103. ^ James L. Zychowicz, Mahler's Fourth Symphony (Oxford University Press, 2005) p141
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  106. ^ "United States in Control of Isthmus Line — Marines from American Warships Now in Charge of the Railway from Colon to Panama", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 26, 1901, p1
  107. ^ Leonardo Ferreira, Centuries of Silence: The Story of Latin American Journalism (Greenwood, 2006) p151
  108. ^ "French Indemnities Voted", New York Tribune, November 26, 1901, p3
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  114. ^ Elaine Walters Raymo, Images of America: Detroit's Holy Cross Cemetery (Arcadia Publishing, 2009)
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  116. ^ "EXTRA— Wabash Trains Crash in Michigan; Killed Number 80 and Injured 125", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 28, 1901, p1
  117. ^ "Wreck Victims Now Number 75", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 30, 1901, p3
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  123. ^ David H. Finnie, Shifting Lines in the Sand: Kuwait's Elusive Frontier with Iraq (I.B.Tauris, 1992) pp20-21
  124. ^ "Michigan's Flag Leads Them All— Defeat of Iowa Makes Its Season's Total Score 501 to Adversaries' 0", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 29, 1901, p5
  125. ^ "Alabama", in State Constitutions of the United States by Robert Maddex (CQ Press, 2005) p2
  126. ^ "McGovern, Joseph Terrence", in Historical Dictionary of Boxing, by John Grasso (Scarecrow Press, 2013) p276
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  129. ^ "Peace Restored on the Isthmus", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 30, 1901, p4
  130. ^ "Form New Ball League — Hickey Will Make Chicago His Headquarters", Chicago Daily Tribune, November 30, 1901, p6
  131. ^ Olga Matich, Erotic Utopia: The Decadent Imagination in Russia's Fin de Siecle (University of Wisconsin Press, 2005) p213
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