Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame de Paris (French: [nɔtʁə dam də paʁi] (listen); meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), referred to simply as Notre-Dame,[a] is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the 4th arrondissement of Paris. The cathedral was consecrated to the Virgin Mary and considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture. Its pioneering use of the rib vault and flying buttress, its enormous and colourful rose windows, as well as the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration set it apart from the earlier Romanesque style. Major components that make Notre Dame stand out include its large historic organ and its immense church bells.
|Notre-Dame de Paris|
South façade and the nave of Notre-Dame in 2010 (before the fire in 2019)
|Location||Parvis Notre-Dame – Place Jean-Paul-II, Paris|
|Status||Under renovation after the 2019 fire|
|Length||128 m (420 ft)|
|Width||48 m (157 ft)|
|Number of towers||2|
|Tower height||69 m (226 ft)|
|Number of spires||1 (destroyed by fire)|
|Spire height||91.44 m (300.0 ft) (formerly)|
|Director of music||Sylvain Dieudonné|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii|
|Part of||Paris, Banks of the Seine|
|Official name||Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris|
The cathedral's construction began in 1160 under Bishop Maurice de Sully and was largely complete by 1260, though it was modified frequently in the following centuries. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the French Revolution; much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. In the 19th century, the cathedral was the site of the coronation of Napoleon I and the funerals of many Presidents of the French Republic.
Popular interest in the cathedral blossomed soon after the publication, in 1831, of Victor Hugo's novel Notre-Dame de Paris (better known in English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame). This led to a major restoration project between 1844 and 1864, supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. The Allied liberation of Paris in 1944 was celebrated within Notre-Dame with the singing of the Magnificat. Beginning in 1963, the cathedral's façade was cleaned of centuries of soot and grime. Another cleaning and restoration project was carried out between 1991 and 2000.
The cathedral is one of the most widely recognized symbols of the city of Paris and the French nation. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris (Michel Aupetit). In 1805, Notre-Dame was given the honorary status of a minor basilica. Approximately 12 million people visit Notre-Dame annually, making it the most visited monument in Paris. The cathedral was renowned for its Lent sermons, founded by the Dominican Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire in the 1830s. In recent years, an increasing number have been given by leading public figures and state-employed academics.
The cathedral has been progressively stripped of its original decoration and works of art. Several noteworthy examples of Gothic, Baroque, and 19th-century sculptures and a group of 17th- and early 18th-century altarpieces remain in the cathedral's collection. Some of the most important relics in Christendom, including the Crown of Thorns, a sliver of the true cross and a nail from the true cross, are preserved at Notre-Dame.
While undergoing renovation and restoration, the roof of Notre-Dame caught fire on the evening of 15 April 2019. Burning for around 15 hours, the cathedral sustained serious damage, including the destruction of the flèche (the timber spirelet over the crossing) and most of the lead-covered wooden roof above the stone vaulted ceiling. Contamination of the site and the nearby environment resulted. Following the fire, many proposals were made for modernizing the cathedral's design. However, on 29 July 2019, the French National Assembly enacted a law requiring that the restoration must preserve the cathedral's 'historic, artistic and architectural interest'. Stabilizing the structure against possible collapse is expected to continue until the end of 2020, with reconstruction beginning in 2021. The government of France hopes the reconstruction can be completed by Spring 2024, in time for the opening of the 2024 Summer Olympics in Paris.
It is believed that before the arrival of Christianity in France, a Gallo-Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter stood on the site of Notre-Dame. Evidence for this is the Pillar of the Boatmen, discovered in 1710. This building was replaced with an Early Christian basilica. It is unknown whether this church, dedicated to Saint Stephen, was constructed in the late 4th century and remodelled later, or if it was built in the 7th century from an older church, possibly the cathedral of Childebert I.[b] The basilica, later Cathedral of Saint-Étienne was situated about 40 metres (130 ft) west of Notre-Dame's location and was wider and lower and roughly half its size. For its time, it was very large—70 metres (230 ft) long—and separated into nave and four aisles by marble columns, then decorated with mosaics.
Four churches succeeded the Roman temple before Notre-Dame. The first was the 4th-century basilica of Saint-Étienne, then the Merovingian renovation of that church which was in turn remodeled into a cathedral in 857 under the Carolingians. The last church before the cathedral of Notre-Dame was a Romanesque remodeling of the prior structures that, although enlarged and remodeled, was found to be unfit for the growing population of Paris.[c] A baptistery, the Church of John the Baptist, built before 452, was located on the north side of the church of Saint-Étienne until the work of Jacques-Germain Soufflot in the 18th century.
In 1160, the Bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sully, decided to build a new and much larger church. He summarily demolished the Romanesque cathedral and chose to recycle its materials. Sully decided that the new church should be built in the Gothic style, which had been inaugurated at the royal abbey of Saint Denis in the late 1130s.
The chronicler Jean de Saint-Victor recorded in the Memorial Historiarum that the construction of Notre-Dame began between 24 March and 25 April 1163 with the laying of the cornerstone in the presence of King Louis VII and Pope Alexander III. Four phases of construction took place under bishops Maurice de Sully and Eudes de Sully (not related to Maurice), according to masters whose names have been lost. Analysis of vault stones that fell in the 2019 fire shows that they were quarried in Vexin, a county northwest of Paris, and presumably brought up the Seine by ferry.
The first phase began with the construction of the choir and its two ambulatories. According to Robert of Torigni, the choir was completed in 1177 and the high altar consecrated on 19 May 1182 by Cardinal Henri de Château-Marçay, the Papal legate in Paris, and Maurice de Sully. The second phase, from 1182 to 1190, concerned the construction of the four sections of the nave behind the choir and its aisles to the height of the clerestories. It began after the completion of the choir but ended before the final allotted section of the nave was finished. Beginning in 1190, the bases of the façade were put in place, and the first traverses were completed. Heraclius of Caesarea called for the Third Crusade in 1185 from the still-incomplete cathedral.
Louis IX deposited the relics of the passion of Christ, which included the Crown of thorns, a nail from the Cross and a sliver of the Cross, which he had purchased at great expense from the Latin Emperor Baudouin II, in the cathedral during the construction of the Sainte-Chapelle.
The decision was made to add a transepts at the choir, where the altar was located, in order to bring more light into the center of the church. The use of simpler four-part rather than six-part rib vaults meant that the roofs were stronger and could be higher. After Bishop Maurice de Sully's death in 1196, his successor, Eudes de Sully oversaw the completion of the transepts, and continued work on the nave, which was nearing completion at the time of his own death in 1208. By this time, the western façade was already largely built, though it was not completed until around the mid-1240s. Between 1225 and 1250 the upper gallery of the nave was constructed, along with the two towers on the west façade.
Another significant change came in the mid-13th century, when the transepts were remodeled in the latest Rayonnant style; in the late 1240s Jean de Chelles added a gabled portal to the north transept topped off by a spectacular rose window. Shortly afterward (from 1258) Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept. Both these transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture; the south portal features scenes from the lives of St Stephen and of various local saints, while the north portal featured the infancy of Christ and the story of Theophilus in the tympanum, with a highly influential statue of the Virgin and Child in the trumeau. Master builders Pierre de Chelles, Jean Ravy, Jean le Bouteiller, and Raymond du Temple succeeded de Chelles and de Montreuil and then each other in the construction of the cathedral. Ravy completed de Chelles's rood screen and chevet chapels, then began the 15-metre (49 ft) flying buttresses of the choir. Jean le Bouteiller, Ravy's nephew, succeeded him in 1344 and was himself replaced on his death in 1363 by his deputy, Raymond du Temple.
An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of the flying buttress. Before the buttresses, all of the weight of the roof pressed outward and down to the walls, and the abutments supporting them. With the flying buttress, the weight was carried by the ribs of the vault entirely outside the structure to a series of counter-supports, which were topped with stone pinnacles which gave them greater weight. The buttresses meant that the walls could be higher and thinner, and could have much larger windows. The date of the first buttresses is not known with any great precision beyond an installation date in the 13th century. Art historian Andrew Tallon, however, has argued based on detailed laser scans of the entire structure that the buttresses were part of the original design. According to Tallon, the scans indicate that "the upper part of the building has not moved one smidgen in 800 years," whereas if they were added later some movement from prior to their addition would be expected. Tallon thus concluded that "flying buttresses were there from the get-go." The first buttresses were replaced by larger and stronger ones in the 14th century; these had a reach of fifteen metres between the walls and counter-supports.
Early six-part rib vaults of the nave. The ribs transferred the thrust of the weight of the roof downward and outwards to the pillars and the supporting buttresses.
Later flying buttresses of the apse of Notre-Dame (14th century) reached 15 metres from the wall to the counter-supports.
John of Jandun recognized the cathedral as one of Paris's three most important buildings [prominent structures] in his 1323 Treatise on the Praises of Paris:
That most glorious church of the most glorious Virgin Mary, mother of God, deservedly shines out, like the sun among stars. And although some speakers, by their own free judgment, because [they are] able to see only a few things easily, may say that some other is more beautiful, I believe, however, respectfully, that, if they attend more diligently to the whole and the parts, they will quickly retract this opinion. Where indeed, I ask, would they find two towers of such magnificence and perfection, so high, so large, so strong, clothed round about with such multiple varieties of ornaments? Where, I ask, would they find such a multipartite arrangement of so many lateral vaults, above and below? Where, I ask, would they find such light-filled amenities as the many surrounding chapels? Furthermore, let them tell me in what church I may see such a large cross, of which one arm separates the choir from the nave. Finally, I would willingly learn where [there are] two such circles, situated opposite each other in a straight line, which on account of their appearance are given the name of the fourth vowel [O]; among which smaller orbs and circles, with wondrous artifice, so that some arranged circularly, others angularly, surround windows ruddy with precious colors and beautiful with the most subtle figures of the pictures. In fact, I believe that this church offers the carefully discerning such cause for admiration that its inspection can scarcely sate the soul.— Jean de Jandun, Tractatus de laudibus Parisius
King Louis XIV, on the insistence of his father, Louis XIII, decided in 1699 to make extensive modifications to Notre-Dame. He tasked Robert de Cotte with the renovation. Cotte replaced the rood screen with a sumptuous and gilded wrought iron fence, opened up the choir and ambulatory, and removed the tombs in the nave. New furniture was produced as well as the current high altar, depicting Louis XIV and Louis XIII kneeling before a Pietà.
Since 1449, the Parisian goldsmith guild had made regular donations to the cathedral chapter. In 1630, it was decided that the guild would donate a large altarpiece every year on the first of May. These works came to be known as the grands mays. The subject matter was restricted to episodes from the Acts of the Apostles. The prestigious commission was awarded to the most prominent painters and, after 1648, members of the Academie royale.
Seventy-six paintings had been donated by 1708, when the custom was discontinued for financial reasons. Those works were confiscated in 1793 and the majority were subsequently dispersed among regional museums in France. Those that remained in the cathedral were removed or relocated within the building by the 19th-century restorers.
Thirteen of the grands mays remain in Nôtre Dame:
- La Descente du Saint Esprit by Jacques Blanchard, 1634
- Saint Pierre guérissant les malades de son ombre by Laurent de la Hyre, 1635
- La Conversion de saint Paul by Laurent de la Hyre, 1637
- Le Centenier Corneille aux pieds de saint Pierre by Aubin Vouet, 1639
- La Prédication de saint Pierre à Jérusalem by Charles Poerson, 1642
- Le Crucifiement de saint Pierre by Sébastien Bourdon, 1643
- Le Crucifiement de saint André by Charles Le Brun, 1647
- Saint Paul rend aveugle le faux prophète Barjesu et convertit le proconsul Sergius by Nicolas Loir, 1650
- La Lapidation de saint Étienne by Charles Le Brun, 1651
- La Flagellation de Saint Paul et Silas by Louis Testelin, 1655
- Saint André tressaille de joie à la vue de son supplice par by Gabriel Blanchard, 1670
- Le Prophète Agabus prédisant à saint Paul ses souffrances à Jérusalem by Louis Chéron, 1687
- Les fils de Sceva battus par le démon by Mathieu Elyas, 1702
These paintings suffered water damage during the fire of 2019 and were removed for conservation.
An altarpiece depicting the Visitation, painted by Jean Jouvenet in 1707, was also located in the cathedral.
The canon Antoine de La Porte commissioned for Louis XIV six paintings depicting the life of the Virgin Mary for the choir. At this same time, Charles de La Fosse painted his Adoration of the Magi, now in the Louvre. Louis Antoine de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris, extensively modified the roof of Notre-Dame in 1726, renovating its framing and removing the gargoyles with lead gutters. Noailles also strengthened the buttresses, galleries, terraces, and vaults. In 1756, the cathedral's canons decided that its interior was too dark. The medieval stained glass windows, except the rosettes, were removed and replaced with plain, white glass panes. Finally, Jacques-Germain Soufflot was tasked with the modification of the portals at the front of the cathedral to allow processions to more easily enter it.
French Revolution and NapoleonEdit
After the French Revolution in 1789, Notre-Dame and the rest of the clergy's property in France was seized and made public property. The cathedral was rededicated in 1793 to the Cult of Reason, and then to the Cult of the Supreme Being in 1794. During this time, many of the treasures of the cathedral were either destroyed or plundered. The twenty-eight statues of biblical kings located at the west façade, mistaken for statues of French kings, were beheaded. Many of the heads were found during a 1977 excavation nearby, and are on display at the Musée de Cluny. For a time the Goddess of Liberty replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars. The cathedral's great bells escaped being melted down. All of the other large statues on the façade, with the exception of the statue of the Virgin Mary on the portal of the cloister, were destroyed. The cathedral came to be used as a warehouse for the storage of food and other non-religious purposes.
With the Concordat of 1801, Napoleon Bonaparte restored Notre-Dame to the Catholic Church, though this was only finalized on 18 April 1802. Napoleon also named Paris's new bishop, Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, who restored the cathedral's interior. Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine made quasi-Gothic modifications to Notre-Dame for the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor of the French within the cathedral. The building's exterior was whitewashed and the interior decorated in Neoclassical, then in vogue.
After the Napoleonic Wars, Notre-Dame was in such a state of disrepair that Paris officials considered its demolition. Victor Hugo, who admired the cathedral, wrote the novel Notre-Dame de Paris (published in English as The Hunchback of Notre-Dame) in 1831 to save Notre-Dame. The book was an enormous success, raising awareness of the cathedral's decaying state. The same year as Hugo's novel was published, however, anti-Legitimists plundered Notre-Dame's sacristy and broke its stained glass windows. In 1844 King Louis Philippe ordered that the church be restored.
The architect who had hitherto been in charge of Notre-Dame's maintenance, Étienne-Hippolyte Godde, was dismissed. In his stead, Jean-Baptiste Lassus and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, who had distinguished themselves with the restoration of the nearby Sainte-Chapelle, were appointed in 1844. The next year, Viollet-le-Duc submitted a budget of 3,888,500 francs, which was reduced to 2,650,000 francs, for the restoration of Notre-Dame and the construction of a new sacristy building. This budget was exhausted in 1850, and work stopped as Viollet-le-Duc made proposals for more money. In totality, the restoration cost over 12 million francs. When Lassus died in 1857, Viollet-le-Duc was left sole architect of the project until its completion on 31 May 1864. Supervising a large team of sculptors, glass makers and other craftsmen, and working from drawings or engravings, Viollet-le-Duc remade or added decorations if he felt they were in the spirit of the original style. One of the latter items was a taller and more ornate spire, to replace the original 13th century spire, which had been removed in 1786. The decoration of the restoration included a statue of Saint Thomas that resembles Viollet-le-Duc, as well as the sculpture of mythical creatures on the Galerie des Chimères.
The construction of the sacristy was especially financially costly. To secure a firm foundation, it was necessary for Viollet-le-Duc's labourers to dig 9 metres (30 ft). Master glassworkers meticulously copied styles of the 13th century, as written about by art historians Antoine Lusson and Adolphe Napoléon Didron.
During the liberation of Paris in August 1944, the cathedral suffered some minor damage from stray bullets. Some of the medieval glass was damaged, and was replaced by glass with modern abstract designs. On 26 August, a special mass was held in the cathedral to celebrate the liberation of Paris from the Germans; it was attended by General Charles De Gaulle and General Philippe Leclerc.
In 1963, on the initiative of culture minister André Malraux and to mark the 800th anniversary of the cathedral, the façade was cleaned of the centuries of soot and grime, restoring it to its original off-white colour.
The Requiem Mass of Charles de Gaulle was held in Notre-Dame on 12 November 1970. The next year, on 26 June 1971, Philippe Petit walked across a tight-rope strung up between Notre-Dame's two bell towers and entertained spectators.
The stone masonry of the cathedral's exterior had deteriorated in the 19th and 20th century due to increased air pollution in Paris, which accelerated erosion of decorations and discoloured the stone. By the late 1980s, several gargoyles and turrets had also fallen off or become too loose to remain in place. A decade-long renovation programme began in 1991 and replaced much of the exterior, with care given to retain the authentic architectural elements of the cathedral, including rigorous inspection of new limestone blocks. A discreet system of electrical wires, not visible from below, was also installed on the roof to deter pigeons. The cathedral's pipe organ was upgraded with a computerized system to control the mechanical connections to the pipes. The west face was cleaned and restored in time for millennium celebrations in December 1999.
The set of four 19th-century bells atop the northern towers at Notre-Dame were melted down and recast into new bronze bells in 2013, to celebrate the building's 850th anniversary. They were designed to recreate the sound of the cathedral's original bells from the 17th century. Despite the 1990s renovation, the cathedral had continued to show signs of deterioration that prompted the national government to propose a new renovation program in the late 2010s. The entire renovation was estimated to cost €100 million, which the Archbishop of Paris planned to raise through funds from the national government and private donations. A €6 million renovation of the cathedral's spire began in late 2018 and continued into the following year, requiring the temporary removal of copper statues on the roof and other decorative elements days before the April 2019 fire.
Notre-Dame began a year-long celebration of the 850th anniversary of the laying of the first building block for the cathedral on 12 December 2012. During that anniversary year, on 21 May 2013, Dominique Venner, a historian and white nationalist, placed a letter on the Church altar and shot himself, dying instantly. Around 1,500 visitors were evacuated from the cathedral.
French police arrested two people on 8 September 2016 after a car containing seven gas canisters was found near Notre-Dame.
On 10 February 2017, French police arrested four persons in Montpellier already known by authorities to have ties to radical Islamist organizations on charges of plotting to travel to Paris and attack the cathedral. Later that year, on 6 June, visitors were shut inside Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris after a man with a hammer attacked a police officer outside.
On 15 April 2019 the cathedral caught fire, destroying the spire and the "forest" of oak roof beams supporting the lead roof. It was speculated that the fire was linked to ongoing renovation work.
According to later studies, the fire broke out in the attic of the cathedral at 18:18. The smoke detectors immediately signaled the fire to a cathedral employee, who did not summon the fire brigade but instead sent a cathedral guard to investigate. Instead of going to the correct attic, the guard was sent to the wrong location, to the attic of the adjoining sacristy, and reported there was no fire. The guard telephoned his supervisor, who did not immediately answer. About fifteen minutes later the error was discovered, whereupon the guard's supervisor told him to go to the correct location. The fire brigade was still not notified. By the time the guard had climbed the three hundred steps to the cathedral attic the fire was well advanced. The alarm system was not designed to automatically notify the fire brigade, which was finally summoned at 18:51 after the guard had returned from the attic and reported a now-raging fire, and more than half an hour after the fire alarm had begun sounding. Firefighters arrived in less than ten minutes.
The spire of the cathedral collapsed at 19:50, bringing down some 750 tonnes of stone and lead. The firefighters inside were ordered back down. By this time the fire had spread to the north tower, where the eight bells were located. The firefighters concentrated their efforts in the tower. They feared that, if the bells fell, they could wreck the tower, and endanger the structure of the other tower and the whole cathedral. They had to ascend a stairway threatened by fire, and to contend with low water pressure for their hoses. As other firefighters watered the stairway and the roof, a team of twenty climbed up the narrow stairway of the south tower, crossed to the north tower, lowered hoses to be connected to fire engines outside the cathedral, and sprayed water on the fire beneath the bells. By 21:45, they were finally able to bring the fire under control. The main structure was intact; firefighters saved the façade, towers, walls, buttresses, and stained glass windows. The Great Organ, which has over 8,000 pipes and was built by François Thierry in the 18th century was also saved but sustained water damage. Because of the ongoing renovation, the copper statues on the spire had been removed before the fire. The stone vaulting that forms the ceiling of the cathedral had several holes but was otherwise intact.
Since 1905, France's cathedrals (including Notre-Dame) have been owned by the state, which is self-insured. Some costs might be recovered through insurance coverage if the fire is found to have been caused by contractors working on the site. The French insurer AXA provided insurance coverage for two of the contracting firms working on Notre-Dame's restoration before the blaze which devastated the cathedral. AXA also provided insurance coverage for some of the relics and artworks in the cathedral.
An ornate tapestry woven in the early 1800s is going on public display for only the third time in recent decades. The decoration was rescued from Notre-Dame de Paris cathedral after the fire.
For the first time in more than 200 years, the Christmas mass was not hosted at the cathedral on 25 December 2019, due to the ongoing restoration work after the fire.
Stabilization of building and reconstructionEdit
Immediately after the fire, President Macron promised that Notre-Dame would be restored, and called for the work to be completed within five years. An international architectural competition was also announced to redesign the spire and roof. The hasty spire competition announcement drew immediate criticism in the international press from heritage academics and professionals who faulted the French government for being too narrowly focused on quickly building a new spire, and neglecting to frame its response more holistically as an inclusive social process encompassing the whole building and its long-term users. A new law was immediately drafted to make Notre Dame exempt from existing heritage laws and procedures, which prompted an open letter to President Macron signed by over 1,170 heritage experts urging respect for existing regulations. The law, which passed on 11 May 2019, was hotly debated in the French National Assembly, with opponents accusing Macron's administration of using Notre-Dame self-servingly for political grandstanding, and defenders arguing the need for expediency and tax breaks to encourage philanthropic giving.
President Macron suggested he was open to a "contemporary architectural gesture". Even before the competition rules were announced, architects around the world offered suggestions: the proposals included a 100 meter spire made of carbon fibre, covered with gold leaf; a roof built of stained glass; a greenhouse; a garden with trees, open to the sky; and a column of light pointed upwards. A poll published in the French newspaper Le Figaro on 8 May 2019 showed that 55% of French respondents wanted a spire identical to the original. French culture minister Franck Riester promised that the restoration "will not be hasty." On 29 July 2019, the French National Assembly enacted a law requiring that the restoration must "preserve the historic, artistic and architectural interest of the monument".
In October 2019, the French government announced that the first stage of reconstruction, the stabilising of the structure against collapse, would take until the end of 2021. Reconstruction could not begin before early 2021. President Macron announced that he hoped the reconstructed Cathedral could be finished by Spring 2024, in time for the opening of the 2024 Summer Olympics. In December 2019, Monsignor Patrick Chauvet, the rector of the cathedral, said there was still a 50% chance that Notre-Dame cannot be saved due to the risk of the remaining scaffolding falling onto the three damaged vaults.
The first task of the restoration is the removal of 250–300 tonnes of melted metal tubes, the remains of the scaffolding, which remained on the top after the fire, and could still fall onto the vaults and cause the collapse of the structure. This stage began in February 2020 and was to continue through April 2020. A large crane, eighty-four metres high, was put in place next to the cathedral to help remove the scaffolding. The stained glass windows have been removed from the nave, and the flying buttresses have been reinforced with wooden arches to stabilise the structure.
On 15 March 2020, the dismantling and removal of the melted scaffolding from the cathedral roof and interior was halted, due to the health and safety restrictions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Reconstruction resumed, with social distancing, on 27 April 2020.
On 10 April 2020, the Archbishop of Paris, Michel Aupetit, and a handful of participants, all in protective clothing, performed a Good Friday service inside the cathedral. Music was provided by the violinist Renaud Capuçon; the lectors were the actors Philippe Torreton and Judith Chemla. Chemla gave an a cappella rendition of Ave Maria.
A new phase of the restoration commenced on 8 June 2020. Two teams of workers began descending into the roof to remove the tangle of tubes of the old scaffolding melted by the fire. The workers will use saws to cut up the forty thousand pieces of scaffolding, weighing altogether two hundred tons, which will be carefully lifted out of the roof by an eighty-meter tall crane.
Towers and the spireEdit
The 19th-century spire was destroyed in the 2019 fire.
The rooster reliquary atop the spire. It was found lightly damaged in the rubble after the 2019 fire.
The two towers are 69 metres (226 ft) high, and were the tallest structures in Paris until the completion of the Eiffel Tower in 1889. The towers were the last major element of the cathedral to be constructed. The south tower was built first, between 1220 and 1240, and the north tower between 1235 and 1250. The newer north tower is slightly larger, as can be seen when they are viewed from directly in front of the church. The contrefort or buttress of the north tower is also larger.
The north tower was accessible to visitors by a stairway, whose entrance was on the north side of the tower. The stairway has 387 steps, and has a stop at the Gothic hall at the level of the rose window, where visitors could look over the parvis and see a collection of paintings and sculpture from earlier periods of the cathedral's history.
The ten bells of the cathedral are located in the south tower. (see Bells below)
A lead-roofed water reservoir between the two towers – behind the colonnade and the gallery and before the nave and the pignon (gable) – provides water for firefighting.
The cathedral's flèche (or spire), which was destroyed in the April 2019 fire, was located over the transept. The original spire was constructed in the 13th century, probably between 1220 and 1230. It was battered, weakened and bent by the wind over five centuries, and finally was removed in 1786. During the 19th-century restoration, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc decided to recreate it, making a new version of oak covered with lead. The entire spire weighed 750 tonnes.
Following Viollet-le-Duc's plans, the spire was surrounded by copper statues of the twelve Apostles—a group of three at each point of the compass. In front of each group is a symbol representing one of the four evangelists: a winged ox for Saint Luke, a lion for Saint Mark, an eagle for Saint John and an angel for Saint Matthew. Just days prior to the fire, the statues were removed for restoration. While in place, they had faced outwards towards Paris, except one: the statue of Saint Thomas, the patron saint of architects, faced the spire, and had the features of Viollet-le-Duc.
The rooster weathervane atop the spire contained three relics: a tiny piece from the Crown of Thorns in the cathedral treasury, and relics of Saint Denis and Saint Genevieve, patron saints of Paris. They were placed there in 1935 by Archbishop Jean Verdier, to protect the congregation from lightning or other harm. The rooster with relics intact was recovered in the rubble shortly after the 2019 fire.
Iconography – the "poor people's book"Edit
Illustration of the Last Judgment, central portal of west façade
The martyr Saint Denis, holding his head, over the Portal of the Virgin
The serpent tempts Adam and Eve; part of the Last Judgment on the central portal of west façade
A strix on the west façade
Gargoyles were the rainspouts of the Cathedral
Chimera on the façade
Allegory of alchemy, central portal
The Gothic cathedral was a liber pauperum, a "poor people's book", covered with sculptures vividly illustrating biblical stories, for the vast majority of parishioners who were illiterate. To add to the effect, all of the sculpture on the façades was originally painted and gilded. The tympanum over the central portal on the west façade, facing the square, vividly illustrates the Last Judgment, with figures of sinners being led off to hell, and good Christians taken to heaven. The sculpture of the right portal shows the coronation of the Virgin Mary, and the left portal shows the lives of saints who were important to Parisians, particularly Saint Anne, the mother of the Virgin Mary.
The exteriors of cathedrals and other Gothic churches were also decorated with sculptures of a variety of fabulous and frightening grotesques or monsters. These included the gargoyle, the chimera, a mythical hybrid creature which usually had the body of a lion and the head of a goat, and the Strix or stryge, a creature resembling an owl or bat, which was said to eat human flesh. The strix appeared in classical Roman literature; it was described by the Roman poet Ovid, who was widely read in the Middle Ages, as a large-headed bird with transfixed eyes, rapacious beak, and greyish white wings. They were part of the visual message for the illiterate worshipers, symbols of the evil and danger that threatened those who did not follow the teachings of the church.
The gargoyles, which were added in about 1240, had a more practical purpose. They were the rain spouts of the cathedral, designed to divide the torrent of water which poured from the roof after rain, and to project it outwards as far as possible from the buttresses and the walls and windows where it might erode the mortar binding the stone. To produce many thin streams rather than a torrent of water, a large number of gargoyles were used, so they were also designed to be a decorative element of the architecture. The rainwater ran from the roof into lead gutters, then down channels on the flying buttresses, then along a channel cut in the back of the gargoyle and out of the mouth away from the cathedral.
Amid all the religious figures, some of the sculptural decoration was devoted to illustrating medieval science and philosophy. The central portal of the west façade is decorated with carved figures holding circular plaques with symbols of transformation taken from alchemy. The central pillar of the central door of Notre-Dame features a statue of a woman on a throne holding a scepter in her left hand, and in her right hand, two books, one open (symbol of public knowledge), and the other closed (esoteric knowledge), along with a ladder with seven steps, symbolizing the seven steps alchemists followed in their scientific quest of trying to transform ordinary metals into gold.
Many of the statues, particularly the grotesques, were removed from façade in the 17th and 18th century, or were destroyed during the French Revolution. They were replaced with figures in the Gothic style, designed by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, during the 19th century restoration.
Stained glass – rose windowsEdit
The stained glass windows of Notre-Dame, particularly the three rose windows, are among the most famous features of the cathedral. The west rose window, over the portals, was the first and smallest of the roses in Notre-Dame. It is 9.6 metres in diameter, and was made in about 1225, with the pieces of glass set in a thick circular stone frame. None of the original glass remains in this window; it was recreated in the 19th century.
The two transept windows are larger and contain a greater proportion of glass than the rose on the west façade, because the new system of buttresses made the nave walls thinner and stronger. The north rose was created in about 1250, and the south rose in about 1260. The south rose in the transept is particularly notable for its size and artistry. It is 12.9 metres in diameter; with the claire-voie surrounding it, a total of 19 metres. It was given to the cathedral by King Louis IX of France, known as Saint Louis.
The south rose has 94 medallions, arranged in four circles, depicting scenes from the life of Christ and those who witnessed his time on earth. The inner circle has twelve medallions showing the twelve apostles. (During later restorations, some of these original medallions were moved to circles farther out). The next two circles depict celebrated martyrs and virgins. The fourth circle shows twenty angels, as well as saints important to Paris, notably Saint Denis, Margaret the Virgin with a dragon, and Saint Eustace. The third and fourth circles also have some depictions of Old Testament subjects. The third circle has some medallions with scenes from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew which date from the last quarter of the 12th century. These are the oldest glass in the window.
Additional scenes in the corners around the rose window include Jesus' Descent into Hell, Adam and Eve, the Resurrection of Christ. Saint Peter and Saint Paul are at the bottom of the window, and Mary Magdalene and John the Apostle at the top.
Above the rose was a window depicting Christ triumphant seated in the sky, surrounded by his Apostles. Below are sixteen windows with painted images of Prophets. These were not part of the original window; they were painted during the restoration in the 19th century by Alfred Gérenthe, under the direction of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, based upon a similar window at Chartres Cathedral.
The south rose had a difficult history. In 1543 it was damaged by the settling of the masonry walls, and not restored until 1725–1727. It was seriously damaged in the French Revolution of 1830. Rioters burned the residence of the archbishop, next to the cathedral, and many of the panes were destroyed. The window was entirely rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in 1861. He rotated the window by fifteen degrees to give it a clear vertical and horizontal axis, and replaced the destroyed pieces of glass with new glass in the same style. The window today contains both medieval and 19th century glass.
In the 1960s, after three decades of debate, it was decided to replace many of the 19th-century grisaille windows in the nave designed by Viollet-le-Duc with new windows. The new windows, made by Jacques Le Chevallier, are without human figures and use abstract grisaille designs and colour to try to recreate the luminosity of the cathedral's interior in the 13th century.
The 2019 fire left the three great medieval rose windows essentially intact, but with some damage. The rector of the Cathedral noted that one rose window would have to be dismantled, as it was unstable and at risk. Most of the other damaged windows were of much less historical value.
The Archaeological Crypt (Crypte archéologique de l'île de la Cité) was created in 1965 to protect a range of historical ruins discovered during construction work and spanning from the earliest settlement in Paris to the modern day. The crypt is managed by the Musée Carnavalet, and contains a large exhibit, detailed models of the architecture of different time periods, and how they can be viewed within the ruins. The main feature still visible is the under-floor heating installed during the Roman occupation.
One of the earliest organs at Notre-Dame, built in 1403 by Friedrich Schambantz, was replaced between 1730 and 1738 by François Thierry. During the restoration of the cathedral by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Aristide Cavaillé-Coll built a new organ, using pipe work from the former instruments. The organ was dedicated in 1868.
In 1904, Charles Mutin modified and added several stops; in 1924, an electric blower was installed. An extensive restoration and cleaning was carried out by Joseph Beuchet in 1932. Between 1959 and 1963, the mechanical action with Barker levers was replaced with an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed.
During the following years, the stoplist was gradually modified by Robert Boisseau (who added three chamade stops: 8′, 4′, and 2′/16′ in 1968) and Jean-Loup Boisseau after 1975, respectively. In autumn 1983, the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk.
Between 1990 and 1992, Jean-Loup Boisseau, Bertrand Cattiaux, Philippe Émeriau, Michel Giroud, and the Société Synaptel revised and augmented the instrument throughout. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console. Between 2012 and 2014, Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The stop and key action was upgraded, a new console was built, (again using the stop keys, pedal board, foot pistons and balance pedals of the 1992 console), a new enclosed division ("Résonnance expressive", using pipework from the former "Petite Pédale" by Boisseau, which can now be used as a floating division), the organ case and the façade pipes were restored, and a general tuning was carried out. The current organ has 115 stops (156 ranks) on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8,000 pipes.
It was reported that the organ was not damaged in the fire of July 2019, but will need cleaning.
Couplers: II/I, III/I, IV/I, V/I; III/II, IV/II, V/II; IV/III, V/III; V/IV, Octave grave général, inversion Positif/Grand-orgue, Tirasses (Grand-orgue, Positif, Récit, Solo, Grand-Chœur en 8; Grand-Orgue en 4, Positif en 4, Récit en 4, Solo en 4, Grand-Chœur en 4), Sub and Super octave couplers and Unison Off for all manuals (Octaves graves, octaves aiguës, annulation 8′). Octaves aiguës Pédalier.
Additional features: Coupure Pédalier. Coupure Chamade. Appel Résonnance. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. 50,000 combinations (5,000 groups each). Replay system.
The position of titular organist ("head" or "chief" organist; French: titulaires des grands orgues) at Notre-Dame is considered one of the most prestigious organist posts in France, along with the post of titular organist of Saint Sulpice in Paris, Cavaillé-Coll's largest instrument.
- Guillaume Maingot (1600–1609)
- Jacques Petitjean (1609–1610)
- Charles Thibault (1610–1616)
- Charles Racquet (1618–1643)
- Jean Racquet (c. 1643 – 1689)
- Médéric Corneille (1689–1730)
- Guillaume-Antoine Calvière (1730–1755)
- René Drouart de Bousset (1755–1760)
- Charles-Alexandre Jollage (1755–1761)
- Louis-Claude Daquin (1755–1772)
- Armand-Louis Couperin (1755–1789)
- Claude Balbastre (1760–1793)
- Pierre-Claude Foucquet (1761–1772)
- Nicolas Séjan (1772–1793)
- Claude-Étienne Luce (1772–1783)
- Jean-Jacques Beauvarlet Charpentier (1783–1793)
- Antoine Desprez (1802–1806)
- François Lacodre dit Blin (1806–1834)
- Joseph Pollet (1834–1840)
- Félix Danjou (1840–1847)
- Eugène Sergent (1847–1900)
- Louis Vierne (1900–1937)
- Léonce de Saint-Martin (1937–1954)
- Pierre Cochereau (1955–1984)
- Yves Devernay (1985–1990)
- Jean-Pierre Leguay (1985–2015)
- Philippe Lefebvre (since 1985)
- Olivier Latry (since 1985)
- Vincent Dubois (since 2016)
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The cathedral has ten bells. The bourdon, called Emmanuel, weighing at 13 tonnes and tuned to F sharp, has accompanied major historical events since its 15th-century casting, such as the coronation of French kings, papal visits, and the end of conflicts such as World War I and World War II. It also rings in times of sorrow like for the funerals of the French heads of state, tragedies such as the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, and on special holidays like Christmas, Easter, and Ascension. It was recast at the request of King Louis XIV in 1681, and escaped the events of the 1789 French Revolution.
Four bells replaced those destroyed in the French Revolution. Placed at the top of the North Tower in 1856, these ring daily for the Angelus and the chiming of the hours. The first bell, named Angélique-Françoise, weighs 1,915 kg and is tuned to C sharp; the next bell is named Antoinette-Charlotte, weighing 1,335 kg (2,943 lb) and tuned to D sharp. The bell named Jacinthe-Jeanne weighs 925 kg (2,039 lb) tuned to F and the fourth bell named Denise-David weighs 767 kg (1,691 lb) and like the Grand Bell Emmanuel, it is tuned to F sharp. In 1867, a carillon of three bells in the spire with two chimes that linked to the monumental clock were put in place and another three bells were positioned in the structure of Notre-Dame, so that they could be heard inside. These are mute, although a project is planned to restore the Carillon to its former glory. The four bells that were put in place in 1856 are stored, as of February 2012.
About a year later, a new set of eight bells for the North Tower of Notre-Dame was produced, along with a Grand Bell for the South Tower, just as there were originally before most were destroyed during the French Revolution. The construction of bells was done with accuracy and precision to obtain the desired sound and the work was entrusted to two separate companies, one in France for the eight bells and one in Belgium for the Grand Bell. Each of the new bells is named to pay tribute to saints and others who have shaped the life of Paris and the Notre-Dame.
Emmanuel is accompanied by another large bell in the south tower called Marie. At six tonnes and playing G Sharp, Marie is the second largest bell in the cathedral. Marie is also called a Little Bourdon (petite bourdon) or a drone bell because it is located alongside Emmanuel in the south tower. Built in a foundry in The Netherlands, it has engravings distinctive from the other bells. The phrases "Je vous salue Marie," in French, and "Via viatores quaerit," in Latin, which mean "Hail Mary" (where the bell gets its name from the Virgin Mary) and "The way is looking for travellers". Below the phrase is an image of the Baby Jesus and his parents surrounded by stars and a relief with the Adoration of the Magi. It is in charge of the Small Solennel, which is similar to the Great Solennel except that the ringing peal starts with the bourdon and the eight bells in the north tower. This rings only on 1 January (New Year's Day) at the stroke of midnight and it replaces Emmanuel for international events. Like Emmanuel, the bells are used to mark moments such as the arrival at the Cathedral of the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris.
In the North Tower, there are eight bells varying in size. Gabriel is the largest bell; it weighs four tonnes and plays an A sharp. It is named after the Archangel Gabriel, who announced the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary. Built in a bell foundry outside Paris in 2013, it also chimes the hour through the day. Like Emmanuel and Marie, Gabriel is used to mark specific events. It is used mainly for masses on Sundays in ordinary times and some solemnities falling during the week in the Plenum North. It shows 40 circular lines representing the 40 days Jesus spent in the desert and the 40 years of Moses' crossing the Sinai.
Anne-Geneviève is the second largest bell in the North Tower and the fourth largest bell in the cathedral. Named after two saints: St. Anne, Mary's mother, and St. Geneviève the patron saint of Paris, it plays a B and it weighs three tonnes. It has three circular lines that represent the Holy Trinity and three theological virtues. Like Emmanuel, Marie and Gabriel, Anne-Genevieve is used to mark specific moments such as the opening of the doors to the Palm Sunday mass or the body of the deceased Archbishop of Paris. Also it is the only bell that does not participate in a chime called the Angelus Domini, which happens in the summer at 8 am, noon and 8 pm (or 9 am, noon and 9 pm).
Denis is the third largest bell in the North Tower and fifth largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after St. Denis, the martyr who was also the first bishop of Paris around the year 250; it weighs 2 tonnes and plays a C sharp. This bell includes the third phrase of the Angelus, "Behold the handmaid of the Lord". There are seven circular lines representing the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the seven Sacraments.
Marcel is the fourth largest bell in the North Tower and sixth largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after the 9th bishop of Paris. It plays a D sharp and weighs 1.9 tonnes. It is named after Saint Marcel, the ninth bishop of Paris, known for his tireless service to the poor and sick in the fifth century. The bell that bears his name has engraved upon it the fourth sentence of the Angelus, "Be it done unto me according to Thy word".
Étienne is the fifth largest bell in the North Tower and seventh largest bell in the cathedral. It is named after St. Étienne (English St. Stephen), the first Christian martyr. It plays an E sharp and weighs 1.5 tonnes with its most prominent feature being its gold stripe slightly above the nameplate.
Benoît-Joseph is the sixth largest bell in the North Tower and eighth largest bell in the cathedral. The bell is named in honor of Pope Benedict XVI, using the French version of his pontifical name combined with his given name (Joseph). It plays an F and weighs 1.3 tonnes. It has two silver stripes above the skirt and one silver stripe above the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings and sometimes chimes the hour replacing Gabriel, most likely on a chime called the Ave Maria.
Maurice is the seventh largest bell in the North Tower and second smallest in the cathedral. It is named after Maurice de Sully, the bishop of Paris who laid the first stone for the construction of the cathedral. It includes the inscription, "Pray for us, Holy Mother of God". It plays a G sharp and weighs one tonne. It has two gray stripes below the nameplate. This bell is used for weddings.
Jean Marie is the smallest bell of the cathedral. Unlike Benoît-Joseph and Anne-Geneviève which have two names, it is named after Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, Paris' bishop from 1981 until 2005, and on it is engraved the eighth and last sentence of the Angelus: "that we might be made worthy of the promises of Christ". It plays an A sharp and weighs 0.780 tonnes. It has a small gray stripe above the skirt. This bell is also used for weddings.
The first clocks used at Notre-Dame were clepsydras. These were used to tell the hours, which were marked by striking bells. In the 14th century Notre-Dame had two clepsydras running simultaneously, one in the cloister and one in the church itself. A lay chamberlain was responsible to keep the clocks filled with water and to notify a churchwarden when it was time to strike the bells for the hour. Such a job had to be ongoing 24 hours a day.
In 1766, MM. Guillot de Montjoye and Jean-Bernard de Vienne, canons and members of Notre-Dame's factory counsel, donated a mechanical clock to the cathedral. The movement was installed in a glass cabinet in the gallery beneath the north rose window and rang three bells placed outside above the north portal. Between 1812 and 1813, the clock and the three bells were moved to the north tower. A 1.34 metres (4 ft 5 in) clock face was installed inside the church just below the organ platform.
During Viollet-le-Duc's restoration in the 19th century, a new clock was made. The 1867 Collin-Wagner movement, measuring two meters (6.5 feet) across, was located in the forest underneath the central spire. This controlled four dormer clock faces visible on the transept roofs, two on each side. This clock was destroyed in the 2019 fire. Shortly after the fire, French clockmaker Jean-Baptiste Vior discovered an almost identical 1867 Collin-Wagner movement in storage at Sainte-Trinité Church in northern Paris. Olivier Chandez, who had been responsible for the upkeep of Notre-Dame's clock, described the find as "almost a miracle." While the clock cannot simply be installed in Notre-Dame itself, it is hoped that the clock can be used to create a new clock for Notre-Dame to the same specifications as the one which was destroyed.
Until the French Revolution, Notre-Dame was the property of the Archbishop of Paris and therefore the Roman Catholic Church. It was nationalized on 2 November 1789 and since then has been the property of the French state. Under the Concordat of 1801, use of the cathedral was returned to the Church, but not ownership. Legislation from 1833 and 1838 clarified that cathedrals were maintained at the expense of the French government. This was reaffirmed in the 1905 law on the separation of Church and State, designating the Catholic Church as having the exclusive right to use it for religious purposes in perpetuity. Notre-Dame is one of seventy historic churches in France with this status. The archdiocese is responsible for paying the employees, for security, heating and cleaning, and for ensuring that the cathedral is open free to visitors. The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French state.
- The name Notre Dame, meaning "Our Lady" was frequently used in names of churches including the cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims and Rouen.
- Excavations have failed to accurately determine the architectural history of the Île de la Cité. It appears that Bishop Sully entirely dug out the foundations of the early Christian basilica so as to found Notre-Dame on the bedrock under the island.
- The growth of the population of Paris and other French cities was characteristic of Western Europe during the Renaissance of the 12th century. It is thought that the population of Paris grew from 25,000 in 1180 to 50,000 in 1220, making it the largest European city outside of Italy.
- Breeden, Aurelien (15 April 2019). "Part of Notre-Dame Spire Collapses as Paris Cathedral Catches Fire". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Musique Sacrée à Notre-Dame de Paris". msndp. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Mérimée database 1993
- Ducher 1988, pp. 46–62.
- "Facts on the Notre Dame Cathedral in France". traveltips.usatoday.com. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "Historique de la construction" (in French). Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
- "Paris facts". Paris Digest. 2018. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- Harbour Unrue, Darlene (2005). "Antonieta Rivas Mercado: Katherine Anne Porter's Horror and Inspiration". Journal of the Southwest. 47 (4): 615–635.
- Elian Peltier, James Glanz, Weiyi Cai, Jeremy White, Notre-Dame's Toxic Fallout, The New York Times, 14 September 2019, with production by Mona Boshnaq, Umi Syam, and Gaia Tripoli.
- Bandarin, Francesco (2 August 2019). "New law regarding Notre Dame says restoration must preserve its 'historic, artistic and architectural interest'". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
- Radio France International, 10 October 2019
- "Workers start to remove charred scaffolding around Notre-Dame Cathedral". Reuters. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
- "Notre-Dame de Paris. Une des premières cathédrales gothiques de France" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Mortet 1888, pp. 5–6.
- Fourny, Marc (12 December 2012). "Les dix secrets de Notre-Dame de Paris". Le Point (in French). Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Paris à l'époque de Philippe Auguste". philippe-auguste.com (in French). Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Rouche, Michel (19 December 2012), "Jubilé de cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris – La symbolique des cathédrales : approche historique, religieuse, sociale", La voix est libre (in French), Radio Notre-Dame
- de Villefosse 1980, p. 25.
- Henriet 2005, p. 294.
- Lesté-Lasserre, Christa (12 March 2020). "Scientists are leading Notre Dame's restoration—and probing mysteries laid bare by its devastating fire". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb6744.
- Viollet-le-Duc 1868, p. 288.
- Delisle 1873, p. 68.
- Bruzelius 1987, pp. 540–69.
- Williamson 1995.
- Shea, Rachel Hartigan (16 April 2019). "Historian uses lasers to unlock mysteries of Gothic cathedrals". National Geographic. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Inglis 2003, pp. 63–85.
- Allmand, C. (May 1982). "The Coronations of Henry VI". History Today. Vol. 32 no. 5. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017.
- "Notre-Dame de Paris, joyau de l'art gothique, célèbre ses 850 ans". Libération (in French). 12 December 2012.
- Chavis, Jason. "Facts on the Notre Dame Cathedral in France". USA Today. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Fontaines et réservoirs de Paris". 400ansaqueducmedicis.org (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "Les grands "Mays"". notredamedeparis.fr.
- "L'Adoration des mages" (in French). The Louvre. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- Lassus & Viollet-le-Duc 1843, p. 18.
- Archives parlementaires, Vol. 22, pp. 202–05.
- Duvergier 1825, p. 281.
- "Visiting the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris: Attractions, Tips & Tours". planetware. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- Herrick 2004, pp. 75–76.
- "Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris" (in French). Foundation Napoleon. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- Mignon, Olivier, Architecture des Cathédrales Gothiques, (2015), Éditions Ouest-France, (in French), pg. 18
- Cabezas 1988, pp. 118–20.
- Laurent, Xavier (2003). Grandeur et misère du patrimoine, d'André Malraux à Jacques Duhamel (1959–1973) (in French). ISBN 9782900791608. OCLC 53974742.
- "France mourns de Gaulle; world leaders to attend a service at Notre Dame". New York Times. 11 November 1970. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- "Sneaky Juggler Has Ball Up in Sky at Notre Dame". Ogden-Standard Examiner. 27 June 1971.
- Gohn, Pat (15 April 2019). "Prayer of St. John Paul II at Notre Dame from May 30, 1980". Catholic Digest. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- Whitney, Craig R. (9 January 1996). "Francois Mitterrand Dies at 79; Champion of a Unified Europe". New York Times. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Simons, Marlisle (9 April 1992). "To Notre Dame's Rescue, Sickly Gargoyles and All". The New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- August, Marilyn (7 April 1991). "Notre Dame Church Will Get Face Lift". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Paris pigeons to get shock treatment at Notre Dame". The Guardian. 14 April 1998. Retrieved 16 April 2019 – via Deseret News.
- Whitney, Craig R. (3 April 1995). "Notre Dame's Organ and Computer Are No Duet". The New York Times. p. A4. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Bremner, Charles (21 December 1999). "Paris given a millennium makeover". The Times. p. 15.
- "Nicolas Sarkozy assistera aux obsèques du cardinal Lustiger". L'Express (in French). 9 August 2007. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- de la Baume, Maia (19 October 2011). "A Melodic Emblem Falls Out of Tune". The New York Times. p. A6. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "New Notre Dame bells make harmonious history". USA Today. Associated Press. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Breeden, Aurelien (28 September 2017). "In Paris, Worn-Out Notre-Dame Needs a Makeover, and Hopes You Can Help". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Walt, Vivienne (27 July 2017). "Notre Dame Cathedral Is Crumbling. Who Will Help Save It?". Time. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Sage, Adam (10 March 2018). "Paris's crumbling Notre-Dame looks to wealthy foreigners for salvation". The Times. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Massive fire engulfs beloved Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris". Associated Press. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Notre-Dame cathedral: Macron pledges reconstruction after fire". BBC News. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Paris's Notre Dame cathedral celebrates 850 years". GIE ATOUT FRANCE. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Frémont, Anne-Laure. "Un historien d'extrême droite se suicide à Notre-Dame". Le Figaro (in French). Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- Hinnnant, Lori; Sotto, Philippe (7 September 2017). "Gas Containers Found Near Notre Dame". U.S. News. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- McAuley, James (10 February 2016). "After Louvre attack, France foils another terrorist plot". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- "Paris: Inside Notre-Dame during lockdown". BBC News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Notre Dame, Paris: Hundreds put in terror lockdown". Queensland Time. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Seiger, Theresa. "Fire reported at Paris' Notre Dame cathedral". Atlanta Journal Constitution. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- El-Bawab, Nadine (15 April 2019). "Roof burns at Paris' Notre Dame Cathedral as massive fire rages". CNBC. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Peltier, Elian; Glanz, James; Gröndahl, Mika; Cai, Weiyi; Nossiter, Adam; Alderman, Liz (16 July 2019). "Notre-Dame came far closer to collapsing than people knew. This is how it was saved". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
- Bennhold, Katrin; Glanz, James (19 April 2019). "Notre-Dame's Safety Planners Underestimated the Risk, With Devastating Results". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- Landauro, Inti (17 April 2017). "Paris firefighters got on Notre-Dame site in less than 10 minutes". Reuters. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- Garcia-Navarro, Lulu; Wharton, Ned (21 April 2019). "After The Flames, Notre Dame's Centuries-Old Organ May Never Be The Same Again". NPR. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- "Notre-Dame cathedral engulfed by fire". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Notre Dame Cathedral Fire, Paris, France". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Mallet, Victor (16 April 2019). "Macron says he wants Notre-Dame rebuilt in 5 years". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "France's AXA provided insurance cover for two Notre-Dame contractors". Reuters. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- Diebelius, Georgia (15 April 2019). "Firefighter and two police officers injured battling 'catastrophic' Notre-Dame fire". Metro UK. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Arts - Entertainment | Reuters.com". www.reuters.com. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- Reuters (25 December 2019). "No Christmas mass at Notre-Dame for the first time since Napoleon". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
- '´Le Parisien', 16 April 2019
- "Notre-Dame cathedral engulfed by fire". BBC News. 15 April 2019. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "The Latest: French leader vows to rebuild damaged Notre Dame". Associated Press. 15 April 2019. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Years? Decades? Uncertainty over time needed to rebuild Notre-Dame". AFP.com. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Henley, Jon (17 April 2019). "France announces contest to redesign Notre Dame spire". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- Otero-Pailos, Jorge (19 April 2019). "In Notre Dame, we find a heritage that invites us to breathe and reflect: A spire competition is the wrong approach". The Art Newspaper. ISSN 0960-6556. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Bandarin, Francesco (30 April 2019). "Notre Dame Should Be Rebuilt As It Was". The Art Newspaper. ISSN 0960-6556. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Collective, Tribune (29 April 2019). "Notre-Dame: 'Monsieur le président, ne dessaisissez pas les experts du patrimoine!'". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Rescan, Manon (11 May 2019). "Le projet de loi pour la restauration de Notre-Dame adopté par l'Assemblée nationale: Ce projet de loi prévoit des dérogations aux règles d'urbanisme pour respecter le calendrier voulu par Emmanuel Macron". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 13 May 2019.
- Marshall, Alex (10 May 2019). "Glass, Golden Flames or a Beam of Light: What Should Replace Notre-Dame's Spire?". The New York Times.
- Klar, Rebecca (25 December 2019). "Notre Dame rector sees 'maybe' 50 percent chance cathedral can be saved". TheHill.
- Bacon, John. "Notre Dame Cathedral, empty for Christmas, may never recover from devastating fire". USA TODAY.
- LCI News, 20 December 2019
- "Builders back at Paris's Notre-Dame after COVID-19 shutdown". France 24. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Vénération de la Sainte Couronne d'épines à Notre-Dame de Paris". KTO TV YouTube Channel. KTO TV. 10 April 2020.
- Salomé Vincendon (10 April 2020). "Vendredi saint à Notre-Dame". bfmtv.com. BFM TV.
- "L'émouvante interprétation de l'Ave Maria chanté par la comédienne Judith Chemla". BFM TV YouTube Channel. BFM TV. 10 April 2020.
- "Incendie de Notre-Dame de Paris : le délicat démontage de l'échafaudage commence". Le Monde.fr (in French). 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- Marcel Aubert, Notre-Dame de Paris : sa place dans l'histoire de l'architecture du xiie au xive siècle, H. Laurens, 1920, p. 133. (in French)
- País, El (15 April 2019). "La catedral de Notre Dame de París sufre un importante incendio". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Saunders, Father William (18 October 2019). "What are the Symbols of the Four Evangelists?". Catholic Exchange. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- Buncombe, Andrew (15 April 2019). "Notre Dame's historic statues safe after being removed just days before massive fire". The Independent. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Notre Dame weathervane comes home to roost". Catholic Herald. Catholic News Agency. 18 April 2019. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
- Viollet-le-Duc, Eugéne, Dictionnaire Raisonné de l'architecture Française du XIe au XVI siecle, Volume 6. (Project Gutenburg).
- Renault and Lazé (2006), page 35
- Frazer, James George (1933) ed., Ovid, Fasti VI. 131–, Riley (1851), p. 216 harvp error: no target: CITEREFRiley1851 (help), tr.
- Wenzler 2018, pp. 97–99.
- "West rose window of Notre Dame de Paris, Notre Dame Cathedral West Rose Window, Detail, Digital and Special Collections, Georgetown University Library". Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "The South Rose- official site of Notre Dame de Paris -" (in French). Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
- Le Figaro, 17 April 2019
- Guyonnet, Paul (16 April 2019). "Notre-Dame: Les vitraux des rosaces ont survécu à l'incendie". Huffington Post France. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- Crypte archéologique du parvis Notre-Dame website Archived 21 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- McBride, Jessica. "Notre Dame Great Bell Emmanuel: Was It Destroyed?". heavy.com. Heavy, Inc. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
- Zetlin, Minda (11 September 2016). "What Being in Paris on 9/11 Taught Us About the Power of Empathy". Inc. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
- Sandron, Dany; Tallon, Andrew (2020). Notre Dame Cathedral: Nine Centuries of History. University Park, Pennsylvania, USA: The Pennsylvania University Press.
- Gilbert, Antoine P.M. (1821). Description historique de la Basilique métropolitaine de Paris: ornée de gravures. Paris: Chez Adrien Le Clere, Imprimeur de S. Em. Mgr. le Cardinal Archeveque de Paris, quai des Augustins, no. 35. p. 151.
- "Replica clock find sparks hope for Notre-Dame restoration". CTV News. AFP News Agency. 26 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- Watchmaker finds model to replace Notre-Dame's destroyed clock (Online video) (in French and English). AFP News Agency. 25 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
- "À qui appartient la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris?". BFM TV (in French). 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Eglises et de l'Etat" (in French). Government of France. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Communique of the Press and Communication Service of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-Paris, November 2014.
- Bruzelius, Caroline (December 1987). "The Construction of Notre-Dame in Paris". The Art Bulletin. 69 (4): 540–569. doi:10.1080/00043079.1987.10788458. JSTOR 3050998.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Davis, Michael T. "Splendor and Peril: The Cathedral of Paris, 1290–1350." The Art Bulletin (1998) 80#1 pp: 34–66.
- Herrick, James A. (2004). The Making of the New Spirituality. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-3279-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Inglis, Erik (2003). "Gothic Architecture and a Scholastic: Jean de Jandun's Tractatus de laudibus Parisius". Gesta. 42 (XLII/1): 63–85. doi:10.2307/25067075. JSTOR 25067075.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jacobs, Jay, ed. The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals. New York City: American Heritage Publishing, 1968
- Janson, H. W. History of Art. 3rd Edition. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986
- Myers, Bernard S. Art and Civilization. New York City: McGraw-Hill, 1957
- Stone, Daniel (2001). The Polish–Lithuanian State, 1386–1795. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98093-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Williamson, Paul (1995). Gothic Sculpture, 1140–1300. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-030006-338-7. OCLC 469571482.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wright, Craig. Music and ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500–1550 (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
- Cabezas, Hervé (1988). "Du "vitrail archéologique"". Revue d'archéologie moderne et d'archéologie générale. 6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Delisle, Léopold, ed. (1873). Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé du Mont-Saint-Michel. Le Brument.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ducher, Robert (1988). Caractéristique des Styles. Flammarion. ISBN 2-08-011539-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Duvergier, Jean-Baptiste (1825). Collection complète des lois, décrets, ordonnances, réglements, et avis du Conseil d'État (1 ed.). Guyot et Scribe.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Henriet, Jacques (2005). A l'aube de l'architecture gothique. University of Franche-Comté Press. ISBN 9782848671178.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lassus, Jean-Baptiste; Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène (1843). Projet de restauration de Notre-Dame de Paris. Imprimerie Lacombe.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Leproux, Guy-Michel (2001). La peinture à Paris sous le règne de François Ier. Sorbonne. ISBN 9782840502104.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mignon, Olivier (2015). Architecture des Cathédrales Gothiques (in French). Éditions Ouest-France. ISBN 978-2-7373-6535-5.
- Mortet, Victor (1888). Étude historique et archéologique sur la cathédrale et le palais épiscopal de Paris du vie au xiie siècle. A. Picard.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Pisani, Paul (1908). L'Église de Paris et la Révolution. Al. Picard.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Renault, Christophe and Lazé, Christophe, Les Styles de l'architecture et du mobilier, (2006), Gisserot; ISBN 9-782877-474658
- Teulet, Alexandre (1862). Relations politiques de la France et de l'Espagne avec l'Écosse au XVIe siècle. 1. Renouard.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Tonazzi, Pascal. Florilège de Notre-Dame de Paris (anthologie), Editions Arléa, Paris, 2007, ISBN 2-86959-795-9
- de Villefosse, René Héron (1980). Solennités, fêtes et réjouissances parisiennes. Association pour la publication d'une histoire de Paris.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Viollet-le-Duc, Eugène (1868). Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle. Édition BANCE.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wenzler, Claude (2018). Cathédales Cothiques – un Défi Médiéval. Éditions Ouest-France. ISBN 978-2-7373-7712-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Notre-Dame de Paris|
- "Monument historique – PA00086250". Mérimée database of Monuments Historiques (in French). France: Ministère de la Culture. 1993. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- Official website of Notre-Dame de Paris (in English) also (in French)
- Official website of Friends of Notre-Dame de Paris
- List of Facts about Notre-Dame de Paris
- Notre-Dame de Paris's Singers
- Official site of Music at Notre-Dame de Paris
- Panoramic view
- Further information on the Organ with specifications of the Grandes Orgues and the Orgue de Choeur
- Photos: Notre-Dame de Paris – The Gothic Cathedral, Flickr
- Notre Dame Cathedral Facts