Newark Light Rail

The Newark Light Rail (NLR) is a light rail system serving Newark, New Jersey and surrounding areas, operated by New Jersey Transit Bus Operations. The service consists of two segments, the original Newark City Subway (NCS), and the extension to Broad Street station.[6][7] The City Subway opened on May 16, 1935, while the combined Newark Light Rail service was officially inaugurated on July 17, 2006.[3]

Newark Light Rail
New Jersey Transit Newark Light Rail Kinkisharyo104.jpg
A Newark Light Rail train crosses Broad Street by Riverfront Stadium in Newark, pulling into the Newark Broad Street station.
OwnerNew Jersey Transit
(within Newark)
Norfolk Southern
(in Belleville and Bloomfield)
LocaleEssex County
TerminiNewark Penn Station
Grove Street (City Subway Line)
Newark Broad St. (Broad Street Extension)
WebsiteNJ Transit
TypeLight rail
SystemNew Jersey Transit
Operator(s)New Jersey Transit Bus Operations
Rolling stock21 Kinki Sharyo LRVs
Ridership5,431,305 [1]
OpenedMay 16, 1935 (City Subway)[2]
July 17, 2006 (Broad Street Extension)[3]
Line length6.2 mi (10.0 km)[4]
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Minimum radius33 ft (10.058 m)[5]
Electrification750 V (DC) overhead lines
Operating speed50 mph (80 km/h)
Route map
NLR Map.png

Newark City SubwayEdit

PCC streetcar at Newark Penn Station in 2001, signed as 7 City Subway.

The Newark City Subway is the longer and older of the two segments.[8] The line is a "subway–surface" line which runs underground from downtown to Warren Street, and above-ground north of Warren Street. Before becoming a part of the Newark Light Rail service, it was also known as the #7-City Subway line, an NJT Bus Operations route number carried over from its days when it was part of Public Service's Transport of New Jersey subsidiary. The number still applies internally. (During subway system closures, replacement buses would also bear the route number "7 City Subway.")

The segment is 5.3 mi (8.5 km) long and runs between Grove Street in Bloomfield and Newark Penn Station, a major transportation hub with connections to the PATH rapid transit system to Manhattan, multiple bus routes, and both Amtrak and New Jersey Transit Rail Operations trains.


Newark City Subway leaving Park St. station on September 3, 1965

The line opened in 1935 along the old Morris Canal right-of-way, from Broad Street (now known as Military Park) to Heller Parkway (now replaced by the nearby Branch Brook Park station).[citation needed] Works Progress Administration artists decorated the underground stations with Art Deco scenes from life on the defunct Morris Canal. The southernmost part, south of Warren Street, was capped with a new road, known as Raymond Boulevard. Only one grade crossing was present on the original subway; the line crosses Orange Street at grade so it can pass over the below-grade Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (now NJT Morristown Line) immediately to the north. The original Newark City Subway line had its own right-of-way and did not share city streets with local traffic, except at the Orange Street grade crossing.

Operation of the complete subway to the newly built Penn Station was delayed until 1937. The terminal below Penn Station has five tracks, two incoming and three outgoing, connected by two loop tracks. This part of the subway included a grade-separated junction with a connection to the lower level of the Newark Public Service Terminal that was used for only a few months (June to September).

Newark City Subway at the Franklin Ave. Station, 1965

An extension to a wooden station at North 6th Street or Franklin Avenue was opened in 1940, located north of the present Branch Brook Park station. In 1953 the line was cut back about one block to accommodate construction of a turning loop, and a new station, still called Franklin Avenue, was opened adjacent to Anthony Street. The station was enlarged in 2002 and renamed Branch Brook Park.

The subway was operated by Transport of New Jersey (formerly Public Service Coordinated Transport) as its No. 7 line. Other streetcar routes used parts of the subway, reaching street trackage at the locations shown below, ending as each route was closed and replaced by bus service:

  • Public Service Terminal connection (and Cedar Street Subway), 1937 only: #13 Broad, #17 Paterson, #27 Mount Prospect, #43 Jersey City
  • Warren Street ramp, 1935–1951: #21 Orange—West Orange via Market Street
  • Central Avenue ramp, 1935–1947: #23 Central
  • Orange Street crossing, 1935–1952: #21 Orange—West Orange via Orange Street
  • Bloomfield Avenue ramp, 1935–1952: #29 Bloomfield

Until June 5, 1952, the Roseville Car House, on the south side of Main Street (on the No. 21 line) near the eastern city line of East Orange, was used for the No. 7 line. From that time until 2002, Newark Penn Station was used for storage and maintenance. A new shops and yard complex opened at the end of the extension to Grove Street.

Starting in January 1954, 30 PCC streetcars bought from Twin City Rapid Transit provided all service on the route. They were single-ended, requiring construction of a new turning loop at the Franklin Avenue terminal. The cars had been built 1946–1949 by the St. Louis Car Company and were sold by TCRT when that system went through a conversion to buses. Four cars were scrapped over the years, and two were sold to Shaker Heights Rapid Transit in 1978.

New Jersey Transit took over operations in 1980.

In 2001, new light rail cars built by Kinki Sharyo in Japan in 1999 replaced the PCCs. The last day of PCC service was August 24, 2001.[9]

The former PCC railcar No. 7 from the subway located on the property of the New York Museum of Transportation

Some of the PCCs are stored in the Newark City Subway shop. Eleven were sold in 2004 to the San Francisco Municipal Railway for use on its F Market heritage streetcar line.[10] One PCC, #15, was delivered to the Connecticut Trolley Museum in 2013 for restoration and display. One of the Shaker Heights cars has been restored by the Minnesota Transportation Museum, which operates it on a short stretch of track in western Minneapolis.

In 2005, eight PCCs were given to the City of Bayonne to be rehabilitated and operated along a proposed 2.5-mile (4 km) loop to serve the Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor, formerly Military Ocean Terminal at Bayonne (MOTBY). The proposed line would be connected to the 34th Street station of the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail.[11]

On September 4, 2004, Broad Street Station was renamed Military Park Station, to avoid confusion with the terminal of the new route to the Newark Broad Street Station at University Avenue, operated by New Jersey Transit.

Bloomfield extensionEdit

The former Heller Parkway station in February 2015

On June 22, 2002, the Newark City Subway was extended to the suburbs of Belleville and Bloomfield along what had been the former Erie Railroad Orange Branch, now under Norfolk Southern ownership. New stations were opened at Silver Lake and Grove Street, and the Heller Parkway and Franklin Avenue stations were combined into a new Branch Brook Park station. The loop at Franklin Avenue was removed, since the new vehicles are bidirectional, unlike the old PCCs. A new loop, however, is in place at the Grove Street facility. All the street crossings on the extension are at-grade.[12]

Shared-track operationEdit

The original agreement gave sole operating privileges to Norfolk Southern between 11 pm and 5 am daily, but a new agreement allows passenger service to operate at all hours, with late-night service commencing on January 8, 2005. In exchange, Norfolk Southern can now operate during all off-peak hours, when passenger trains are infrequent.

Broad Street ExtensionEdit

Lyrics to "Send in the Clowns", part of the tribute to Sarah Vaughan built into every station along this line

The Broad Street Extension is the second segment of the Newark Light Rail. It was planned as the first phase of the Newark-Elizabeth Rail Link. The line is one mile (1.6 km) long and connects Newark Penn Station to Broad Street Station. It branches off the older City Subway using the existing junction that had led to the Public Service terminal.[13]

A new tunnel leads from the junction to a portal about two blocks north. The remaining section runs above ground. For a few blocks, the two tracks run on different streets a block or two apart. Both tracks serve the New Jersey Performing Arts Center at Center Street. The outbound track makes stops at Atlantic Street and at the Bears and Eagles Riverfront Stadium. The inbound track makes a stop at Washington Park. The extension opened on July 17, 2006.[3][14][15]

Construction began in 2002 with an estimated cost of $207.7 million, or about $40,000 per foot of track;[16] it was completed within budget.[17] Projections were for 4,000 average weekday boardings after one year, growing to about 7,000 in 2010. Actual weekday boardings in 2010 for both Newark Light Rail lines combined were reported at 9,000.[18]

The art work at the new stations has a common theme, "Riding with Sarah and Wayne." It is intended as a tribute to Newark-born jazz greats Sarah Vaughan and Wayne Shorter, and includes the lyrics to Vaughan's signature song, "Send in the Clowns," and colored bricks representing the music notes.

The Broad Street Extension was intended to ease connections between Newark's two rail stations. The two separate stations are a legacy of their roots in two separate railroads. Broad Street Station was once owned by the Lackawanna Railroad and its successor, the Erie Lackawanna Railway, while Penn Station was built and owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Previously, passengers wanting to transfer between Amtrak and the former PRR/Conrail commuter lines and the former (Erie) Lackawanna commuter lines had to make their own way (usually by taxi or bus) between the two stations.


The Newark Light Rail is equivalent to a one-zone bus ride: a one-way ticket costs $1.60 (as of October 1, 2015), and is valid for one hour on the entire system from the time the ticket is validated. A special $0.75 "Underground" fare is available for trips that use only the subway between Warren Street and Penn Station and not the surface portion. Through-ticketing is available for connecting bus routes. Monthly and weekly NJ Transit bus and rail passes valid for one or more local bus zones, as well as transfers purchased on buses, are also accepted.[19]

The Newark Light Rail, like most light rail systems in the United States, operates on a proof-of-payment system, in which riders must present their tickets upon request during random fare inspections by police officers, transit workers, or fare agents. Passengers must purchase tickets at ticket vending machines (TVMs) located on station platforms or near station entrances. One-way, round-trip, and ten-trip tickets must then be validated at automated validators located near the TVMs, which stamp the date and time on the ticket for 60 minutes of use. NJ Transit's fare inspectors randomly check tickets on trains and at stations; fare evasion carries a fine of up to $100. On the PCC streetcars, cash fares (exact fare) were paid on board via farebox, except for a brief period starting in October 1999 prior to the introduction of LRVs, when proof-of-payment fare collection was instituted.


Newark Light Rail
Grove Street
Silver Lake
Branch Brook Park
Heller Parkway
Davenport Avenue
Bloomfield Avenue
Park Avenue
Orange Street
Norfolk Street
Warren Street/NJIT
Washington Street
Military Park
Newark Broad Street
Riverfront Stadium
Washington Park | Atlantic Street
NJPAC/Center Street
Northeast Corridor
to Boston
Newark Penn Station
Northeast Corridor
to Washington
Newark City Subway
Broad Street Extension

Newark City SubwayEdit

Location Station Opened Closed Transfers Notes
Newark Penn Station June 20, 1937 Buses: 1, 5, 11, 21, 25, 28, 29, 34, 40, 62, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79, 108, and 308, 319, 361, 375, 378
ONE Bus: 31, 44, Greyhound, BoltBus
Rail: New Jersey Transit Northeast Corridor Line, North Jersey Coast Line, Raritan Valley Line
PATH trains to Jersey City, Hoboken, New York City, Amtrak to Philadelphia and points south, and New York Penn Station and points north
Military Park May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 13, 27, 39, 40, 41, 59, 62, 65/66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 76, 78 and 108
ONE Bus: 24, 44
Formerly Broad Street until September 4, 2004;[21] served the Newark Public Service Terminal
Washington Street May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 11, 28, 29, 70, 72, 76, and 78; ONE Bus: 44 (inbound only)
Warren Street/NJIT May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 71, 73, and 79 The station was renamed in 2011 to Warren Street/NJIT from Warren Street.[22]
Norfolk Street May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 99
ONE Bus: 24, 44
Orange Street May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 71, 73, 75
Park Avenue May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 41
Bloomfield Avenue May 26, 1935[20] NJ Transit buses: 11, 28, 29, 72
Davenport Avenue May 26, 1935[20]
Heller Parkway May 26, 1935[20] June 21, 2002[23] Closed for consolidation with Franklin Avenue station by Branch Brook Park.[23]
Branch Brook Park November 22 1940[24] NJ Transit buses: 27, 74, 90, 92 Formerly known as North Sixth Street and Franklin Avenue, the latter until August 27, 2001.[25]
Belleville Silver Lake June 22, 2002[23] NJ Transit buses: 27, 90
Bloomfield Grove Street June 22, 2002[23] NJ Transit buses: 11, 28, 29, 72, 90

Broad Street ExtensionEdit

Location Station Opened Closed Transfers Notes
Newark Penn Station June 20, 1937 Buses: 1, 5, 11, 21, 25, 28, 29, 34, 40, 62, 67, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79, 108, and 308, 319, 361, 375, 378
ONE Bus: 31, 44, Greyhound, BoltBus
Rail: New Jersey Transit Northeast Corridor Line, North Jersey Coast Line, Raritan Valley Line
PATH trains to Jersey City, Hoboken, New York City, Amtrak to Philadelphia and points south, and New York Penn Station and points north
NJPAC/Center Street July 17, 2006[26]
Line splits into one-way directions
Washington Park July 17, 2006[26] NJ Transit buses: 11, 13, 27, 28, 29, 39, 41, 59 Southbound-only stop.
Atlantic Street July 17, 2006[26] Northbound-only stop.
Riverfront Stadium July 17, 2006[26] Northbound-only stop.
Lines re-converge entering Broad Street
Broad Street July 17, 2006[26] NJ Transit buses: 11, 13, 27, 28, 29, 39, 41, 72, 76, 78, and 108
NJ Transit rail: Gladstone Branch, Montclair-Boonton Line, Morristown Line

On weekdays, service operates separately between the two sections. On weekends, service operates jointly.

Rolling stockEdit

The Newark Light Rail system uses a new-model vehicle built by Kinki Sharyo of Japan. This model is the same one used by the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail system, although the ones used on the Newark Light Rail were built with slight modifications to the trucks and wheels due to the different rails used. Like the HBLR vehicles, the NLR vehicle is a double-articulated vehicle with three sections. Each of the two end sections has an operator's cab at the far end, thus eliminating the need for the vehicle to turn itself around physically in order to reverse direction. Each end section also has seating for 16 passengers on an upper level, and seating for 13 passengers on the lower level, including one special fold-down seat next to an empty space that a passenger using a wheelchair may use. With these two sections, and a middle section that seats ten passengers (five on each side), the vehicle can comfortably accommodate 68 seated passengers and two wheelchairs. An additional 122 passengers could stand in the vehicle, if necessary. Vehicles can be coupled into two-unit sets. A contract to expand 10 of the 20 LRVs assigned to the Newark Light Rail system for the purpose of increasing passenger capacity was approved on July 9, 2014.[27]

The Seashore Trolley Museum in Kennebunkport, ME acquired PCC #5 in 2011.[28] The car represents the first piece of NJT rolling stock in the museum's collection. The car is currently undergoing restoration and rehabilitation work so that it may operate on the museum's 1 1/2 mile demonstration railway. Car #5 joins the museum's already-extensive collection of PCC cars from numerous cities, including Boston, Pittsburgh, Dallas, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Kansas CIty.


  • December 22, 1910: The Public Service Corporation first announces plans to build the subway, initially including a line under Broad Street from Bridge Street to Clinton Avenue[29]
  • October 3 1934: The subway opens from Broad Street to Heller Parkway.[30]The No. 21 line is routed onto the subway via the Warren Street Ramp and level junction at the Orange Street grade crossing. The No. 23 line is routed via the Norfolk Street Ramp. The No. 29 line starts using the Bloomfield Avenue Ramp.
  • June 20, 1937: The extension to Newark Penn Station opens. This is the same day that the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad (present-day PATH) withdraws service from its Park Place terminal and first operates into its new alignment at Newark Penn Station. The No. 13, #27 and No. 43 lines are rerouted to Penn Station via the Cedar Street Subway; the No. 27 and No. 43 had used the lower level of the Newark Public Service Terminal.
  • June 21, 1937: The No. 17 line is rerouted via the Cedar Street Subway.
  • July 18, 1937: The No. 13 and No. 17 lines stop using the Cedar Street Subway.
  • December 29, 1937: The No. 27 line stops using the Cedar Street Subway.
  • May 1, 1938: The No. 43 line stops using the Cedar Street Subway, ending all service on that connection.
  • November 22, 1940: The extension to North 6th Street (later Franklin Avenue) opens.
  • December 14, 1947: The No. 23 line stops using the Norfolk Street Ramp.
  • March 1, 1951: The No. 21 line stops using the Warren Street Ramp.
  • March 29, 1952: The No. 21 line stops using the level junction at the Orange Street grade crossing.
  • March 30, 1952: The No. 29 line stops using the Bloomfield Avenue ramps.
  • January 8, 1954: The first PCC car uses the subway.
  • October 1980: NJ Transit takes over operations.
  • August 21, 1999: The subway is closed for two weeks for an overhaul.
  • September 7, 1999: The subway reopens.
  • August 24, 2001: The PCC cars are retired from service.[15]
  • August 27, 2001: The new light rail vehicles begin operation.[31]
  • June 21, 2002: Heller Parkway closes.[32]
  • June 22, 2002: Silver Lake and Grove Street open.[32]
  • September 4, 2004: Broad Street is renamed Military Park.[21]
  • January 8, 2005: Additional late-night service is provided to Grove Street.[33]
  • July 17, 2006: The Newark City Subway extension opens, with service between Newark Penn Station and Newark Broad Street. Service is rebranded as the Newark Light Rail.


The Newark City Subway has had a few accidents over the years:

  • September 22, 1981 – Nine passengers injured when an incoming trolley rammed into the rear of a stationary trolley at Newark Penn Station.[34]
  • April 15, 2003 – A light rail vehicle was partially derailed at the grade crossing near Orange Street Station when a box truck rammed the vehicle from the side. The signal was in the light rail vehicle's favor.[35]
  • August 23, 2008 – A dump truck making an illegal right turn crashed into a light rail vehicle at the Washington Park Station of the Broad Street segment causing it to partially derail. One passenger was injured.[citation needed]
  • August 28, 2014 – A light rail vehicle crashed into a SUV between Atlantic Avenue and Broad Street. No passengers were injured.[36]
  • April 6, 2016 – A light rail vehicle was hit by a car on South Franklin Avenue. No passengers were injured.[37]

In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "NJ Transit Facts At a Glance Fiscal Year 2019" (pdf). NJ Transit. July 2018. Retrieved November 5, 2019.
  2. ^ Pirmann, David & Darlington, Peggy (2012). " Newark, New Jersey Light Rail/City Subway". David Pirmann.
  3. ^ a b c "Newark light rail set to open july 17". NJ Transit. June 22, 2006. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
  4. ^ "NJ Transit Facts At a Glance Fiscal Year 2014" (pdf). NJ Transit. March 2015. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  6. ^ "Newark Light Rail" (PDF map). New Jersey Transit. August 2008. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  7. ^ "Newark Light Rail" (PDF map). New Jersey Transit. January 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2015.
  8. ^ See Riley, John Harrington, "The Newark City Subway Lines," (1987). This scarce book, which covers the history of the subway lines and the predecessor horse and trolley lines, is occasionally available on Amazon.
  9. ^ "Farewell to Newark PCCs" (October 2001). Tramways & Urban Transit, p. 386. Ian Allan Publishing.
  10. ^ "Historic Streetcars in San Francisco". Market Street Railway. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
  11. ^ Peninsula at Bayonne Harbor development plan Archived June 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, page 17, accessed July 25, 2006
  12. ^ Staff. "Subway extension to open in summer, Newark officials hope that the $207.7 million downtown project will help spur a renaissance.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, February 13, 2006. Accessed July 18, 2011. "The last major expansion of the 4.3 mile subway in 2002 brought the service into the neighboring cities of Belleville and Bloomfield."
  13. ^
  14. ^ "Capital Improvement Program - System Expansion Projects - Extension of the Newark Light Rail (NLR) to Newark Broad Street Station". NJ Transit. August 2006. Retrieved August 7, 2013.
  15. ^ a b Klufas, Michael (August 24, 2001). "NJ TRANSIT OFFICIALS, CUSTOMERS, TROLLEY ENTHUSIASTS SAY GOODBYE TO NEWARK CITY SUBWAY'S PCC CARS - New Light Rail Vehicles to Begin Service August 27". NJ Transit. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Press Release 323.
  16. ^ NJ TRANSIT Department of Capital Planning and Programs. "Extension of the Newark Light Rail (NLR) to Newark Broad Street Station". NJ Transit. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Project 005.
  17. ^ Stessel, Dan (July 17, 2006). "NEWARK LIGHT RAIL OPENS TO SUPPORT CITY'S ECONOMIC REVITALIZATION - Connects Newark's two train stations through business district". Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Press Release NJT-06-092, ID 2246.
  18. ^ New Jersey Transit. Retrieved on June 23, 2014.
  19. ^ "Newark Light Rail" (PDF). New Jersey Transit. April 7, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Commuters Hail Newark Subway". The Asbury Park Evening Press. May 27, 1935. p. 17. Retrieved January 14, 2020 – via  
  21. ^ a b "Customer Notice - Newark City Subway Broad Street Station Renamed Military Park Station". NJ Transit. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Customer Notice 1227.
  22. ^ Heyboer, Kelly (March 4, 2011). "Warren Street stop on Newark Subway line to get $40K makeover with help of NJIT student". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  23. ^ a b c d "Two New Stations to Open on the Newark City Subway". New Jersey Transit (Press release). Newark, New Jersey. June 18, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "NJ Transit to Retire Newark City Subway PCC Cars in Late August". New Jersey Transit (Press release). Newark, New Jersey. August 9, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  26. ^ a b c d e "Broad Street Extension of Newark Light Rail Celebrates 10 Years". New Jersey Transit (Press release). Newark, New Jersey. July 18, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2020.
  27. ^ Douglas John Bowen. "NJT OKs LRV add-ons - Railway Age".
  28. ^ Seashore Trolley Museum: Browse the Collection. Retrieved on June 23, 2014.
  29. ^ "Plan Newark Subway". New York Times. December 23, 1910.
  30. ^
  31. ^ Klufas, Michael (August 27, 2001). ""NEW" NEWARK CITY SUBWAY DEBUTS - Smooth, Air-Conditioned Light Rail Vehicles Carry Customers in 21st Century Comfort". NJ Transit. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Press Release 326.
  32. ^ a b "TWO NEW STATIONS TO OPEN ON THE NEWARK CITY SUBWAY - Expanded Service Begins/Weekend Service Resumes on June 22". NJ Transit. June 18, 2002. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Press Release 510.
  33. ^ "NEWARK CITY SUBWAY EXTENDS LATE NIGHT SERVICE, IMPROVES EFFICIENCY - Extra 2 hours of service to Grove Street begins January 8". NJ Transit. December 29, 2004. Archived from the original on November 13, 2006. Retrieved September 6, 2015. Press release NJT-04-084.
  34. ^ "Subway Crash Hurts 9 at Terminal in Newark". The New York Times. September 22, 1981. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
  35. ^ "Truck slams into Newark subway train". Star-Ledger. Newark. April 16, 2003.
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ Mike Frassinelli (February 10, 2013). "Holy subway, Batman! A hidden world of clean, on-time riding exists beneath Newark". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
  • Edward Hamm, Jr., The Public Service Trolley Lines in New Jersey.
  • DOT Docket FRA-2000-7335-7 and −8.

External linksEdit