New York City Ballet
New York City Ballet (NYCB) is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein. Balanchine and Jerome Robbins are considered the founding choreographers of the company. Léon Barzin was the company's first music director. City Ballet grew out of earlier troupes: the Producing Company of the School of American Ballet, 1934; the American Ballet, 1935, and Ballet Caravan, 1936, which merged into American Ballet Caravan, 1941; and directly from the Ballet Society, 1946.
|New York City Ballet|
|Name||New York City Ballet|
|Ballet Mistress||Rosemary Dunleavy|
|Music Director||Andrew Litton|
|Orchestra||The New York City Ballet Orchestra|
|Official school||School of American Ballet|
In a 1946 letter, Kirstein stated, "The only justification I have is to enable Balanchine to do exactly what he wants to do in the way he wants to do it." He served as the company's General Director from 1946 to 1989, developing and sustaining it by his organizational and fundraising abilities.
The company was named New York City Ballet in 1948 when it became resident at City Center of Music and Drama. Its success was marked by its move to the New York State Theater, now David H. Koch Theater, designed by Philip Johnson to Balanchine's specifications. City Ballet went on to become the first ballet company in the United States to have two permanent venue engagements: one at Lincoln Center's David H. Koch Theater on 63rd Street in Manhattan, and another at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, in Saratoga Springs, New York. The School of American Ballet (S.A.B.), which Balanchine founded, is the training school of City Ballet.
After the company's move to the State Theater, Balanchine's creativity as a choreographer flourished. He created works that were the basis of the company's repertory until his death in 1983. His vision influenced dance both across the United States and in Europe. He worked closely with choreographer Jerome Robbins, who resumed his connection with the company in 1969 after having produced works for Broadway.
NYCB still has the largest repertoire by far of any American ballet company. It often stages 60 ballets or more in its winter and spring seasons at Lincoln Center each year, and 20 or more in its summer season in Saratoga Springs. City Ballet has performed The Nutcracker, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, and many more. City Ballet has trained and developed many great dancers since its formation. Many dancers with already developed reputations have also joined the ballet as principal dancers.
Salute to Italy Edit
In 1960, Balanchine mounted City Ballet's Salute to Italy with premieres of Monumentum pro Gesualdo and Variations from Don Sebastian (called the Donizetti Variations since 1961), as well as performances of his La Sonnambula and Lew Christensen's Con Amore. The performance was repeated in 1968.
Stravinsky Festival Edit
In 1972, Balanchine offered an eight-day tribute to the composer, his great collaborator, who had died the year before. His programs included twenty-two new works of his own dances, plus works by choreographers Todd Bolender, John Clifford, Lorca Massine, Jerome Robbins, Richard Tanner, and John Taras, as well as repertory ballets by Balanchine and Robbins. Balanchine created Symphony in Three Movements, Duo Concertant, and Violin Concerto for the occasion. He and Robbins co-choreographed and performed in Pulcinella. Balanchine had produced an earlier Stravinsky festival in 1937 as balletmaster of the American Ballet while engaged by the Metropolitan Opera. The composer conducted the April 27th premiere of Card Party.
Ravel Festival Edit
In 1975, Balanchine paid his respects to the French composer Maurice Ravel with a two-week Hommage à Ravel. Balanchine, Robbins, Jacques d'Amboise, and Taras made sixteen new ballets for the occasion. Repertory ballets were performed as well. High points included Balanchine's Le Tombeau de Couperin and Robbins' Mother Goose.
Tschaikovsky Festival Edit
In 1981, Balanchine planned a two-week NYCB festival honoring the Russian composer Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky. Balanchine, Joseph Duell, d'Amboise, Peter Martins, Robbins, and Taras created twelve new dances. In addition to presenting these and repertory ballets, Balanchine re-choreographed his Mozartiana from 1933. Philip Johnson and John Burgee's stage setting of translucent tubing was designed to be hung and lit in different architectural configurations throughout the entire festival.
Stravinsky Centennial CelebrationEdit
In 1982, Balanchine organized a centennial celebration in honor of his long-time collaborator Igor Stravinsky, during which the City Ballet performed twenty-five ballets set to the composer's music. Balanchine made three new ballets, Tango, Élégie, and Persephone, and a new version of Variations. The choreographer died the following year. Balanchine's 50th Anniversary Celebration was held by the company in 2002.
New York State Theater 20-Year CelebrationEdit
On April 26, 1984, NYCB celebrated the 20th anniversary of the New York State Theater. The program started with Igor Stravinsky's Fanfare for a New Theater, followed by Stravinsky's arrangement of The Star-Spangled Banner. The ballets included three of Balanchine's works, Serenade, Stravinsky Violin Concerto, and Sonatine; and Jerome Robbins' Afternoon of a Faun. The performers included Maria Calegari, Kyra Nichols, Heather Watts, Leonid Kozlov, Afshin Mofid, Patricia McBride, Helgi Tomasson, Karin von Aroldingen, Lourdes Lopez, Bart Cook, and Joseph Duell.
After Balanchine's death in 1983, Peter Martins was selected as balletmaster of the company. After 30 years, Martins was judged to have maintained the New York City Ballet's financial security and the musicality and performance level of the dancers, but he has not emphasized the Balanchine style to the extent that many observers expected he would. Martins retired from his position in 2018.
American Music FestivalEdit
For the company's 40th anniversary, Martins held an American Music Festival, having commissioned dances from choreographers Laura Dean, Eliot Feld, William Forsythe, Lar Lubovitch, and Paul Taylor. He also presented ballets by George Balanchine and Robbins. The programs included world premieres of more than twenty dances. Martins contributed Barber Violin Concerto, Black and White, The Chairman Dances, A Fool for You, Fred and George, Sophisticated Lady, Tanzspiel, Tea-Rose, and The Waltz Project.
Jerome Robbins celebrationEdit
A major component of the Spring 2008 season was a celebration of Jerome Robbins; major revivals were mounted of the following ballets:
Dancers' Choice Edit
Friday, June 27, 2008, the first Dancers’ Choice benefit was held for the Dancers' Emergency Fund. The program was initiated by Peter Martins, conceived and supervised by principal dancer Jonathan Stafford, assisted by Kyle Froman, Craig Hall, Amanda Hankes, Adam Hendrickson, Ask la Cour, Henry Seth, and Daniel Ulbricht, and consisted of:
and excerpts from:
On June 14, 2009, the second Dancers’ Choice benefit was held at a special evening performance. The program included Sleeping Beauty and Union Jack. The program was supervised by principal dancer Jenifer Ringer.
NYCB performs fall, winter and spring repertory seasons at the David H. Koch Theater at Lincoln Center as well as George Balanchine's Nutcracker during November and December; they have a summer residency at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center and regularly tour internationally.
Introductory talks about a current performance, called First Position Discussions, are held before some performances or during some intervals in the fourth ring, house right; the docents are volunteers and include laymen as well as former dancers. Hour-long Inside NYCB events explore the history and inner workings of New York City Ballet through performance and discussion, often with dancers and artistic staff.
Other public programs include Family Saturdays, one-hour interactive programs for children 5 and up; Children's Workshops and In Motion Workshops, pre-performance explorations of the music, movement, and themes of a ballet featured in the matinee performance for children ages 5–8 and 9-11, respectively; and Ballet Essentials, a 75-minute informal ballet class for adults ages 21 and up with little to no prior dance experience. These programs are all facilitated by NYCB dancers.
30 for $30 and Fourth Ring SocietyEdit
New York City Ballet offers day-of tickets to patrons age 30 and under for $30, the day of the performance at the box office. Availability is announced on Mondays during performance periods.
New York City Ballet's Fourth Ring Society offers discounted tickets to members. This program was closed to new members in 2011.
New York Choreographic InstituteEdit
City Ballet's Choreographic Institute was founded by Irene Diamond and Peter Martins in 2000. The institute has three main programmatic programs: choreographic sessions, providing choreographers with dancers and studio space; fellowship initiatives, annual awards in support of an emerging choreographer affiliated with a ballet company; and choreographic forums, symposia and round-table discussions on choreography, music, and design elements.
Children's ballet mistressEdit
- Dena Abergel
Assistant children's ballet masterEdit
- Arch Higgins
The New York City Ballet OrchestraEdit
The 66-member NYCB Orchestra is an important symphonic institution in its own right, having played for virtually all of the thousands of performances NYCB has given over the decades. It is one of the most versatile orchestras in the world, on any given week performing perhaps three or four times the repertoire that another symphony might be expected to do. Principal players of the orchestra also perform the majority of the concertos, other solos, and chamber music in the NYCB repertory as well. The orchestra accompanies the ballet on all of its North American tours, and while the ballet uses local orchestras on its international tours, members of the NYCB Orchestra often go along as soloists or extras.
Besides the members of the orchestra, the NYCB has six pianists on full-time staff. They all perform in the pit with the orchestra on a regular basis.
The NYCB Orchestra also occasionally accompanies other dance companies when they visit The David H. Koch Theater from other cities. These engagements have included the Australian Ballet in the Spring 2012, and the San Francisco Ballet in the Fall 2013.
Over the decades the NYCB Orchestra has welcomed other noted orchestral musicians to collaborate on special performances. Included among this group was John Serry Sr., who served as the lead orchestral accordionist during the NYCB's 20th anniversary season in the premiere of Jacques d' Amboise's Tchaikovsky Suite (1969).
In January 2019, it was announced that an anonymous donor had funded the renaming of the orchestra pit as the "Stravinsky Orchestra Pit" presumably in honor of the great number of premieres and performances of that composer's works the ballet has done, perhaps more than any other orchestra in the world.
- Clotilde Otranto
- Andrews Sill (acting Music Director 2012–2014 and Associate Music Director 2014–present)
- Daniel Capps
- Ryan McAdams (associate conductor 2011)
Historical music directorsEdit
- Leon Barzin, 1948–c1963
- Robert Irving ("The Duke"), c.1963–1989
- Gordon Boelzner, 1989-2000
- Andrea Quinn, 2000–2006
- Fayçal Karoui, 2006–2012
Other conductors of noteEdit
- Hugo Fiorato (retired 2004) (Conductor Emeritus),
- Maurice Kaplow (retired 2010 as Principal Conductor)
Nude photos allegationEdit
In September 2018, Alexandra Waterbury, a former dancer, filed a lawsuit against her former boyfriend, Chase Finlay, and New York City Ballet on the grounds of sexual degradation. Her lawsuit alleges that New York City Ballet condoned, encouraged, fostered, and permitted an unsafe environment where donors, dancers, agents, employees, and others affiliated with the company abused women and violated their basic rights. Waterbury's lawsuit against Finlay and New York City Ballet led to Finlay's resignation from the company and the firing of Amar Ramasar and Zachary Catazaro. She later added Jared Longhitano, a patron of New York City Ballet, as a defendant in her lawsuit.
- Jane Philbin Wood (November 1998). "Memories of Ballet Society and choreographer George Balanchine". Dance Magazine. Archived from the original on 2005-12-24. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
- Laura Raucher (2008). "Kirstein 100: A Tribute Online Exhibition". New York City Ballet. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
- Martin, John (November 4, 1934). "The Dance: American Ballet in debut; A New Group Emerges From Training for First Public Tour". The New York Times.
- Martin, John (June 28, 1936). "The Dance: A new troupe; Group From the American Ballet Organizes Summer Tour". The New York Times.
- Martin, John (May 18, 1941). "The Danse: Bon voyage; American Ballet Caravan Is Revived to Make Extended South American Tour". The New York Times.
- "New Ballet Group enters field here; Balanchine Is Artistic Director of Ballet Society, Which Will Open Season on Nov.20". The New York Times. October 21, 1946.
- Martin, John (October 27, 1946). "The Dance: New Ballet; In 'Three Virgins and a Devil'". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Alastair Macaulay, "A Paragon of the Arts, as Both Man and Titan" (review of Martin Duberman, The Worlds of Lincoln Kirstein), Books of the Times, New York Times, 4 May 2007, accessed 5 January 2015
- Martin, John (June 27, 1948). "The Dance: City Ballet". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Martin, John (October 12, 1948). "City Ballet Group in First Program; Works by Balanchine Offered by Unit as Series of Dance Performances Begins". The New York Times.
- Nicholas Magallanes Obituary, The New York Times, 5 May 1977 on www.nytimes.com
- Anna Kisselgoff, "Francisco Moncion, 76, a Charter Member of New York City Ballet." obituary, New York Times, 4 April 1985.
- A festival of the same name is planned for 2013.
- Dunning, Jennifer (June 11, 1982). "City Ballet opens 8-day celebration of Stravinsky". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- Anderson, Jack (April 26, 1984). "City Ballet: A 20-Year Celebration". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- Sulcas, Roslyn (19 April 2013). "City Ballet's Leader, 30 Years In". New York Times. New York City, United States. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Flit of Fury/The Monarch: premiere
- Macaulay, Alastair (June 15, 2009). "When the Performers Write the Program". The New York Times.
- Dreyer, Lindsay (June 22, 2009). "New York City Ballet's Second Annual Dancers' Choice Benefit Performance". Dancer Universe Blog. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010.
- "First Position Discussions". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Inside NYCB". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Family Saturdays". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Children's Workshops". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "In Motion Workshops". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Ballet Essentials". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "$30 for 30". NYCB. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "City Ballet Raises Ticket Cost and Ire". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "New York Choreographic Institute". NYCB. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "Artistic Staff". New York City Ballet. 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
- Hall will be a soloist through the end of the 2016 Summer tour to Paris, at which time he will be promoted to balletmaster.
- Sulcas, Roslyn (2014-07-09). "New York City Ballet Names Justin Peck as Choreographer". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-10-06.
- "New York City Ballet Orchestra Musicians". nycbo.org. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "NYCB Orchestra". NYCB. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- "'Swan Lake' by Australian Ballet at Koch Theater". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "San Francisco Ballet in Ratmansky and Morris Works". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- "Andrew Litton to Lead New York City Ballet Orchestra". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
- Will Pavia, New York. "New York ballerina Alexandra Waterbury sues over 'abuse' | World". The Times. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- "Alexandra Waterbury: Una exbailarina demanda al ballet de Nueva York por permitir la difusión de sus fotos desnuda | Gente y Famosos". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- "Dancer sues New York City Ballet over nude photos". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- "- The Washington Post". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- "2 fired dancers, donor added to ballet lawsuit". apnews.com. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
- Balanchine. A Biography, Bernard Taper. Collier Books Edition.
- The New York City Ballet. Thirty Years, Lincoln Kirstein.
- The New York City Ballet, Anatole Chujoy. Knopf. 1953.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to New York City Ballet.|
- Official website
- Official website - School of American Ballet
- "New York City Ballet collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- New York City Ballet records, 1934-1976 - Dance Division, The New York Public Library
- New York City Ballet scores, 1930-1965 - Music Division, The New York Public Library
- USA Dance: New York City Ballet (1965) - Educational film featuring George Balanchine and performances by dancers of the New York City Ballet including: Arthur Mitchell, Suzanne Farrell, Patricia McBride, Edward Villella, Jacques D'Amboise and Melisa Hayden on archive.org