New-York Central College

New-York Central College, commonly called New-York Central College, McGrawville, and simply Central College, was an abolitionist[1] institution of higher learning founded by Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor and other anti-slavery Baptists in McGraw, New York (at the time called McGrawville; not modern McGrawville, New York).[2] The sponsoring organization was the American Baptist Free Mission Society, of which Grosvenor was a vice-president.[3] It was chartered by New York State in April 1848, laid the cornerstone of its main building on July 4, and opened in September 1849. Its "prominent features" were "Radical Anti-Slavery, and Equality of the Sexes".[4]

New-York Central College
Main building, New York Central College.jpg
Main building, 1850.
The first two floors held classrooms and the third a dormitory for male students.
Other name
Central College, McGrawville
Active1849–1860
FounderCyrus Pitt Grosvenor
Religious affiliation
Baptist
Students100–200
Location
McGraw (at the time called McGrawville), Cortland County
,
New York
,
13101
,
United States

42°35′46″N 76°05′35″W / 42.5961°N 76.0931°W / 42.5961; -76.0931Coordinates: 42°35′46″N 76°05′35″W / 42.5961°N 76.0931°W / 42.5961; -76.0931

It has been called a predecessor of Cornell University.[5][6]:38

The college lasted about 10 years. As put by the author of a modern study, "A little town tried to create a place without any prejudice, and it did make a difference. It created humanitarians and heroes in a time where nothing else existed like this."[7] While Oberlin and Oneida had accepted African-American students, and Oberlin female students, New-York Central College was the first institution in the country founded to accept all students, and did so from its very first day. This was the vision of its founder, Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor.[2]

As was common in the Antebellum period, when there were no public secondary schools anywhere in America, Central had a large preparatory, or high school, division. Students at the college level were never more than a small minority of the student body. At the first commencement in 1855, there were five graduates, with a student body of well over 100. There were some students at the primary level. Yet there was no question that Central was a college, whatever the ratio of students, and not an academy, whose studies ended at the high school level (typically including Latin and Greek). It was preparing many students for college. It was a college.

The American Baptist Free Mission SocietyEdit

AbolitionismEdit

The American Baptist Free Mission Society broke away from its parent, the American Baptist Home Mission Society, over the issue of slavery, more specifically whether slaveowners could be members, missionaries, or donors to the society.

From the beginning, the College was to be open to all, whatever the "race" or gender. At the presentation to the citizens of McGrawville, its description begins saying that it will differ from the Hamilton Literary & Theological Institution (now Colgate University) in only one feature: "it lays down as a broad platform, the rights and privileges of all classes of citizens as of paramount importance. It will be an Institution of Learning from which no individual will be rejected."[8] :42 Hamilton had a reputation for not opposing slavery; Gerrit Smith resigned from their Board of Trustees "on the grounds that the school was insufficiently anti-slavery".[9]:44 When Hamilton students sent a petition to the New York Legislature "in behalf of the oppressed free colored citizens of the state",[10] this made them "guilty of the awful crime of abolitionism",[11] and the Legislature almost immediately withdrew the College's $5,000 appropriation.[12] The President and five professors, with the support of "citizens of Oneida County", informed the legislature than an outsider (a legislator) had misled the students, who "disclaim all sympathy with abolition societies". The anti-slavery petition was unauthorized by the faculty, and "at variance with the principles of the college government, and with the judgment and feeling of every officer of the institution".[13] The appropriation was immediately restored.[14][15]

Founding of its collegeEdit

 
New York Central College at its opening in 1849

The College was founded in McGrawville because of a pledge by the village of $12,000 (equivalent to $329,271 in 2019) towards construction costs; Perry, New York, had offered $10,000.[16] The initial community meeting in McGrawville to discuss the proposed college was held on November 22, 1847. It already had a Board of Trustees, with Rev. Cyrus P. Grosvenor of Utica, who spoke at the meeting, as President. Its location not yet determined, it was referred to as the "Baptist Free Mission Institution".[17] Construction commenced on June 26, 1848, and the cornerstone was laid on July 4. In the cornerstone was a box with 20 items, many of them abolitionist newspapers or pamphlets.[18] By then it was referred to as the Free Central College.[19][20]

Speaking at the laying of the cornerstone, Grosvenor "vindicated the character of Women, repelled the idea of her inferiority to man, and maintained the necessity of giving to our daughters an education equal to that given to our sons."[19] Of the students whose gender can be determined, 35% were women.[21]:I, [p. 7]

The Bible was "to be introduced as a text-book and test-book from beginning to end of the course of instruction."[19] Manual labor, including farmwork, was to be part of students' daily activities.[22][23] This was not just for finances, although it brought in a little money, nor to prepare students for careers, to which the labor was usually unrelated, but was seen as psychologically and spiritually beneficial. At the time, this was an innovative view.

Some opposition from those with means of the labor requirement was met with a stinging reply:

It is said that manual labor connected with colleges and literary institutions [non-theological colleges] will have a tendency to fill our learned professions with a race of slovens. Let it be so. Let the sacramental host be led on to victory, and the portals of the scientific arcana, be opened and lit up by the blazing genius of sturdy clowns in homespun, with master intellects, and daring spirits, rather than be offered by Knights of the reticule; valorous in their onset upon cologne bottles; and prodigies of prowess among spices of Rosemary..... this MODEL COLLEGE, based on the republican rock of changeless truth, and canopied by the star-jeweled firmament of philosophy, which is in truth, designed to rebuke the withering spirit of caste, and make all forms of useful industry respectable, and furnish community with practical men and women.

With emotions of irresistible joy, I hail the dawning of the day in which, by the influence of the system of CENTRAL COLLEGE all aristocratic distinctions in societry, created by wealth, sect, party or learning, shall be brought down to a REPUBLICAN LEVEL.[24]

New York Central College was the name decided on, and the College was chartered by the New York State Legislature on April 12, 1848. The Board of Trustees had 24 members.[25]

The College began activities on September 4, 1849. Black professor Charles L. Reason delivered an inaugural address, on the topic "Harmony of the Principles of the College with Man's True Destiny and the Tendencies of the Present Age." It was described in the press as "full of clear comprehensive, philosophical thought, clothed in a neat and classical dress."[26] President Grosvenor spoke on "Education: Physical, Mental, and Moral." The abolitionist philanthropist Gerrit Smith also spoke. There was a "congregation" of more than 2,000 at the induction of the faculty, the following day.[27]

Overviews of the Central College experienceEdit

A description of the people at a college dinner, 1850Edit

What a sight at the tables! The interview will remain in our memory as one of the most happy events in our life! ...Professor Reason sat at the head of one table, Rev. Dr. Bush on his left, and on his right President Grosvenor, ourself, still flanked by [A. H.] Benedict of the [Cortland County] Express, his mouth watering for the baked beans and Graham bread. Professor Reason is a mulatto, we believe—a noble looking man, urbane and polished in his manners, and his countenance the undisguised index of goodness and truth. To the left of Dr. Bush, were two negro students. still further down was Mahomah [Baquaqua], a native from the interior of Africa, now a student here, after many vicissitudes. Across from our table...sat a squaw of the Onondaga tribe.... A runaway slave sat near her, while her father, husband, and brother were in view. After supper, the stewardess with some of the female students, sang: "Be kind to each other" [a hymn]. The Onondagas then gave one in their own tongue, Mahomah chanted one in Arabic. Miss Havens sang in Latin and French. The President made some remarks in Hebrew by way of carrying out the idea, and with hearts warmer with kindly feelings, the interview terminated. May we all meet again as happily.[28]

Two Onondaga Native Americans enrolled in the Preparatory Division.[29]

Summary by a graduateEdit

This is how the college was described by an alumna and instructor, Angeline Stickney:

[T]he world will frown upon me, because I am a student of this unpopular institution, and I expect to get the name that I have heard applied to all who come here, "fanatic". I am glad that I am here because I love this institution. I love the spirit that welcomes all to its halls, those of every tongue, and of every hue, which admits of "no rights exclusive", which holds out the cup of knowledge in its crystal brightness for all to quaff; and if this is fanaticism, I will glory in the name "fanatic." Let me live, let me die a fanatic. I will not seal up in my heart the fountain of love that gushes forth for all the human race. And I am glad I am here because there are none here to say, "thus far thou mayst ascend the hill of Science and no farther," when I have just learned how sweet are the fruits of knowledge, and when I can see them hanging in such rich clusters, far up the heights, looking so bright and golden, as if they were inviting me to partake. And all the while I can see my brother gathering those golden fruits, and I mark how his eye brightens.... No, there are none here to whisper, "that is beyond thy sphere, thou couldst never scale those dizzy heights"; but, on the contrary, here are kind voices cheering me onward.[6]:48

Faculty, students, subjects taughtEdit

The affairs of the College were conducted with an informality and lack of rules that are startling seen from a modern perspective. There was no "mission statement" nor academic ranks, nor were specific requirements for a degree ever set down (and given the constantly changing faculty, they would have been hard to staff). The only records kept were the minutes of the Board of Trustees and the financial records, supplemented by correspondence and many newspaper articles.

The relationship between teachers and students, while not amorous at all (save for the disastrous Allen–King affair, on which see below), was closer than would seem normal in the United States today. Most of the faculty's time was spent in contact with students, teaching formally or informally. All were living in a small town, where everyone knew each other. In most cases they attended the same church; all kitchens in McGrawville prepared similar food; all heard the same visiting lecturers.

Students and professors were not allowed to use alcohol or (much more unusual) tobacco.[30]

College financesEdit

From a financial point of view, Central College was poorly run. There were no financial plans or budgets. There was little fundraising; no one went calling on possible donors. The college did not publicize itself.

It was inadequately funded from beginning to end, and ended in bankruptcy. Except for Gerrit Smith, it had no wealthy donors, no alumni to draw upon. The American Baptist Free Mission Society gave what support it could, especially at the beginning, but it was a small group and its members had limited resources.

There are contradictory reports about subvention(s) from the New York State Legislature, such as Union College, Columbia College, and others routinely received. If there was legislative support, it was not ongoing.

The student body was relatively poor, and burdened with paying for accommodations and meals, and transportation to McGrawville, in addition to instruction. A school half made up of Negroes, most of whom were at the high school level, was not going to be financially prosperous or even self-sufficient. The 30% of the students who were female were also anything but prosperous. Well-to-do families who could easily afford to send their sons to college were not going to send them to the college for Negroes and women in McGrawville (uncharitably called, by enemies, "the nigger college"). Some money was brought in through the manual labor department, but not enough.

So as to make education possible for these relatively impoverished students, tuition was set very low. In the college division it was $30 per year (equivalent to $922 in 2019), and in the preparatory [high school] division, $15.[31] The vast majority of students were in the preparatory program. An estimated 100 preparatory students per year, at $15 each, is $1,500. An estimated 20 college students at $30 each would bring in $600, for a total of $2,100 (equivalent to $64,537 in 2019). By comparison, 15 years previously the Canterbury Female Boarding School charged $75 for tuition, meaning the tuition paid by its 24 students totalled $1,800.

Funds available to pay faculty, therefore, were very limited, and probably contributed to the high faculty turnover. Except for Grosvenor, whose children were grown, faculty were unmarried and did not have families; the salaries paid would not permit it. The college's expenses simply exceeded its income.

In fact, it is remarkable that it lasted as long as it did. Previously schools with "racially" integrated bodies (the Noyes Academy and the Canterbury Female Boarding Academy) were quickly destroyed by mob violence.

FacultyEdit

There were no written criteria for selecting faculty; some came with a college degree, but many did not. Apparently the President, Grosvenor and then Calkins, decided himself whom to hire and what they would teach. There was no public announcement of vacancies, nor was there an application process nor documents required. Personal contacts and correspondence played a big role. The difference between the courses and teachers for the large preparatory or high school division, and the smaller college division, was not rigid. Two faculty (Caldwell, Smith) began as students and joined the faculty upon their graduation; one (Stickney) was teaching in advance of her graduation.

There was, therefore, a lot of turnover in the faculty, and the subjects taught varied depending on the faculty. There was not a faculty in the sense of a body of full-time employees.

There are two known lists of the faculty (in newspaper announcements). The original faculty, in 1849, were:

  • C. P. Grosvenor, President, and Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy (epistemology and ethics). He resigned at the end of 1851.[32] He was replaced by Leonard G. Calkins, "a finished scholar, an accomplished orator, and a true gentleman, a deep thinker, of active temperament".[33]:327
  • L. H. Waters and C. L. Reason, Professors of Greek, Latin and French Languages, and Mathematics and Natural Philosophy (science)
  • Victor M. Kingsley (1821–1897), Tutor[34]
  • Mrs. Eliza M. Haven, "Matron, and Prof. French Language, Music, Drawing, &c."
  • Miss Sophia M. Lathrop [Bishop] (1828–1913), "Prof. English Literature, &c." Nothing is known about her education. She first taught in Friendship, New York. She only taught at Central for one year; afterwards she was Preceptress at the Hamilton Female Seminary in Hamilton, New York.[35] Her sister Maria E. Lathrop [Bean] (1833–1908) studied at Central and also taught painting there.[36]

By 1852, three years later, the faculty were completely different (100% turnover):

  • Wm. Tillinghast, A.M., professor of mathematics
  • William G. Allen, professor of Greek and German Languages, rhetoric, and belles lettres (literature). After the departure of Grosvenor, who taught Hebrew, Allen was listed as teaching it.
  • E. R. Akin, A. M., D. M., professor of natural sciences
  • A. B. Campbell, A. M, professor of Latin language and Literature
  • George Lester Brockett (1827–1880), graduate of Hamilton College in 1851, was described in an obituary as professor of Elocution and German.[37] However, he also taught Greek, German, and Physiology. "In 1852, he was also a tutor and the Librarian." His father had Been a warm personal friend of abolitionists Beriah Green and Gerrit Smith. In 1857 his wife Caroline A. Campbell, "the former accomplished teacher in the department of Drawing and Painting", was rehired.[4]
  • G. L. Brockett, A. B., tutor. She was still employed in 1858, when she spoke "forcibly" against the skirt at a National Dress Reform Convention (see Bloomers (clothing)).
  • A. J. Chamberlain, teacher of French and drawing.[38]
  • Lydia A. Caldwell, enrolled as a student when the College opened in 1849. The year in which she graduated and became a teacher, if she did in fact graduate, is unknown, butshe remained until 1855 as "Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature". She died in 1857 of tuberculosis ("consumption").[21]:vol. I, part 2 Effusive prose pieces and poetry by Caldwell appeared in several newspapers; the references here are only examples.[39][40]

StudentsEdit

The student body has been well studied by Marlene Parks.

There are 1062 known students; most were in the preparatory (high school) program. Of them, 64% were men, 35% female, 1% unknown.[21]:vol. I, part 1, [p. 7] As no records were kept of it, the skin color ("race") of the students is not known; however, there were relatively few Blacks: Baquaqua, Edmonia Lewis, Benjamin Boseman, others.

In 1856 there were 226 students and 9 faculty,[41] and approximately 50% were African-American. Most were in the college's preparatory (high school) program.

Curriculum and facultyEdit

Grosvenor "proposed a 'free institution,' for the 'literary, scientific, moral, and physical education of both sexes and of all classes of youth.'" The school's curriculum included classical education as well as agricultural science. The Rev. Grosvenor served as the school's first President, 1849–1851.[2] In a newspaper advertisement we find that the Manual Labor Department was "under the supervision of Luther Wellington, a Practical Farmer, a kind and benevolent man, on a farm of 187 acres (76 ha)." Under the "careful training" of the President students took a Rhetorical Class "with daily exercises in Extemporaneous Speaking", "not to be overlooked in this day of 'public speaking'".[42][43]

The college was modeled after Oberlin, which in 1835 began admitting blacks and in 1837 women. However, New York Central College was the first American college founded on the principle that all are created equal: black and white, male and female. Qualified Black, female, and Native American students were all welcome. It was also the first to have African-American professors, in a position filled by three men: first Charles L. Reason.[26] An unexplained disagreement with Grosvenor led to his departure. His replacement was William G. Allen, a graduate of the Oneida Institute, another short-lived school which was a predecessor of the college. After Allen's departure (see below) he was replaced by George Boyer Vashon, the first African-American graduate of Oberlin. Reason was the first black college professor in the country. Allen was Professor of Rhetoric and Greek; in 1850, when he was appointed, he was "well known as a lecturer upon the origin, literature, and destiny of the African race."[44]

In May of 1850 there were over a hundred students enrolled, and college housing being full, students had to take rooms in private houses.[45]

Shortly after its opening, the College and McGrawville were hit by a smallpox outbreak. An 1851 student resolution gives the names of two, Homer Haskell and Erskine Spring.[46] Four students died and the College had to close briefly. Another source says six students died.[47] At that time, there were 150 students.[47]

In 1850 the students of the college published resolutions they had passed in support of William L. Chaplin, in jail for helping two slaves escape.[48]

There were those in Syracuse and Rochester who wished to move the College to their city, but nothing came of it.[49] The Corresponding Secretary of the Trustees, A. H. Benedict, who was also editor of the Cortland County Express, said in an editorial that no such discussions had taken place, even privately. He suggested that instead of the College relocating to Syracuse, Syracuse should relocate to McGrawville, once "it has done with theatres and their appendages, and her other and numerous sources of corruption.... The moral atmosphere of a city is not congenial to the habits of students, nor the growth of an institution founded on the manusl labor principle, and on equality of sex and condition, as is this college."[50]

In 1851 it was one of 11 colleges to receive New York State legislative funding; it received $1,500 (equivalent to $46,098 in 2019), the same amount as New York University, Fordham University, Hamilton College, and Madison University (Colgate).[51] A few weeks later, another report says that the college received an appropriation of $25,000 (equivalent to $768,300 in 2019),[52] but a college solicitation in 1855 said the College had received no appropriations from the state.[53] A Baptist report of 1851 states that its Free Mission Society raised $30,000 (equivalent to $921,960 in 2019) for the college.[54]

Samuel J. May in 1851 spoke at the college on the English abolitionist George Thompson (abolitionist).[55]

In 1852, according to Professor William G. Allen, "There is now a project on foot to attach a medical department to New York Central College. — A glorious idea this, as, if it should be successful, it will afford an opening for study to the very many colored young men who are now, by prejudice and scorn, shut out of most, if not all, of the medical colleges in the land. The faculty are physicians of Syracuse, in high standing and repute."[56] Nothing came of this, although there is a reference to a Professor of Anatomy at the college.[57] The medical college was established in New York City. Similarly, in 1850 there was an unsuccessful attempt to get the legislature to fund an "Agricultural Professorship".[58]

The college's first commencement was in 1855, with 5 graduates.[59] One of the graduates, Azariah Smith, was immediately hired to teach Greek, remaining until 1858.[60]

In 1857 Howard W. Gilbert was hired as Professor of Modern Languages. A news article refers to his mastery of French, German, and Italian.[61]

FacilitiesEdit

Boys and men were in the dormitory occupying one floor the main building; girls (no adult female students are recorded) were in a separate residence, with a matron. There is no reference to any housing specifically for colored students. However, there was a separate cemetery for Black college students.[62]

Hostility to the collegeEdit

Because of its equalitarian treatment of Black students and its Black professors, the "nigger college at McGrawville", as it was called,[41] as well as the "McGrawville African College",[63] received a lot of public vituperation. "It would be bad enough, in our estimation, to bring together girls and boys, young men and women, of the same race and color, under the same roof, in the same halls, and at the same table. But to mix together the descendants of Ham and Japeth [(sons of Noah)], the ebony sons of Africa with the fair daughters of the Anglo-Saxon, and the ruddy-cheeked boy with the Ethiopian maid, is stilt [sic] worse."[64]

At that time, there not being any public colleges in the state, the New York State Legislature would appropriate funds to Union College, Hamilton College (today Colgate University), and others. A proposed appropiation to New York Central College in 1851 was the topic of much comment, the subject "the center of attractions [in the Legislature]...for some hours".[65] A New York legislator said that rather than giving a state appropriation to that "vile sink of pollution", it would be better given to "a mob that will raze it to the ground", because it "was at war with every principle of American liberty".[66] The New-York Tribune called it a "treasonable college", an "obnoxious edifice" where, "if things are suffered to go on at this rate, this whole region will become infected with Abolitionism; the contagion of Free Speech will spread til the Fugitive Slave law will become a nullity and the Union will collapse!"[67] Others objected, with less outrage, to "the amalgamation of sexes, as well as of races."[68] These were, according to the Baltimore Sun, "very strange and dangerous notions".[69] However, the appropriation passed comfortably, and was increased in size.[64]

The local hostility to the college was a factor in its demise. As it was put in a typically inaccurate newspaper column, which mistakenly puts Mary King's father at the head of the college:

There is a pretentious wooden structure, of a semi-classic exterior, standing in the little village of McGrawville, Cortland County, N.Y., which was formerly the seat of what was known, in the anti-slavery days, as the "New York Central College." This institution was devoted to the education of negroes.... The head of this college...was a clergyman of liberal views, who became a stout advocate of intermarriage between whites and negroes: a development, by the way. which is regarded in the South to this day with holy horror, and militated against by severe penalties. But there were no statutes against miscegenation in New York in those days, so that a burly, ambitious negro, heartily in accord with the matrimonial views of the august parent, proceeded to elope one day with his daughter. This unexpected denouement quickly illustrated in a very prosaic way the disparity between theory and practice. Seizing his gun, and taking Immediate transportation in the most available vehicle, the irate parent pursued the bi-colored couple with all the impetuosity of Pharoah chasing the flying Israelites down into the Red Sea. And then the "New York Central College" for the education of negro youths experienced the sad fate of Pharoah at the hiatus of the purple waters.[70]

William Allen affairEdit

A scandal arose when, in 1853, an African-American professor, William G. Allen, became engaged to a white student, Mary King. To escape violent repercussions, Allen fled to New York City, where he was joined by his fiancée. They married—the first black male–white female marriage in the country's history—and immediately left for England, never to return. This event exacerbated already lingering social and political opposition to the school. Marlene Parks has published a collection of press clippings, which show the hostility.[71]

Decline and closureEdit

In a circular of 1854 we find that "this Institution is now in prosperous condition. It has struggled through darkness, and mounted difficulties, until its permanency and success are placed entirely beyond doubt."[72] However, only a few years later it became clear that the College was in financial trouble. "Everything that an able faculty could do to advance the interests of the Institution has been done, and yet the College has not prospered. Its friends are discouraged, and the Board of Directors disheartened. Present appearances indicate that the College will either pass into the hands of its colored friends, or be purchased by the citizens of M'Grawville [sic], and be renovated and reorganised into a seminary or academic institution [high school], or finally cease to exist as a College."[33]:327

The school was later denied funding by the New York State Legislature, and it was bankrupt by 1858.[73]:14

President Calkins left for a position at "an eminent law school in Albany"; the trustees persuaded Grosvenor to take up the leadership again.

The College faced bankruptcy, and discontinued operations.[74] The philanthropist and abolitionist Gerrit Smith, who lived nearby, in Peterboro, became the proprietor of the insolvent college.[75] He assumed its debts, which exceeded its assets; as a newspaper put it, "he became the owner of the property when the college was abandoned."[76] A modern scholar has suggested that Smith's breakdown and hospitalization after public discovery of his connection with John Brown's failed raid on Harpers Ferry, of late 1859, contributed to the college's closure.[21](Under Smith.)

A smallpox epidemic struck McGrawville in 1860. The effects of the outbreak, coupled with the lingering social and political opposition and financial difficulties, caused the college to close that same year. Another source says it closed in 1859.[2]

The New York Central Railroad, with which there is no known connection, began in 1853.

New York Central AcademyEdit

According to the New York State Department of Education, New York Central Academy, organized by citizens of McGrawville, was chartered May 4, 1864.[77]:225 It operated from 1864 to 1867.[78]:92 It purchased the buildings and land for $6,500 from Gerrit Smith in 1864.[77]:220 purchasing it from Gerrit Smith for $6,500 in 1864. In 1868 it became part of the McGrawville Union School, and remained in use as a high school until a new building was constructed in 1885.[78]:55[79]

Daniel S. Lamont (1851–1905), Secretary of War under President Grover Cleveland, was from McGraw, and studied as a child at the Central Academy, "the successor of a queer institution, known as the New York Central College, established by Gerrit Smith and other abolitionists, for the education of boys and girls without regard to color."[80][81]

AlumniEdit

Marlene Parks has published an exhaustive collection of information about Central's alumni.[21]

See alsoEdit

  • Anton Wilhelm Amo (c. 1703 – c. 1759), a black man from Ghana who studied in Germany, became a philosopher, and taught in German universities.
  • Juan Latino, a black college professor in sixteenth-century Spain

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brawley, Benjamin (1976). Early Negro American writers : selections with biographical and critical introductions. Originally published by the University of North Carolina Press in 1935. Freeport, New York: Books for Libraries Press. p. 13. ISBN 0836902467.
  2. ^ a b c d "Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor". Morning Star. October 1, 1995. p. 7. Archived from the original on November 19, 2010. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  3. ^ American Baptist Free Mission Society (1851). Anti-slavery missions : review of the operations of the American Baptist Free Mission Society, for the past year. Bristol, New York. p. 3.
  4. ^ a b "New York Central College". The Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts). November 20, 1857o. p. 3 – via newspapers.com.
  5. ^ Wright, Albert Hazen (1960). Pre-Cornell and Early Cornell VIII. Cornell's Three Precursors. I. New York Central College. Cornell University.
  6. ^ a b c Hall, Angelo (1908). An Astronomer's Wife: The Biography of Angeline Hall. Baltimore: Nunn & Company. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  7. ^ Creenan, Robert (October 2, 2017). "New York Central College the topic of McGraw author's new book". Cortland Standard.
  8. ^ "The Institution, Public Meeting, &c". McGrawville Express. (Reproduced In Marlene K. Parks, ed., New York Central College, 1849–1860, ISBN 1548505757, Volume 1, [p. 11]). November 25, 1847.CS1 maint: others (link)
  9. ^ Sernett, Milton C. (1986). Abolition's axe : Beriah Green, Oneida Institute, and the Black freedom struggle. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815623700.
  10. ^ "In Assembly, March 23". Buffalo Patriot and Commercial Advertiser (Buffalo, New York). April 5, 1837. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 20, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  11. ^ "(Untitled)". Vermont Watchman and State Journal (Montpelier, Vermont). April 4, 1837. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020 – via newspaperarchive.com.
  12. ^ "(Untitled)". The Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts). April 21, 1837. p. 1 – via newspapers.com.
  13. ^ "(Untitled)". Vermont Watchman and State Journal (Montpelier, Vermont). April 25, 1837. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020 – via newspaperarchive.com.
  14. ^ "Legislature of New-York. Abolitionism". The Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts). April 21, 1837. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  15. ^ "Income of the surplus". The Evening Post (New York, New York). April 27, 1837. p. 2 – via newspapers.com.
  16. ^ American Baptist Free Mission Society (1847). "Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the American Baptist Free Mission Society". Fourth Annual Meeting. Utica, New York. p. 18.
  17. ^ . Clippings from the McGrawville Express of November and December, 1847. (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [p. 10]). Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link).
  18. ^ . Clippings from the McGrawville Express of June and July, 1848. (Reproduced in Parks, I, [p. 13]). Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link).
  19. ^ a b c G. G. R. [George G. Ritchie] (August 2, 1848). "Education—Moral, Intellectual and Physical—Woman". New York Daily Tribune. (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part1, [pp.16–19]). p. 1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 13, 2020.
  20. ^ Grosvenor, Cyrus Pitt (August 5, 1848), (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [pp. 20–21]), "Letter to the Trustees of the Free Central College", McGrawville Express
  21. ^ a b c d e Parks, Marlene K. (2017). New York Central College, 1849–1860. 2 volumes. ISBN 978-1548505752. OCLC 1035557718.
  22. ^ Benedict, A.H. (July 6, 1848). "The Celebration". McGrawville Express. (Reproduced in Parks, I, [pp. [14–16]).
  23. ^ Heath, S.B., M.D. (November 2, 1848). "Letter to the editor". McGrawville Express. (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [pp. 21-22]).
  24. ^ Heath, S.B., M.D. (April 12, 1849). "Letter to the editor". McGrawville Express. (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [pp. 26–27]).
  25. ^ Potter, S. H. (January 4, 1849). "Letter to the editor". McGrawville Express. Letter is dated December 22, 1848. (Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [pp. 24–25].
  26. ^ a b "Colored Professor". Baltimore Sun (Baltimore, Maryland). November 2, 1849. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 23, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  27. ^ "The New York Central College". Sabbath Recorder (New York). Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [p. 39]. September 27, 1849. p. 59.CS1 maint: others (link)
  28. ^ Editor of the Cayuga Chief (March 12, 1850). "Cayuga Chief's Visit". Cortland County Express. Reproduced by Parks, Vol. 1, Part 3, [p. 1]. First published in the Cayuga Chief.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  29. ^ "Indian Students". Cayuga Chief. First published in the Auburn Wigwam. Reproduced in Parks, Vol. I, part 1, [p. 40]. November 13, 1849.CS1 maint: others (link)
  30. ^ "(Untitled)". The Advocate (Buffalo, New York). July 24, 1851. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  31. ^ "Central College". Cortland County Express. Reproduced in Parks, vol. I, part 1, [p. 32]. August 1849.CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. ^ "Central College, N.Y.". Religious Recorder (Syracuse, New York). Included in Parks, vol. II, part 1, [p. 17]. January 1, 1852.CS1 maint: others (link)
  33. ^ a b Goodwin, H. C (1859). Pioneer history; or, Cortland County and the border wars of New York, from the earliest period to the present time. New York: A. B. Burdick.
  34. ^ "Victor M. Kingsley". Weekly Recorder (Fayetteville, New York). Included in Parks, vol. I, part 2. March 1897.CS1 maint: others (link)
  35. ^ "Hamilton Female Ssminary". Greene Chenango American (Greene, New York). April 10, 1856. p. 4. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020 – via newspaperarchive.com.
  36. ^ White, Augusta Francelia Payne (1912). The Paynes of Hamilton, a genealogical and biographical record. New York: Tobias A. Wright. p. 77.
  37. ^ "Obituary—Death of Prof. Geo. L. Brockett". Daily Journal (Lockport, New York). Included in Parks, vol. I, part 2. April 5, 1880.CS1 maint: others (link)
  38. ^ "New York Central College". Buffalo Daily Republic. 6 May 1853. p. 2. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  39. ^ Caldwell, Lydia A. (June 15, 1854). "The Story of Conservative [sic]". National Era (Washington, D.C.). p. 1.
  40. ^ Caldwell, Lydia A. (September 6, 1855). 1/#date1=1840&index=3&rows=20&words=CALDWELL+LYDIA&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=&date2=1862&proxtext=%22Lydia+a+caldwell%22&y=7&x=17&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 "Shadows from an Old Church" Check |url= value (help). Houma Ceres (Houma, Louisiana). p. 1.
  41. ^ a b Place, Frank, Personal recollections, archived from the original on December 25, 2018, retrieved December 24, 2018
  42. ^ "New York Central College". The Liberator. March 24, 1854. p. 3. Archived from the original on July 25, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  43. ^ "New York Central College". National Era (Washington, D.C.). April 8, 1854. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2020 – via newspaperarchive.com.
  44. ^ "By Telegraph". Newport Daily News (Newport, Rhode Island). December 16, 1850. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 3, 2019. Retrieved July 3, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  45. ^ "As We Expected". Cortland County Express. Reprinted by Parks, volume I, part 3, [p. 6]. May 2, 1850.CS1 maint: others (link)
  46. ^ "N.Y. Central College". Cortland County Express. Included in Parks, vol. II, part 2, under Spring. June 20, 1850.CS1 maint: others (link)
  47. ^ a b American Baptist Free Mission Society (1851). Anti-slavery missions : review of the operations of the American Baptist Free Mission Society, for the past year. Bristol [Connecticut]. p. 8.
  48. ^ "Resolutions of Central College". The Liberator. October 11, 1850. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  49. ^ "New-York Central College". McGrawville Express (McGraw, New York). March 14, 1850. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  50. ^ Benedict, A.H. (March 21, 1850). "About the college—Removel [sic], &c". Cortland County Express. Included in Parks, vol. I, part 3, [p. 5–6].
  51. ^ "New York Legislature". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 18, 1851. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  52. ^ "Hunker Eloquence". The Liberator. 15 August 1851. p. 4 – via newspapers.com.
  53. ^ "The New York Central College". New York Post. Included in Parks, vol. II, part 2, under John Metcalf Smith. October 9, 1855.CS1 maint: others (link)
  54. ^ "(Untitled)". Buffalo Daily Republic. 2 September 1851. p. 2. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  55. ^ "George Thompson, M. P." The Anti-Slavery Bugle (Lisbon, Ohio). For the continuation click here. August 16, 1851. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020 – via newspapers.com.CS1 maint: others (link)
  56. ^ Allen, Wm. G. (May 20, 1852). "[Letter to the editor, May 6, 1852]". Frederick Douglass' Paper (Rochester, New York). Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020 – via accessiblearchives.com.
  57. ^ Ten lectures on medical electricity. Auburn, New York. 1862. p. 14.
  58. ^ Crouch, Henry G. (March 12, 1850). "Promiscuous—Central College, at McGrawville". Reprinted in the Cortland County Express. Included in Parks, vol. I, part 3, [pp. 3–5].
  59. ^ a b "College Commencements. New York Central College". New-York Tribune. 6 Aug 1855. p. 3 – via newspapers.com.
  60. ^ "Obituary—Azariah Smith". Publishers' Weekly American Book-Trade Journal. Included in Parks, vol. II, part 2. January 18, 1902. p. 59.CS1 maint: others (link)
  61. ^ "New York Central College Academic Exhibition". New-York Tribune. March 20, 1857. p. 7 – via newspapers.com.
  62. ^ Parks, vol. I, part 2, under Baquaqua.
  63. ^ Albany Argus. Included in Parks, volume II, part 3, [p. 2]. June 29, 1854. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  64. ^ a b "New York Central College". The Liberator (Boston, Massachusetts). Reprinted from the Albany Register. July 18, 1851. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  65. ^ "(Untitled)". Cortland Whig (Homer, New York). Included in Parks, volume II, part 1, [p. 3]. July 3, 1851.CS1 maint: others (link)
  66. ^ "Literature in the Legislature". Evening Post (New York, N.Y.). June 28, 1851. p. 2 – via newspapers.com.
  67. ^ "Central College Anniversary". New-York Tribune. July 29, 1856. p. 6. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  68. ^ "Extraordinary Legislation". Orleans Republican (Albion, New York). Included in Parks, volume II, part 1, [p. 4–5]. July 9, 1851.CS1 maint: others (link)
  69. ^ "Amalgamation college". Baltimore Sun. July 14, 1851. p. 1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
  70. ^ Benham, George A. (19 March 1899). "One woman's influence". Los Angeles Times. p. 41. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  71. ^ Parks, Marlene K. (2017). New York Central College, 1849-1860, McGrawville, N.Y. : the first college in the U.S. to employ black professors. McGraw Historical Society, through CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 9781517478124.
  72. ^ "New York Central College". Frederick Douglass' Paper. August 17, 1855 – via accessiblearchives.com.
  73. ^ Elbert, Sarah, ed. (2002). "Introduction". The American prejudice against color : William G. Allen, Mary King, and Louisa May Alcott. Boston: Northeastern University Press. ISBN 9781555535452.
  74. ^ "Green's Local Column". Republican Banner (Cortland, New York). Included in Parks, vol. II, part 3, [p. 19]. September 5, 1860.CS1 maint: others (link)
  75. ^ Oneida Sachem (Oneida, New York). Included in Parks, vol. II, part 2, under Smith. September 4, 1858. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  76. ^ Cortland Standard (Cortland, New York). Included in Parks, vol. II, part 2, under Smith. September 6, 1929. p. 2. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  77. ^ a b New York Constitutional Convention, 1867–68. New York Convention Manual. State of New York. Archived from the original on 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  78. ^ a b Miller, George Frederick (1922). The academy system of the State of New York. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.
  79. ^ Gardner, Cecile (August 28, 1953). "McGrawville Academu Building". Cortland Standard (Cortland, New York). Included in Parks, vol. II, part 3, [p. 40]. p. 12.
  80. ^ "Col. Daniel Lamont". South Bend Tribune (South Bend, Indiana). March 14, 1893. p. 6. Archived from the original on July 25, 2019. Retrieved July 25, 2019 – via newspapers.com.
  81. ^ "Col. Daniel Lamont—The Youngest Member of Mr. [Grover] Cleveland's Cabinet—A Young Man who Has Enjoyed the Friendship of Democratic Leaders from Samuel J. Tilden Down to the Present Day". Wichita Daily Eagle (Wichita, Kansas). Also appeared in the Roanoke Times, March 27, 1893, p. 6. March 29, 1893. p. 6. Archived from the original on September 27, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020 – via newspaperarchive.com.CS1 maint: others (link)
  82. ^ "Eldridge Eugene Fish". Buffalo Courier. 18 Mar 1894. p. 9. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  83. ^ Parks, vol. II, part 2.
  84. ^ "A. J. Warner". Concordia Empire (Concordia, Kansas). October 1, 1885. p. 2. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  85. ^ "General Warner". Salt Lake Tribune. May 25, 1895. p. 8. Archived from the original on July 6, 2020. Retrieved July 4, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  86. ^ "Noted civil and criminal lawyer". Star-Gazette (Elmira, New York). 15 April 1899. p. 2. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  87. ^ "Death of J. Q. Cowee". Enterprise-Chronicle (Burlingame, Kansas). 22 September 1921. p. 1. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  88. ^ "Judson Smith, O.T.S." Oberlin Alumni Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 1. October 1906. p. 53.
  89. ^ Tenney, Henry M. (November 1906). "Judson Smith, D.D." Oberlin Alumni Magazine. Vol. 3 no. 2. pp. 57–60.
  90. ^ "Judson Smith dead". Birmingham News (Birmingham, Alabama). 30 June 1906. p. 5. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020 – via newspapers.com.

Further readingEdit

  • Parks, Marlene K. (2018). New York Central College, Volume 3. Condensed Version of Volumes 1 and 2. McGraw Historical Society. ISBN 9781729614884.
  • McAdam, Todd R. (January 16, 2017). "McGraw producers to screen film on interracial college to DC". Cortland Standard.
  • Parks, Marlene K. (2017). New York Central College, 1849–1860, McGrawville, N.Y. : Volume 1. Part 1. Newspaper Articles concerning the College, November 1847—December, 1849. Part 2. Alphabetical Biographical Sketches Abbott—Lyons. Part 3. Newspaper Articles concerning the College, March, 1850—December, 1850. McGraw Historical Society. ISBN 9781517478124.
  • Parks, Marlene K. (2017). New York Central College, 1849–1860, McGrawville, N.Y. : Volume 2. Part 1. Newspaper Articles concerning the College, January, 1851—December, 1853. Part 2. Alphabetical Biographical Sketches Lyons—Young. Part 3. Newspaper Articles concerning the College, March, 1854—August, 1861. McGraw Historical Society. ISBN 9781548505752.
  • Wright, Albert Hazen (1960). Pre-Cornell and Early Cornell VIII. Cornell's Three Precursors. I. New York Central College. Cornell University.

VideoEdit

Primary sourcesEdit

External linksEdit