A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride.
An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park.
While this type of national park had been proposed previously, the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not officially termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve (established in 1776), and the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain (1778) are seen as the oldest legally protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
National parks are almost always open to visitors.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a relatively large area with the following defining characteristics:
- One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific, educational, and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty;
- Highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or eliminate exploitation or occupation as soon as possible in the whole area and to effectively enforce the respect of ecological, geomorphological, or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and
- Visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative, cultural, and recreative purposes.
In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park. These include:
- Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence
- Statutory legal protection
- Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection
- Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources (including the development of dams) qualified by such activities as sport, hunting, fishing, the need for management, facilities, etc.
While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park even when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example:
- Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia – Strict Nature Reserve
- Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib – Wilderness Area
- Koli National Park, Finland: IUCN II – Surface Area
- Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III – National Monument
- Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV – Habitat Management Area
- New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V – Protected Landscape
- Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI – Managed Resource Protected Area
While national parks are generally understood to be administered by national governments (hence the name), in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia; similarly, national parks in the Netherlands are administered by the provinces. In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition.
In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks.
In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a "sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy." The painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved "(by some great protecting policy of government) ... in a magnificent park ... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty!"
Starting in 1735 the Naples government undertook laws in order to protect Natural areas, which could be used as a game reserve by the royal family; Procida was the first protected site; the difference between the many previous royal hunting preserves and this one, which is considered to be closer to a Park rather than a hunting preserve, is that Neapolitan government already considered the division into the present-day wilderness areas and non-strict nature reserves.
First efforts: Hot Springs, Arkansas and Yosemite ValleyEdit
The first effort by the U.S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the future disposal of the U.S. government. It was known as Hot Springs Reservation, but no legal authority was established. Federal control of the area was not clearly established until 1877.
John Muir is today referred to as the "Father of the National Parks" due to his work in Yosemite. He published two influential articles in The Century Magazine, which formed the base for the subsequent legislation.
President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress on 1 July 1864, ceding the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove of giant sequoias (later becoming Yosemite National Park) to the state of California. According to this bill, private ownership of the land in this area was no longer possible. The state of California was designated to manage the park for "public use, resort, and recreation". Leases were permitted for up to ten years and the proceeds were to be used for conservation and improvement. A public discussion followed this first legislation of its kind and there was a heated debate over whether the government had the right to create parks. The perceived mismanagement of Yosemite by the Californian state was the reason why Yellowstone, at its establishment six years later, was put under national control.
First national park in the United States: YellowstoneEdit
In 1872, Yellowstone National Park was established as the United States' first national park, being also the world's first national park. In some European and Asian countries, however, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as a part of the Forest of Fontainebleau (France, 1861).
Yellowstone was part of a federally governed territory. With no state government that could assume stewardship of the land, the federal government took on direct responsibility for the park, the official first national park of the United States. The combined effort and interest of conservationists, politicians and the Northern Pacific Railroad ensured the passage of enabling legislation by the United States Congress to create Yellowstone National Park. Theodore Roosevelt and his group of conservationists, the Boone and Crockett Club, were already an active campaigners, and so influential, as good stump speakers were highly necessary in the pre-telecommunications era, was highly influential in convincing fellow Republicans and big business to back the bill. Yellowstone National Park soon played a pivotal role in the conservation of these national treasures, as it was suffering at the hands of poachers and others who stood at the ready to pillage what they could from the area. Theodore Roosevelt and his newly formed Boone and Crockett Club successfully took the lead in protecting Yellowstone National Park from this plight, resulting in laws designed to conserve the natural resources in Yellowstone and other parks under the Government's purview.
National parks are the best idea we ever had. Absolutely American, absolutely democratic, they reflect us at our best rather than our worst.
International growth of national parksEdit
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U.S.'s Mackinac National Park, in 1875. (The area was later transferred to the state's authority in 1895, thus losing its official "national park" status).)
Following the idea established in Yellowstone and Mackinac, there soon followed parks in other nations. In Australia, what is now Royal National Park was established just south of Sydney on 26 April 1879, becoming the world's second official national park Since Mackinac lost its national park status, Royal National Park is, by some considerations, the second oldest national park now in existence.
In Europe, the first national parks were a set of nine parks in Sweden in 1909, followed by the Swiss National Park in 1914. Africa's first national park was established in 1925 when Albert I of Belgium designated an area of what is now Democratic Republic of Congo centred on the Virunga Mountains as the Albert National Park (since renamed Virunga National Park). In 1926, the government of South Africa designated Kruger National Park as the nation's first national park, although it was an expansion of the earlier Sabie Game Reserve established in 1898 by President Paul Kruger of the old South African Republic, after whom the park was named. Argentina became the third country in the Americas to create a national park system, with the creation of the Nahuel Huapi National Park in 1934, through the initiative of Francisco Moreno.
After World War II, national parks were founded all over the world. The United Kingdom designated its first national park, Peak District National Park, in 1951. This followed perhaps 70 years of pressure for greater public access to the landscape. By the end of the decade a further nine national parks had been designated in the UK. Europe has some 359 national parks as of 2010. The Vanoise National Park in the Alps was the first French national park, created in 1963 after public mobilization against a touristic project.
In 1971, Lahemaa National Park in Estonia was the first area to be designated a national park in the former Soviet Union.
In 1989, the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve (QNNP) was created to protect 3.381 million hectares on the north slope of Mount Everest in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. This national park is the first major global park to have no separate warden and protection staff—all of its management being done through existing local authorities, allowing a lower cost basis and a larger geographical coverage (in 1989 when created, it was the largest protected area in Asia). It includes four of the six tallest mountains in the world: Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu. The QNNP is contiguous to four Nepali national parks, creating a transborder conservation area equal in size to Switzerland.
National parks servicesEdit
The world's first national park service was established May 19, 1911, in Canada. The Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act placed the dominion parks under the administration of the Dominion Park Branch (now Parks Canada), within the Department of the Interior. The branch was established to "protect sites of natural wonder" to provide a recreational experience, centred on the idea of the natural world providing rest and spiritual renewal from the urban setting. Canada now has the largest protected area in the world with 450,000 km2 of national park space.
Even with the creation of Yellowstone, Yosemite, and nearly 37 other national parks and monuments, another 44 years passed before an agency was created in the United States to administer these units in a comprehensive way – the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). The 64th United States Congress passed the National Park Service Organic Act, which President Woodrow Wilson signed into law on 25 August 1916. Of the 422 sites managed by the National Park Service of the United States, only 61 carry the designation of National Park.
The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974 and is 972,000 km2 (375,000 sq mi) in area.
Tourism to national parks has increased considerably over time. In Costa Rica for example, a megadiverse country, tourism to parks has increased by 400% from 1985 to 1999. The term national park is perceived as a brand name that is associated with nature-based tourism and it symbolizes a "high quality natural environment with a well-designed tourist infrastructure".
The duties of a park ranger are to supervise, manage, and/or perform work in the conservation and use of Federal park resources. This involves functions such as park conservation; natural, historical, and cultural resource management; and the development and operation of interpretive and recreational programs for the benefit of the visiting public. Park rangers also have fire fighting responsibilities and execute search and rescue missions. Activities also include heritage interpretation to disseminate information to visitors of general, historical, or scientific information. Management of resources such as wildlife, lake shores, seashores, forests, historic buildings, battlefields, archaeological properties, and recreation areas are also part of the job of a park ranger. Since the establishment of the National Park Service in the US in 1916, the role of the park ranger has shifted from merely being a custodian of natural resources to include several activities that are associated with law enforcement. They control traffic and investigate violations, complaints, trespass/encroachment, and accidents.
- List of national parks – by country
- Lists of tourist attractions
- Conservation ecology
- Conservation movement
- Federal lands (United States)
- Fossil park
- Global Geoparks Network
- International Park
- National monument
- National Park Foundation
- Provincial park
- State park
- Sustainable development
- United Nations Environment Programme
- World Database on Protected Areas
- Europarc Federation (eds.) 2009, Living Parks, 100 Years of National Parks in Europe, Oekom Verlag, München
- "Category II: National Park". IUCN. 5 February 2016.
- "History of the National Parks". Association of National Park Authorities. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Evolution of the Conservation Movement, 1850-1920". memory.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 23 January 2017.
- Report of the Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park for the Year 1872 Archived 3 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, 43rd Congress, 3rd Session, ex. doc. 35, quoting Department of Interior letter of 10 May 1872, "The reservation so set apart is to be known as the "Yellowstone National Park"."
- "Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve". UNESCO. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- Hardy, U. (9 April 2017). "The 10 Oldest National Parks in the World". The CultureTrip. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
- Bonnett, A. (2016). The Geography of Nostalgia: Global and Local Perspectives on Modernity and Loss. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-315-88297-0.
- Gissibl, B., S. Höhler and P. Kupper, 2012, Civilizing Nature, National Parks in Global Historical Perspective, Berghahn, Oxford
- "History of Koli National Park". Nationalparks.fi. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
- Jane Levere (29 August 2011). "The World's Most Beautiful National Parks". Forbes. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- Gulez, Sumer (1992). A method of evaluating areas for national park status.
- European Environment Agency Protected areas in Europe – an overview Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine In: EEA Report No 5/2012 Kopenhagen: 2012 ISBN 978-92-9213-329-0 ISSN 1725-9177 pdf doi=10.2800/55955
- John S. Marsh, “Provincial Parks,” in The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica Canada, 2018‑05‑30), [accessed 2020‑02‑18].
- Wordsworth, William (1835). A guide through the district of the lakes in the north of England with a description of the scenery, &c. for the use of tourists and residents (5th ed.). Kendal, England: Hudson and Nicholson. p. 88.
sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy.
- Catlin, George (1841). Letters and Notes on the manners, customs, and condition of the North American Indians: written during eight years' travel amongst the wildest tribes of Indians in North America in 1832, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39. 1. Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, London: Published by the author. pp. 261–262. Archived from the original on 1 May 2016.
- Museo privato Agriturismo Maria Sofia di Borbone, Azienda Agricola Le Tre Querce, Seminara, Calabria, organised by the Study Centre for Environmental Education in the Mediterranean Area of Reggio, Italy
- Shugart, Sharon (2004). "Hot Springs of Arkansas Through the Years: A Chronology of Events" (PDF). National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
- Peters, Richard, ed. (1866). "Twenty-Second Congress, Session 1, Chap. 70: An Act authorizing the governor of the territory of Arkansas to lease the salt springs, in said territory, and for other purposes (April 20, 1832)" (PDF). The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America from the Organization of the Government in 1789, to 3 March 1845, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United States of America from December 1863, to December 1865. 4. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown. p. 505. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2011.
- "Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park (1872)". Our Documents.gov. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Miller, Barbara Kiely (2008). John Muir. Gareth Stevens. p. 10. ISBN 978-0836883183.
- John Muir. "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park" Archived 2 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Century Magazine, Vol. XL. September 1890. No. 5
- John Muir. "The Treasures of the Yosemite" Archived 2 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Century Magazine, Vol. XL. August 1890. No. 4
- Adam Wesley Dean. Natural Glory in the Midst of War: The Establishment of Yosemite State Park[permanent dead link] In: Abstract. Civil War History, Volume 56, Number 4, December 2010, pp. 386–419 | 10.1353/cwh.2010.0008
- Sanger, George P., ed. (1866). "Thirty-Eighth Congress, Session 1, Chap. 184: An Act authorizing a Grant to the State of California of the "Yo-Semite Valley" and of the Land embracing the "Mariposa Big Tree Grove" (June 30, 1864)" (PDF). 38th United States Congress, Session 1, 1864. In: The Statutes at Large, Treaties, and Proclamations of the United States of America from December 1863, to December 1865. 13. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 325. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2011.
- Mangan, Elizabeth U. Yellowstone, the First National Park from Mapping the National Parks Archived 19 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.
- Kimberly A. Jones, Simon R. Kelly, Sarah Kennel, Helga Kessler-Aurisch, In the forest of Fontainebleau: painters and photographers from Corot to Monet, National Gallery of Art, 2008, p.23
- "Famous Quotes Concerning the National Parks: Wallace Stegner, 1983". Discover History. National Park Service. 16 January 2003. Archived from the original on 8 May 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "Mackinac Island". Michigan State Housing Development Authority. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- Kim Allen Scott, 2011 "Robertson's Echo The Conservation Ethic in the Establishment of Yellowstone and Royal National Parks" Yellowstone Science 19:3
- "1879: Australia's first national park created". National Museum of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
- "Audley Bottom". Pinkava.asu.edu. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Rodney Harrison, 2012 "Heritage: Critical approaches" Routledge
- "History of our National Park". Peak District National Park.
- "Kilimanjaro: The National Park". Private Kilimanjaro: About Kilimanjaro. Private Expeditions, Ltd. 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Daniel C. Taylor, Carl E. Taylor, Jesse O. Taylor, Empowerment on an Unstable Planet New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, Chapter 9
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Irish, Paul (13 May 2011). "Parks Canada celebrates a century of discovery". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- "Parks Canada History". Parks Canada. 2 February 2009. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "Parks Canada". Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- "National Park System (U.S. National Park Service)". 17 May 2019.
- Magdalen Islands (Iles de la Madeleine) in Senegal, Protected Planet
- Eagles, Paul F.J. "Trends in Park Tourism: Economics, Finance and Management". Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002, p. 134. doi:10.1080/09669580208667158
- Eagles, Paul F.J. "Trends in Park Tourism: Economics, Finance and Management". Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002, p. 133. doi:10.1080/09669580208667158
- U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Handbook of occupational groups and families. Washington, D.C. January 2008. Page 19. OPM.gov Archived 3 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 2 November 2014.
- R Meadows ; D L Soden In: National Park Ranger Attitudes and Perceptions Regarding Law Enforcement Issues. Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Abstract. Justice Professional Volume:3 Issue:1 (Spring 1988) Pages:70–93
- Eagles, Paul F. J; McCool, Stephen F. (2002). Tourism in National Parks and Protected Areas: Planning and Management. CABI. ISBN 0851997597.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) 320 pages.
- Sellars, Richard West (2009). Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300154146.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) 404 pages.
- Sheail, John (2010) Nature's Spectacle - The World's First National Parks and Protected Places Earthscan, London, Washington. ISBN 978-1-84971-129-6
- "Areas of Biodiversity Importance: National Parks". Biodiversity A-Z. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Europe's protected areas". EUROPARC Federation.
- "FAQs". U.S. National Park Service.
- Macomber, Drew (10 September 2018). "Map of All The World's National Parks". Travel Is Free.
- "Man and the Biosphere Programme (Biosphere Reserves)". UNESCO.
- "National parks, landscape parks and protected areas in the world". nighthee.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "National Parks Worldwide". amu.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 19 January 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2008.
- "World Database of Protected Areas". Protected Planet.
- "Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA)". by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
- "World Heritage Sites". UNESCO.