Genital Autonomy America
Genital Autonomy America, formerly NOCIRC (the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers), is an educational nonprofit organization headquartered in California and with centers in other US states and countries. In 2016 the organization changed its name from NOCIRC to Genital Autonomy America.
Motto: "Making a safer world for children"
|Founded||1985, in Corte Madera, California|
|Founder||Marilyn Milos et al|
|Type||Educational nonprofit organization|
|Focus||Genital modification and mutilation|
|National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers|
The organization was founded in 1985 by registered nurse Marilyn Milos, who remains the director today. The organization was the first national clearinghouse in the US for information about circumcision. In its first decade, NOCIRC grew into an international network and now has over 110 centers worldwide, including at least 17 outside of the US. It is a member of the International Coalition for Genital Integrity (ICGI).
NOCIRC opposes the non-therapeutic circumcision of children. The organization suggests that circumcision be performed only when it is absolutely medically necessary and after alternative non-invasive therapies have failed, or when an adult gives consent, after he has been fully informed about the risks and harm of the procedure. NOCIRC also provides material on their view of circumcision and care of the foreskin. NOCIRC states that their position is based on the understanding that there is not a national or international health association in the world that recommends routine infant circumcision, yet declare that they hold the medical community accountable for "misconstruing the scientific database available on human circumcision in the world today". In a 1996 press release, NOCIRC stated that "We expect this professional organization [the American Academy of Pediatrics] that is concerned with the health of infants and children to reveal the harm of genital cutting and to protect every child's birthright to keep his or her sex organs intact." The American Academy of Pediatrics said in 1999 that the perceived benefits of circumcision are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision, but that it should be the decision of informed parents.
NOCIRC publishes a number of brochures for parents, providing their recommendations about infant circumcisions, penile care and several related topics. NOCIRC also distributes an annual newsletter to its members. Most of the organization's material is directly available on their website.
Since 1989 NOCIRC has sponsored and organized international symposia on circumcision, human rights, and genital integrity. The twelfth international symposium took place in September and October 2012 in Finland. The following list details the history of NOCIRC's symposia:
- First International Symposium on Circumcision: Anaheim, California; March 1–3, 1989.
- Second International Symposium on Circumcision: San Francisco, California; April 30-May 3, 1991.
- Third International Symposium on Circumcision: College Park, Maryland; May 22–25, 1994.
- Fourth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilations: Lausanne, Switzerland; August 9–11, 1996.
- Fifth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilations: Oxford, England; August 5–7, 1998.
- Sixth International Symposium on Genital Integrity: Sydney, Australia; December 7–9, 2000.
- Seventh International Symposium on Human Rights & Bodily Integrity: Washington, D.C.; April 4–7, 2002.
- Eighth International Symposium on Circumcision & Human Rights: Padua, Italy; September 2–4, 2004.
- Ninth International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity & Human Rights: Seattle, Washington; August 24–26, 2006.
- Tenth International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity & Human Rights: Keele, England; September 4–6, 2008.
- Eleventh International Symposium on Circumcision, Genital Integrity & Human Rights: Berkeley, California; July 29–31, 2010.
- Twelfth International Symposium on Law, Genital Autonomy & Children's Rights: Helsinki, Finland; September 30–October 3, 2012.
- Thirteenth International Symposium on Genital Autonomy and Children's Rights: Boulder, Colorado; July 24–26, 2014.
- Fourteenth International Symposium on Genital Autonomy and Children's Rights: Keele, England; September 14–16, 2016.
- Fifteenth International Symposium on Genital Autonomy and Children's Rights: San Francisco, California; May 4–6, 2018.
- "About NOCIRC". Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- "NOCIRC Centers". Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- "International Coalition for Genital Integrity". Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- "Declaration of the First International Symposium on Circumcision". NOCIRC. 1989-03-03. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- "AAP's new task force on circumcision to receive information from NOCIRC". NOCIRC. 1996-09-27. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
- American Academy of Pediatrics (March 1999). "Circumcision Policy Statement". Pediatrics. 103 (3): 686–693. doi:10.1542/peds.103.3.686. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 10049981.
- "NOCIRC - PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUMCISION". www.nocirc.org. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- "NOCIRC - PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUMCISION". www.nocirc.org. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- "NOCIRC - PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUMCISION". www.nocirc.org. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- "NOCIRC - Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Sexual Mutilations". www.nocirc.org. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- "NOCIRC - Male and Female Circumcision". www.nocirc.org. Retrieved 2019-08-15.