Nîmes (//; French: [nim]; Provençal Occitan: Nimes [ˈnimes]) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France. It is the capital of the Gard department. Nîmes is located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Cévennes mountains. The estimated population of Nîmes is 151,001 (2016).
|Canton||Nîmes-1, 2, 3 and 4 and Saint-Gilles|
|Intercommunality||CA Nîmes Métropole|
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||Jean-Paul Fournier|
|161.85 km2 (62.49 sq mi)|
|• Density||930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
30189 /30000 and 30900
|Elevation||21–215 m (69–705 ft) |
(avg. 39 m or 128 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.|
Dubbed the most Roman city outside Italy, Nîmes has a rich history dating back to the Roman Empire when the city was a regional capital, and home to 50,000–60,000 people. Several famous monuments are in Nîmes, such as the Nîmes Arena and the Maison Carrée. Because of this, Nîmes is often referred to as the French Rome.
The city derives its name from that of a spring in the Roman village. The contemporary coat of arms of the city of Nîmes includes a crocodile chained to a palm tree with the inscription COL NEM, for Colonia Nemausus, meaning the "colony" or "settlement" of Nemausus, the local Celtic god of the Volcae Arecomici. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nîmes.
The site on which the built-up area of Nîmes has become established in the course of centuries is part of the edge of the alluvial plain of the Vistrenque River which butts up against low hills: to the northeast, Mont Duplan; to the southwest, Montaury; to the west, Mt. Cavalier and the knoll of Canteduc.
The Neolithic site of Serre Paradis reveals the presence of semi-nomadic cultivators in the period 4000 to 3500 BC on the future site of Nîmes. The population of the site increased during the thousand-year period of the Bronze Age. The menhir of Courbessac (or La Poudrière) stands in a field, near the airstrip. This limestone monolith of over two metres in height dates to about 2500 BC, and must be considered the oldest monument of Nîmes.
The Bronze Age has left traces of villages that were made out of huts and branches
The Warrior of Grezan is considered to be the most ancient indigenous sculpture in southern Gaul. The hill named Mt. Cavalier was the site of the early oppidum, which gave birth to the city. During the third and 2nd centuries BC a surrounding wall was built, closed at the summit by a dry-stone tower, which was later incorporated into the masonry of the Tour Magne. The Wars of Gaul and the fall of Marseille (49 BC) allowed Nîmes to regain its autonomy under Rome.
Nîmes became a Roman colony sometime before 28 BC, as witnessed by the earliest coins, which bear the abbreviation NEM. COL, "Colony of Nemausus". Some years later a sanctuary and other constructions connected with the fountain were raised on the site. Nîmes was already under Roman influence, though it was Augustus who made the city the capital of Narbonne province, and gave it all its glory. It was also known as the birthplace of the family of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.
The city had an estimated population of 60,000 in the time of Augustus. Augustus gave the town a ring of ramparts six kilometres (3.7 miles) long, reinforced by fourteen towers; two gates remain today: the Porta Augusta and the Porte de France. An aqueduct was built to bring water from the hills to the north. Where this crossed the River Gard between Uzes and Remoulins, the spectacular Pont du Gard was built. This is 20 kilometres (12 miles) north east of the city. Also, the Maison Carrée is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire; it later inspired the design of the Virginia State Capitol at Richmond. Nothing remains of some other monuments, the existence of which is known from inscriptions or architectural fragments found in the course of excavations. It is known that the town had a civil basilica, a curia, a gymnasium and perhaps a circus. The amphitheatre dates from the end of the 2nd century AD and was one of the largest amphitheatres in the Empire.
|Dimensions of the largest amphitheatres of the Roman Empire|
|Colosseum (Rome, Italy)||188 × 156 m|
|Capua (Italy)||167 × 137 m|
|Italica (Spain):||157 × 134 m|
|Tours||156 × 134 m|
|Carthage (Tunisia)||156 × 128 m|
|Autun||154 × 130 m|
|Nîmes||133 × 101 m|
Emperor Constantine endowed the city with baths. It became the seat of the Diocesan Vicar, the chief administrative officer of southern Gaul.
The town was prosperous until the end of the 3rd century – during the 4th and 5th centuries, the nearby town of Arles enjoyed more prosperity. In the early 5th century the Praetorian Prefecture was moved from Trier in northeast Gaul to Arles. The Visigoths finally captured the city from the Romans in 473 AD.
After the Roman period, in the days of invasion and decadence, the Christian Church, already established in Gaul since the 1st century AD, appeared to be the last refuge of classical civilization – it was remarkably organized and directed by a series of Gallo-Roman aristocrats. However, when the Visigoths were accepted into the Roman Empire, Nîmes was included in their territory (472), even after the Frankish victory at the Battle of Vouillé (507). The urban landscape went through transformation with the Goths, but much of the heritage of the Roman era remained largely intact.
By 725, the Muslim Umayyads had conquered the whole Visigothic territory of Septimania including Nîmes. In 736-737, Charles Martel and his brother led an expedition to Septimania and Provence, and largely destroyed the city (in the hands of Umayyads allied with the local Gallo-Roman and Gothic nobility), including the amphitheatre, thereafter heading back north. The Muslim government came to an end in 752, when Pepin the Short captured the city. In 754, an uprising took place against the Carolingian king, but was put down, and count Radulf, a Frank, appointed as master of the city. After the events connected with the war, Nîmes was now only a shadow of the opulent Roman city it had once been. The local authorities installed themselves in the remains of the amphitheatre. Carolingian rule brought relative peace, but feudal times in the 12th century brought local troubles, which lasted until the days of St. Louis. During that period Nîmes was jointly administered by a lay power resident in the old amphitheatre, where lived the Viguier and the Knights of the Arena, and the religious power based in the Bishop's palace complex, around the cathedral, its chapter and the Bishop's house; meanwhile the city was represented by four Consuls, who sat in the Maison Carrée.
Despite incessant feudal squabbling, Nîmes saw some progress both in commerce and industry as well as in stock-breeding and associated activities.
Period of invasionsEdit
During the 14th and 15th centuries the Rhone Valley underwent an uninterrupted series of invasions which ruined the economy and caused famine. Customs were forgotten, religious troubles developed (see French Wars of Religion) and epidemics, all of which affected the city. Nîmes, which was one of the Protestant strongholds, felt the full force of repression and fratricidal confrontations (including the Michelade massacre) which continued until the middle of the 17th century, adding to the misery of periodic outbreaks of plague.
17th century to the French RevolutionEdit
In the middle of the 17th century Nîmes experienced a period of prosperity. Population growth caused the town to expand, and slum housing to be replaced. To this period also belong the reconstruction of Notre-Dame-Saint-Castor, the Bishop's palace and numerous mansions (hôtels). This renaissance strengthened the manufacturing and industrial potential of the city, the population rising from 21,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.
In this same period the Fountain gardens, the Quais de la Fontaine, were laid out, the areas surrounding the Maison Carrée and the Amphitheatre were cleared of encroachments, whilst the entire population benefited from the atmosphere of prosperity.
From the French Revolution to the presentEdit
Following a European economic crisis that hit Nîmes with full force, the Revolutionary period awoke the slumbering demons of political and religious antagonism. The White Terror added to natural calamities and economic recession, produced murder, pillage and arson until 1815. Order was however restored in the course of the century, and Nîmes became the metropolis of Bas-Languedoc, diversifying its industry into new kinds of activity. At the same time the surrounding countryside adapted to market needs and shared in the general increase of wealth.
Nîmes is one of the warmest cities in France. The city has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), being wetter than a typical Mediterranean climate, especially for its moderately rainy summers. Its slightly inland, southerly location results in hot air over the city during summer months, temperatures above 34 ºC are common in July and August, whereas winters are cool but not cold. Night temps under 0 ºC are common from December to February, while snowfall occurs every year.
|Climate data for Nîmes (1981–2010 averages, extremes 1922–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.5
|Average high °C (°F)||11.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.8
|Average low °C (°F)||2.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−12.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||64.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5.7||5.2||4.9||6.8||5.9||4.4||2.8||3.8||5.2||7.0||6.8||5.8||64.2|
|Average snowy days||0.8||0.6||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||0.5||2.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||68||63||63||64||61||56||60||67||73||72||72||65.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||141.6||166.3||222.2||229.8||262.0||311.0||341.1||301.6||239.0||166.6||147.9||134.0||2,662.9|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)|
Several important remains of the Roman Empire can still be seen in and around Nîmes:
- The elliptical Roman amphitheatre, of the 1st or 2nd century AD, is the best-preserved Roman arena in France. It was filled with medieval housing, when its walls served as ramparts, but they were cleared under Napoleon. It is still used as a bull fighting and concert arena.
- The Maison Carrée (Square House), a small Roman temple dedicated to sons of Agrippa was built c. 19 BC. It is one of the best-preserved Roman temples anywhere. Visitors can watch a short film about the history of Nîmes inside.
- The 18th-century Jardins de la Fontaine (Gardens of the Fountain) built around the Roman thermae ruins.
- The nearby Pont du Gard, also built by Agrippa, is a well-preserved aqueduct that used to carry water across the small Gardon river valley.
- The nearby Mont Cavalier is crowned by the Tour Magne ("Great Tower"), a ruined Roman tower.
Later monuments include:
- The cathedral (dedicated to Saint Castor of Apt, a native of the city), occupying, it is believed, the site of the temple of Augustus, is partly Romanesque and partly Gothic in style.
- The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nîmes
There is modern architecture at Nîmes too: Norman Foster conceived the Carré d'art (1986), a museum of modern art and mediatheque, and Jean Nouvel designed the Nemausus, a post-modern residential ensemble.
Tree-shaded boulevards trace the foundations of its former city walls.
Economy and infrastructureEdit
The population of nimes increased from 128,471 in 1990 to 146,709 in 2012, yet the biggest growth the city ever experienced happened in 1968, with a growth of +23.5% compared to 1962.
Nîmes-Alès-Camargue-Cévennes Airport serves the city. The Gare de Nîmes is the central railway station, offering connections to Paris (high-speed rail), Marseille, Montpellier, Narbonne, Toulouse, Perpignan, Figueras in Spain and several regional destinations. The motorway A9 connects Nîmes with Orange, Montpellier, Narbonne, and Perpignan, the A54 with Arles and Salon-de-Provence.
The local rugby union team is RC Nîmes.
There is a professional volleyball team located here.
Olympic swimming champion Yannick Agnel was born in Nîmes.
The city hosted the opening stages of the 2017 Vuelta a España cycling race.
Nîmes is twinned with:
- "Nîmes, the most Roman city outside Italy, just got more Roman". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- Frank Sear (1983). Roman Architecture. Cornell University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-8014-9245-9.
- Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Taylor & Francis. p. 853. ISBN 978-1-136-63951-7.
- MobileReference (1 January 2007). Travel Barcelona, Spain for Smartphones and Mobile Devices - City Guide, Phrasebook, and Maps. MobileReference. p. 428. ISBN 978-1-60501-059-5.
- Alain Veyrac, "Le symbolisme de l'as de Nîmes au crocodile" Archéologie et histoire romaine vol. 1 (1998) (on-line text).
- The Ancient Languages of Europe - Woodard - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk.
- Colin M. Kraay, "The Chronology of the coinage of Colonia Nemausus", Numismatic Chronicle 15 (1955), pp. 75-87.
- Official Website of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment, Historique du 2 REI, La Creation (Creation)
- "Données climatiques de la station de Nîmes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Climat Languedoc-Roussillon" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Nimes–Courbessac (30)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- "Normes et records 1961-1990: Nimes-Courbessac (30) - altitude 59m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Giving rise to the example of rime richissime Gall, amant de la Reine, alla (tour magnanime)/ Gallament de l'Arène a la Tour Magne, à Nîmes, or "Gall, lover opf the Queen, passed (magnanimous gesture), gallantly from the Arena to the Tour Magne at Nîmes".
- "Railway Gazette: Southern LGV projects make progress". Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Braunschweigs Partner und Freundschaftsstädte" [Braunschweig - Partner and Friendship Cities]. Stadt Braunschweig [City of Braunschweig] (in German). Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nîmes.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nîmes.|
- 2° Régiment étranger d'infanterie
- Practical Guide to Nîmes Airport
- City council website
- The official Web site of Roman Nîmes
- Images of Roman remains of Nîmes
- Photogallery of Nîmes
- Regordane Info – The independent portal for The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail The Regordane passes through Nîmes. (in English and French)