Mumbai (//, also known as Bombay //, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011[update] it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016[update]. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It is also the wealthiest city in India, and has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.
Interactive map outlining Greater Mumbai (Mumbai City District and Mumbai Suburban District)
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai|
|• Mayor||Vishwanath Mahadeshwar (Shiv Sena)|
|• Municipal commissioner||Ajoy Mehta|
|• Megacity||603 km2 (233 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,355 km2 (1,681.5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||14 m (46 ft)|
|• Density||21,000/km2 (53,000/sq mi)|
20,748,395 (Extended UA)
|• Metro Rank||1st|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
400 001 to 400 107
|Vehicle registration||MH-01 (South), MH-02 (West), MH-03 (Central), MH-47 (North)|
|Metro GDP/PPP||$151–368 billion|
The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were originally home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay. During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is the financial, commercial and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Trust and JNPT), and 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It is also home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.
The name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess (kuladevata) Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, which is the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, and according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad (Gujarat), where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree that Mumbai's name was derived from the goddess Mumba.
The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). This name possibly originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690), and Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai.
The French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs (pub. 1877 in Paris): "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or (French: "bonne bai", English: "good bay"), not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, and that she still..., possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India officially changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995. This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that 'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of 'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate also said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the city by a name other than Mumbai has been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.
People from Mumbai
A resident of Mumbai is called Mumbaikar in Marathi, in which the suffix kar means a resident of. The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use.
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Isle of Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common Era, or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated in the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE. The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were built between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century .
Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are the Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century and established his capital in Mahikawati (present day Mahim). The Pathare Prabhus, among the earliest known settlers of the city, were brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48 and controlled it until 1407. During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.
The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention between the Gujarat Sultanate and the Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated.
Portuguese and British rule
The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive of the power of the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein with the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the Seven Islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.
The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay. They called the islands by various names, which finally took the written form Bombaim. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime. The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632). The Portuguese also built several fortifications around the city like the Bombay Castle, Castella de Aguada (Castelo da Aguada or Bandra Fort), and Madh Fort. The English were in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over Bombay, as they recognised its strategic natural harbour and its natural isolation from land-attacks. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the English managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.
In accordance with the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668, England leased these islands to the English East India Company in 1668 for a sum of £10 per annum. The population quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Muslim Koli admiral of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672, Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on 20 February 1673, and Siddi admiral Sambal on 10 October 1673.
In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the company's establishments in India. Towards the end of the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689–90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas under Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739. By the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow into a major trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. With the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained control of Salsette and Bassein, resulting in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The British were able to secure Salsette from the Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.
From 1782 onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands of Bombay into a single amalgamated mass by way of a causeway called the Hornby Vellard, which was completed by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company under Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of the Maratha Peshwa in the Battle of Khadki. Following his defeat, almost the whole of the Deccan came under British suzerainty, and was incorporated into the Bombay Presidency. The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers.
By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation. On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay to the neighbouring town of Thana (now Thane). During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the city became the world's chief cotton-trading market, resulting in a boom in the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected. As the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the city witnessed the Indian independence movement, with the Quit India Movement in 1942 and The Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 being its most notable events.
After India's independence in 1947, the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. In April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay City to form the Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.
The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual state for Maharashtra–Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status.
Following protests during the movement in which 105 people lost their lives in clashes with the police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them. As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.
The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) across the Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's population. The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 across the creek at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay were coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban, though they continued to be administered by same Municipal Administration.
From 1990 to 2010, there has been an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. Following the demolition of the Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked by the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992–93 in which more than 1,000 people were killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded on the city's commuter trains. In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to several heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13 July 2011 were the latest in the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. From being an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest city and home of the world's most prolific film industry.
Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The remaining areas belong to various Defence establishments, the Mumbai Port Trust, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the MCGM. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region which includes portions of Thane, Palghar and Raigad districts in addition to Greater Mumbai, covers an area of 4,355 km2 (1681.5 sq mi).
Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).
Apart from the Bhatsa Dam, there are six major lakes that supply water to the city: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve on the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.
Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock of the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back to the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing to the presence of 23 fault lines in the vicinity. The area is classified as a Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter magnitude scale may be expected.
Mumbai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen climate classification, with seven months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.
Between June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (85 in) for the Island City, and 2,457 mm (97 in) for the suburbs.
The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and the average annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 42.2 °C (108 °F) set on 14 April 1952, and the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) set on 27 January 1962.
|Climate data for Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport) 1981–2010|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.1
|Average high °C (°F)||31.1
|Average low °C (°F)||17.3
|Record low °C (°F)||7.4
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||0.3
|Average rainy days||0.0||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.8||13.6||22.9||21.5||13.9||3.4||0.6||0.2||77.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||67||69||71||70||80||86||86||83||78||71||69||75|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||269.5||257.6||274.3||283.7||296.2||148.6||73.4||75.9||165.1||240.2||245.8||253.2||2,583.5|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)|
|Source #2: NOAA (humidity, sun 1971–1990)|
Air pollution is a major issue in Mumbai. According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, the annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2013 was 63 μg/m3, which is 6.3 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5. The Central Pollution Control Board for the Government of India and the Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai monitor and publicly share real-time air quality data.
Mumbai is India's largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and ₹40 billion (US$560 million) in corporate taxes. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s. Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India's GDP.
As of 2016[update] recent estimates of the economy of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region have ranged from $151 to $368 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen & Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. This is facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), and financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). It is also home to the largest and urban cooperative bank in India, Saraswat Bank.
Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. The key sectors contributing to the city's economy are: finance, gems & jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai's major financial centres. Despite competition from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai has carved a niche for itself in the information technology industry. The Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) and the International Infotech Park (Navi Mumbai) offer excellent facilities to IT companies.
State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. Dharavi, in central Mumbai, has an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.
Mumbai has been ranked sixth among top ten global cities on the billionaire count with 28 and 46000 millionaires, with total wealth around $820 billion 48th on the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008, seventh in the list of "Top Ten Cities for Billionaires" by Forbes magazine (April 2008), and first in terms of those billionaires' average wealth. As of 2008[update], the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities. Mumbai is the third most expensive office market in the world, and was ranked among the fastest cities in the country for business startup in 2009.
Greater Mumbai, an area of 603 square kilometres (233 sq mi), consisting of the Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban districts, extends from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east. Its population as per the 2011 census was 12,442,373.
It is administered by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) (sometimes referred to as the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation), formerly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC). The MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The Mayor is chosen through indirect election by the councillors from among themselves for a term of two and half years.
The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive Officer and head of the executive arm of the Municipal Corporation. All executive powers are vested in the Municipal Commissioner who is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer appointed by the state government. Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.
The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai was ranked 9th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.5 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city.
The Mumbai Police is headed by a Police Commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The Mumbai Police is a division of the Maharashtra Police, under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Corporation, is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by four Deputy Chief Fire Officers and six Divisional Officers. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for infrastructure development and planning of Mumbai Metropolitan Region.
Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Court, which exercises jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra and Goa, and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two lower courts, the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (TADA) court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city.
Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress, also known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885. The city played host to the Indian National Congress six times during its first 50 years, and became a strong base for the Indian independence movement during the 20th century.
The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. Shiv Sena switched from 'Marathi Cause' to larger 'Hindutva Cause' in 1985 and joined hands with Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) in same year. The Congress had dominated the politics of Bombay from independence until the early 1980s, when the Shiv Sena won the 1985 Bombay Municipal Corporation elections.
In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major national political party, forged an electoral alliance with the Shiv Sena to dislodge the Congress in the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly elections. In 1999, several members left the Congress to form the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) but later allied with the Congress as part of an alliance known as the Democratic Front. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city.
In the Indian national elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, North West, North East, North Central, South Central, and South. A Member of parliament (MP) to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, is elected from each of the parliamentary constituencies. In the 2014 national elections, all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the BJP and Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties winning three seats each.
In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies. A Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) to the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) is elected from each of the assembly constituencies. In the 2014 state assembly elections, out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress.
Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the MCGM. The Corporation comprises 227 directly elected Councillors representing the 24 municipal wards, five nominated Councillors having special knowledge or experience in municipal administration, and a mayor whose role is mostly ceremonial. In the 2012 municipal corporation elections, out of the 227 seats, the Shiv Sena-BJP alliance secured 107 seats, holding power with the support of independent candidates in the MCGM, while the Congress-NCP alliance bagged 64 seats. The tenure of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, and Municipal Commissioner is two and a half years.
Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008. Auto rickshaws are allowed to operate only in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxis are allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, but generally operate in South Mumbai. Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. It is operated by the Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the Indian Railways. Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007. Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The Mumbai rail network is spread at an expanse of 319 route kilometres. 191 rakes (train-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the city.
The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The Monorail opened in early February 2014. The first line of the Mumbai Metro opened in early June 2014.
Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones of the Indian Railways: the Central Railway (CR) headquartered at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), and the Western Railway (WR) headquartered at Churchgate. Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways. Long-distance trains originate from Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Dadar, Lokmanya Tilak Terminus, Mumbai Central, Bandra Terminus, Andheri and Borivali.
Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural gas powered buses. BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998. BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London.Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC, also known as ST) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states. The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai and Thane to parts of Mumbai.
Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) lanes have been planned throughout Mumbai. Though 88% of the city's commuters travel by public transport, Mumbai still continues to struggle with traffic congestion. Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.
Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late 1990s between the Gateway of India and CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
Mumbai is served by National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 of India's National Highways system. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway was the first expressway built in India. The Eastern Freeway was opened in 2013. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, are under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs. The three major road arteries of the city are the Eastern Express Highway from Sion to Thane, the Sion Panvel Expressway from Sion to Panvel and the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. Mumbai has approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads. There are five tolled entry points to the city by road.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014.
The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.
Mumbai is served by two major ports, Mumbai Port Trust and Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, which lies just across the creek in Navi Mumbai. Mumbai Port has one of the best natural harbours in the world, and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation facilities. Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India. It handles 55–60% of the country's total containerised cargo. Ferries from Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon allow access to islands near the city.
Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them. The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant. India's first underground water tunnel was completed in Mumbai to supply water to the Bhandup filtration plant.
About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. Almost all of Mumbai's daily refuse of 7,800 metric tonnes, of which 40 metric tonnes is plastic waste, is transported to dumping grounds in Gorai in the northwest, Mulund in the northeast, and to the Deonar dumping ground in the east. Sewage treatment is carried out at Worli and Bandra, and disposed of by two independent marine outfalls of 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) at Bandra and Worli respectively.
Electricity is distributed by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) undertaking in the island city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and the Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd (Mahavitaran) in the suburbs. Power supply cables are underground, which reduces pilferage, thefts and other losses.
The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL, which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until 2000, and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services. Mobile phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. Both GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. Mumbai, along with the area served by telephone exchanges in Navi Mumbai and Kalyan is classified as a Metro telecom circle. Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. As of 2014[update], Mumbai had the highest number of internet users in India with 16.4 million users.
The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival, Indo-Saracenic, Art Deco, and other contemporary styles. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style. Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features. There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India. Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with 956 existing buildings and 272 under construction as of 2009[update].
The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. Mumbai has two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Elephanta Caves. In the south of Mumbai, there are colonial-era buildings and Soviet-style offices. In the east are factories and some slums. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York.
Data is based on
Government of India Census.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai city was 12,479,608. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4.5 square metres per person. Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by 2011. Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. The number of slum-dwellers is estimated to be 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001; that is, 62% of all Mumbaikars live in informal slums.
The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.
Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district. Dharavi, Asia's second largest slum (if Karachi's Orangi Town is counted as a single slum) is located in central Mumbai and houses between 800,000 and one million people in 2.39 square kilometres (0.92 sq mi), making it one of the most densely populated areas on Earth with a population density of at least 334,728 persons per square kilometre.
The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the 1991–2001 decade was 1.12 million, which amounted to 54.8% of the net addition to the population of Mumbai.
The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020. The number of households with annual incomes of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% by 2020, amounting to 660,000 families. The number of households with incomes from 1–2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020. According to the 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board, Mumbai is the noisiest city in India, ahead of Lucknow, Hyderabad and Delhi.
Ethnic groups and religions
The religious groups represented in Mumbai as of 2011 include Hindus (65.99%), Muslims (20.65%), Buddhists (4.85%), Jains (4.10%), Christians (3.27%) and Sikhs (0.49%). The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India.
Native Christians include East Indian Catholics, who were converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century, while Goan and Mangalorean Catholics also constitute a significant portion of the Christian community of the city. Jews settled in Bombay during the 18th century. The Bene Israeli Jewish community of Bombay, who migrated from the Konkan villages, south of Bombay, are believed to be the descendants of the Jews of Israel who were shipwrecked off the Konkan coast, probably in the year 175 BCE, during the reign of the Greek ruler, Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 60,000 though with a sharply declining population. Parsis migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century. The oldest Muslim communities in Mumbai include the Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, and Konkani Muslims.
Mumbai has a large polyglot population like any other metropolitan city of India. Sixteen major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, with the most common being Marathi and its dialect East Indian, Hindi, Gujarati and English. English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the city's white collar workforce. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya – a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, Indian English and some invented words – is spoken on the streets.
Among minority languages of Maharashtra, Hindi is spoken by 57.78% of the population of suburban Mumbai, Urdu by 32.21% and Gujarati by 31.21%.
Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions, and cuisines coexisting in the city. This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period.
Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema—Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies—and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of cinema halls that feature Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood movies. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Despite most of the professional theatre groups that formed during the British Raj having disbanded by the 1950s, Mumbai has developed a thriving "theatre movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English, and other regional languages.
Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries. The government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.
Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan (formerly Victoria Gardens), which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie, Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar, and Gangadhar Gadgil, and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award, a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.
Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. A week-long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.
The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held annually in the month of January, which is organised by the Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) at the historic Banganga Tank in Mumbai. The Elephanta Festival—celebrated every February on the Elephanta Islands—is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music and attracts performers from across the country. Public holidays specific to the city and the state include Maharashtra Day on 1 May, to celebrate the formation of Maharashtra state on 1 May 1960, and Gudi Padwa which is the New Year's Day for Marathi people.
Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach. Most of the beaches are unfit for swimming, except Girgaum Chowpatty and Juhu Beach. Essel World is a theme park and amusement centre situated close to Gorai Beach, and includes Asia's largest theme water park, Water Kingdom. Adlabs Imagica opened in April 2013 is located near the city of Khopoli off the Mumbai-Pune Expressway.
Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, Loksatta, Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. Popular Marathi language magazines are Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lokrajya, Lokprabha & Chitralekha. Popular English language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, DNA India, and The Indian Express. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to Asia's oldest newspaper, Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, was started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.
Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.
The wide range of cable channels available includes Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (All Marathi channels), news channels such as ABP Majha, IBN-Lokmat, Zee 24 Taas, sports channels like ESPN, Star Sports, National entertainment channels like Colors, Sony, Zee TV and Star Plus, business news channels like CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Prominent DTH entertainment services in Mumbai include Dish TV and Tata Sky.
There are twelve radio stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasting on the FM band, and three All India Radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as Sirius. The Conditional Access System (CAS) started by the Union Government in 2006 met a poor response in Mumbai due to competition from its sister technology Direct-to-Home (DTH) transmission service.
Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's popularity overseas. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are the location for most movie sets. The city also hosts the Marathi film industry which has seen increased popularity in recent years, and TV production companies.
Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" (run by the MCGM) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated with either of the following boards:
- Maharashtra State Board (MSBSHSE)
- The All-India Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)
- The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
- The Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)
- The International Baccalaureate (IB)
- The International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE). Marathi or English is the usual language of instruction.
The primary education system of the MCGM is the largest urban primary education system in Asia. The MCGM operates 1,188 primary schools imparting primary education to 485,531 students in eight languages (Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada). The MCGM also imparts secondary education to 55,576 students through its 49 secondary schools.
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students complete ten years of schooling and then enrol for two years in junior college, where they select one of three streams: arts, commerce, or science. This is followed by either a general degree course in a chosen field of study, or a professional degree course, such as law, engineering and medicine. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the largest universities in the world in terms of the number of graduates.
The University of Mumbai is one of the premier universities in India. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Moreover, the University of Mumbai was ranked 5th in the list of best Universities in India by India Today in 2013 and ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013, a ranking of leading universities in the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Its strongest scores in the QS University Rankings: BRICS are for papers per faculty (8th), employer reputation (20th) and citations per paper (28th). It was ranked 10th among the top Universities of India by QS in 2013. With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking.
The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Bombay), Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly UDCT / UICT), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), which are India's premier engineering and technology schools, along with SNDT Women's University are the autonomous universities located in Mumbai. Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the federal University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. Grant Medical College established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College are the leading medical institutes affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals and KEM Hospital respectively. Mumbai is also home to National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies (JBIMS), Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies (NMIMS), S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) and several other management schools. Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai. The Sir J. J. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution.
Mumbai is home to two prominent research institutions: the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The BARC operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.
Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere. Mumbai is home to the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) and Indian Premier League (IPL). The Mumbai cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy and has won 40 titles, the most by any team. The Indian Premier League team Mumbai Indians is also based in the city. Mumbai has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at the Bombay Gymkhana. The biggest cricketing event to be staged in the city so far is the final of the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup which was played at the Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai and London are the only two cities to have hosted both a World Cup final and the final of an ICC Champions Trophy which was played at the Brabourne Stadium in 2006.
Football is another popular sport in the city, with the FIFA World Cup and the English Premier League being followed widely. In the Indian Super League, Mumbai City FC represents the city; while in the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FC and Air-India. When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season.
In Hockey, Mumbai is home to the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians in the World Series Hockey and Hockey India League respectively. Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.
The Indian Badminton League (IBL), now known as the Premier Badminton League is also visiting Mumbai since its inaugural edition in 2013 when the final was held in Mumbai's National Sports Club of India. In the second season, the final of the 2016 Premier Badminton League was held between home-squad Mumbai Rockets and the Delhi Dashers (formerly Delhi Acers), the visitors eventually claiming the title. The opening ceremony was also held in Mumbai while the finals in Delhi. In the 2017 Premier Badminton League (also known as Vodafone PBL 2017 for sponsorship reasons) the Mumbai Rockets beat the Hyderabad Hunters 3–1 to proceed to the final. In the final they lost 3–4 to the Chennai Smashers.
Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Mcdowell's Derby is also held in February at the Turf Club in Mumbai. In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship, and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008. The city is planning to build its own F1 track and various sites in the city were being chalked out, of which the authorities have planned to zero down on Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan land. If approved, the track will be clubbed with a theme park and will spread over an area of some 160 to 200 ha (400 to 500 acres). In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as a part of "The Greatest Race on Earth". Mumbai had also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.
Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai
|Mumbai cricket team||Ranji Trophy||Cricket||Wankhede Stadium||1930|
|Maharashtra football team||Santosh Trophy||Football||–||1941|
|Mumbai FC||I-League||Football||Cooperage Ground||2007|
|Mumbai Indians||Indian Premier League||Cricket||Wankhede Stadium||2008|
|Mumbai Marines||World Series Hockey||Field hockey||Mahindra Hockey Stadium||2011|
|Mumbai Gladiators||Elite Football League of India||American football||–||2012|
|Mumbai Magicians||Hockey India League||Field hockey||Mahindra Hockey Stadium||2012|
|Mumbai Rockets||Premier Badminton League||Badminton||National Sports Club of India||2013|
|Mumbai City FC||Indian Super League||Football||Mumbai Football Arena||2014|
|U Mumba||Pro Kabaddi League||Kabaddi||Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Indoor Stadium||2014|
|Mumbai Tennis Masters||Champions Tennis League||Tennis||Kalina Stadium||2014|
|Mumbai Challengers||UBA Pro Basketball League||Basketball||–||2015|
Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai
|Mumbai Champs||Indian Cricket League||Cricket||N/A||2007||2009|
|Mumbai Masters||Premier Badminton League||Badminton||National Sports Club of India||2013||2016|
- Christopher Beam (1 December 2008). "Why Did Bombay Become Mumbai? How the city got renamed". www.slate.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- "The Seven Islands". The Mumbai Pages. 16 July 1995. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Gajrani, S. (2004). History, Religion and Culture of India. Gyan Publishing House. p. 224. ISBN 978-81-8205-062-4. Archived from the original on 28 March 2018.
- Jog, Sanjay (9 March 2017). "Shiv Sena's Mahadeshwar is Mumbai's 76th mayor with BJP's blessing". Business Standard India. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017 – via Business Standard.
- "Shiv Sena's Vishwanath Mahadeshwar elected Mumbai mayor – Times of India". Archived from the original on 14 March 2017.
- "Shiv Sena's Vishwanath Mahadeshwar becomes Mumbai's 76th mayor". Archived from the original on 12 March 2017.
- "Ajoy Mehta replaces Sitaram Kunte as new BMC Commissioner". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
- "Mumbai metropolitan area" (in Italian). Projectsecoa.eu. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Maharashtra (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
- "INDIA STATS : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau, Mumbai. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. 22 January 2015. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- "Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025". PwC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
- Lewis, Clara. "Delhi, not Mumbai, India's economic capital – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- National Commissioner Linguistic Minorities 50th report, page 131 Archived 8 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Government of India. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "Evolution of the Corporation, Historical Milestones". Mumbai: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "India stats: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". Press Information Bureau, Mumbai (Press release). Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015.
- "Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2007 (thousands) 1950–2025 (India)". Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN). Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "UN World Cities in 2016" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2017.
- "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Loughborough University. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
- "India needs cities network for easy rural-urban shift – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- "Mumbai | ISAC". Indiastudyabroad.org. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- Bharucha, Nauzer (9 March 2015). "Thirty of India's 68 billionaires live in Mumbai". Times of India. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "With 68 billionaires, India ranks 7th globally; Mumbai leads in India with 30". Daily News and Analysis. New Delhi. 10 March 2015. Archived from the original on 12 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Curzon, G.N. Complete book online – British Government in India: The Story of Viceroys and Government Houses. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Douglas, James. Complete book online – Bombay and western India – a series of stray papers, with photos of Ajmer. London: Samson Low Marston & Co. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Munshi, Kanaiyalal M. (1954). Gujarāt and its literature, from early times to 1852. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. xix.
The next immigrants into the islands of Bombay were the Kolis, who on all authorities continued to be their original inhabitants till Aungier founded the city of Bombay. Kathiawad and Central Gujarāt was the home of the Kolis in pre-historic times.
- Mehta, R. N. (1983). "Bombay – An analysis of the toponym". Journal of the Oriental Institute: 138–140.
The kolis who succeeded the stone-age men on the island brought with them from Gujarat their patron goddess Mummai whom their descendants still worship in Kathiawar. The name of Bombay is derived from this koli goddess.
- Wynne, S. M. (2004). "Catherine (1638–1705)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. 1. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4894. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 28
- "Once Upon a Time in Bombay". Foreign Policy. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- "Bombay: History of a City". British Library. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
- Lakshmi, Rama (14 April 2011). "New millionaires hope to serve as role models for India's lower castes". The Washington Post. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "Mumbai, a land of opportunities". The Times of India. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2008.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "10 worst oil spills that cost trillions in losses : Rediff.com Business". Business.rediff.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
- "Devolopment of Mumbai International Airport (NMIA)" (PDF). CIDCO. 2013. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Mahajan, Poonam (26 July 2014). "Poonam Mahajan explains why Mumbai is at the very heart of India story". DNA India. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Corporation, Marshall Cavendish (September 2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 451. ISBN 978-0-7614-7631-3. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Mukund Kule (8 October 2010). "मुंबईचं श्रद्धास्थान" [Mumba'īcaṁ Shrad'dhāsthān]. Maharashtra Times (in Marathi). Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Bapat, Jyotsna (2005). Development projects and critical theory of environment. Sage. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7619-3357-1.
- Patel & Masselos 2003, p. 4
- Mehta 2004, p. 130
- Shirodkar 1998, pp. 4–5
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 102
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 7
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 103
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 2
- Yule & Burnell 1996, p. 104
- Keay, John (2000). India, a History. New York, United States: Harper Collins Publishers. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-00-638784-8. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 6
- Shirodkar 1998, p. 3
- Rousselet, Louis (1877). L'Inde des Rajahs. Librairie Hachette et cie, Paris. p. 7. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
- Christopher Beam (1 December 2008). "Why Did Bombay Become Mumbai? How the city got renamed". www.slate.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Hansen 2001, p. 1
- Nitin Chavan (18 December 2009). "शिवसेना आमदाराची नामांतर एक्स्प्रेस" [Shivsēnā Âmadārācī Nāmāntar Express]. Sakal (in Marathi). Mumbai, Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Beam, Christopher (1 December 2008). "Why did Bombay become Mumbai?". Slate. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015.
- Beam, Christopher (12 May 2006). "Mumbai? What about Bombay?". Slate. Archived from the original on 20 April 2013.
- Kumar, Ruchi (28 October 2013). "From Bombay to Mumbai: 24 ways the city has changed". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra". Fodor's. Archived from the original on 19 November 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2009.
- "Mumbai vs Bombay". Indian Express. 11 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Fruit And Nut: Another 'Bombay' controversy brewing?". Indiatoday.intoday.in. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of violence: naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08840-2. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- Vir Sanghvi (2 April 2006). "The Angry Bombay-ite". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "3 Mumbaikars Who Are Changing The City All By Themselves". HuffPost. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- Farooqui 2006, p. 1
- Ghosh 1990, p. 25
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 5
- "2. Mumbai City Profile" (PDF). GMDMA Greater Mumbai Disaster Management Authority. Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. p. 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- David 1995, p. 5
- "Kanheri Caves". Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Kumari 1990, p. 37
- David 1973, p. 8
- Jaisinghani, Bella (13 July 2009). "Ancient caves battle neglect". Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
- Kumar, Vinaya (2 April 2006). "Threat to caves of Bombay". The Tribune. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, pp. 127–150
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 79
- "The Slum and the Sacred Cave" (PDF). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (Columbia University). p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 November 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "World Heritage Sites – Elephanta Caves". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 21 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- Dwivedi, Sharada (26 September 2007). "The Legends of Walkeshwar". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Maharashtra (India) (1986). Maharashtra State Gazetteers. 24 (1 ed.). Directorate of Government Print., Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State. p. 596. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016.
- Agarwal, Lekha (2 June 2007). "What about Gateway of India, Banganga Tank?". Mumbai Newsline. Express Group. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Parry, Eric (2015). "1: Pavement". Context: Architecture and the Genius of Place. John Wiley & Sons. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-118-94673-2. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 51
- Maharashtra 2004, p. 1703
- David 1973, p. 14
- David 1995, p. 12
- Khalidi 2006, p. 24
- Misra 1982, p. 193
- Misra 1982, p. 222
- David 1973, p. 16
- "Mughal Empire". Department of Social Sciences (University of California). Archived from the original on 18 July 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 166
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 169
- David 1995, p. 19
- Shukla, Ashutosh (12 May 2008). "Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- D'Mello, Ashley (9 June 2008). "New life for old church records". The Times of India. India. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- "Glorious past". Express India. 28 October 2008. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
- "Catherine of Bragança (1638–1705)". BBC. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2008.
- The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island 1978, p. 54
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 20
- David 1973, p. 410
- Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1.
- Palsokar, R. D.; Reddy, T. Rabi (1995). Bajirao I: an outstanding cavalry general. Reliance Pub. House. ISBN 978-81-85972-94-7.
- Campbell, Sir James MacNabb (1883). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kolába and Janjira. Government Central Press.
- Kincaid, Charles Augustus; Pārasanīsa, Dattātraya Baḷavanta (1922). A History of the Maratha People. H. Milford, Oxford University Press.
- Yimene 2004, p. 94
- Ganley, Colin C. (2007). "Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth" (PDF). International Society for New Institutional Economics (ISNIE): 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Carsten 1961, p. 427
- David 1973, p. 179
- Nandgaonkar, Satish (22 March 2003). "Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces – 313 years ago". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 12 April 2003. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- History of Medieval India, p. 126
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 32
- Fortescue 2008, p. 145
- Naravane 2007, p. 56
- Naravane 2007, p. 63
- Naravane 2007, pp. 80–82
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 233
- "Maharashtra – trivia". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 127
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 343
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 88
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 74
- "Rat Trap". Time Out Mumbai (6). 14 November 2008. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2008.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 345
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 293
- Census of India 1961, p. 23
- "Administration". Mumbai Suburban District. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 6 November 2008.
- Guha, Ramachandra (13 April 2003). "The battle for Bombay". The Hindu. India. Archived from the original on 3 April 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- Guha 2007, pp. 197–8
- "Sons of soil: born, reborn". The Indian Express. 6 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2014. Retrieved on 12 November 2008.
- "Gujarat". Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
- "Maharashtra". Government of India. Archived from the original on 5 January 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
- Desai, Geeta (13 May 2008). "BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs". Mumbai Mirror. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- Dwivedi & Mehrotra 2001, p. 306
- "About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)". Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2008.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "The Great Mumbai Textile Strike... 25 Years On". Rediff.com India Limited. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 31 May 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Bharucha, Nazer (24 November 2003). "From mills to malls, the sky is the limit". Times of India. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Jog, Sanjay (11 August 2012). "Maharashtra may revisit redevelopment of textile mill land". Economic Times. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva)". Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
- "Profile". Mumbai Suburban District. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "1993: Bombay hit by devastating bombs". BBC News. 12 March 1993. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- "Special Report: Mumbai Train Attacks". BBC News. 30 September 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
- "HM announces measures to enhance security" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). 11 December 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2008.
- "Three bomb blasts in Mumbai, 18 dead, over 130 injured". Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- Thomas, T. (27 April 2007). "Mumbai a global financial centre? Of course!". New Delhi: Rediff. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Shaw, Annapurna (1999). "Emerging Patterns of Urban Growth in India". Economic and Political Weekly. 34 (16/17): 969–978. JSTOR 4407880.
- Brunn, Williams & Zeigler 2003, pp. 353–354
- "Mumbai Suburban" (PDF). National Informatics Centre (Mahrashtra State Centre). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012.
- "City Profile of Greater Mumbai" (PDF). Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.2 Area and Divisions
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 2
- Mumbai Plan, 1.1 Location
- Krishnamoorthy 2008, p. 218
- "Mumbai, India". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 16 March 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2008.
- Mumbai Plan, 184.108.40.206 Salsette Island
- Srinivasu, T.; Pardeshi, Satish. "Floristic Survey of Institute of Science, Mumbai, Maharashtra State". Government of Maharashtra. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Bapat 2005, pp. 111–112
- "Salient Features of Powai Lake". Department of Environment (Government of Maharashtra). pp. 1–3. Archived from the original (PPT) on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.7 Water Supply and Sanitation
- Sen, Somit (13 December 2008). "Security web for city coastline". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- Patil 1957, pp. 45–49
- Mumbai Plan, 1.3.1 Soil
- Mumbai Plan, 1.3.2 Geology and Geomorphology
- Kanth, S. T. G. Raghu; Iyenagar, R. N. (10 December 2006). "Seismic Hazard estimation for Mumbai City". Current Science. 91 (11): 1486. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
This is used to compute the probability of ground motion that can be induced by each of the twenty-three known faults that exist around the city.
- Seismic Zoning Map (Map). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
- "The Seismic Environment of Mumbai". Department of Theoretical Physics (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research). Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
- Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy 1999, p. 210
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer 1960, p. 84
- Mumbai Plan, 1.4 Climate and Rainfall
- Kishwar, Madhu Purnima (3 July 2006). "Three drown as heavy rain lashes Mumbai for the 3rd day". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Mumbai. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Rohli & Vega 2007, p. 267
- "Ever recorded Maximum and minimum temperatures up to 2010" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- "Mumbai still cold at 8.6 °C". The Times of India. 9 February 2008. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "Mumbai Climatological Table, Period: 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Mumbai (Bombay) Colaba Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Borwankari, Vinamrata. "Air pollution killed 81,000 in Delhi & Mumbai, cost Rs 70,000 crore in 2015." Archived 10 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine Times of India. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Chatterjee, Badri. "Mumbai breathes 2017's cleanest air; 'good' AQI after 6 months." Archived 6 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine Hindustan Times. 11 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Express News Service. "Air quality in Mumbai three times worse than Delhi." Archived 18 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Indian Express. 14 March 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. Archived 1 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine World Health Organization. May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- WHO Air Quality Guidelines. Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine World Health Organization. September 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
- "Central Pollution Control Board Air Quality Information." Archived 19 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine Open Government Data Platform India. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "U.S. Embassy Air Quality Data." Archived 16 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Department of State, Mission Air Quality. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest". The Financial Express. 29 January 2008. Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 51
- Kelsey 2008, p. 208
- Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). "City Development Plan (Economic Profile)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
Mumbai, at present, is in reverse gear, as regards the economic growth and quality of life.
- "Fortune Global 500". CNN. 21 July 2008. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "Top urban co-op banks set to expand area of operations".
- Swaminathan & Goyal 2006, p. 52
- Jadhav, Narendra. "Role of Mumbai in Indian Economy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "Indian Ports Association, Operational Details". Indian Ports Association. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- McDougall, Dan (4 March 2007). "Waste not, want not in the £700m slum". Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- "Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count". The Times of India. 10 May 2013. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report". 26 February 2017. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017.
- "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008" (PDF). MasterCard. p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Vorasarun, Chaniga. "In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Vorasarun, Chaniga (30 April 2008). "Cities of the Billionaires". Forbes. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 October 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- "Annual Report 2004-05" (PDF). Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. p. 185. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data". Census 2011 India. Census Organization of India. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- "Shiv Sena's Snehal Ambekar elected new Mumbai mayor". Economic Times. Mumbai. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
... as Sena's Sunil Prabhu completed his two-and-half-years term as the city mayor today. Ambekar, who secured 121 votes in the 226 member House,...
- "Commissioner System". Archived from the original on 2 January 2010.
- Nair, Ajesh. "Annual Survey of India's City-Systems" (PDF). Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, p. 2
- Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, pp. 7–8
- "MMRDA – Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority". Mmrdamumbai.org. 26 January 1975. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
- "About Bombay High Court". Bombay High Court. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- Fuller & Bénéï 2001, p. 47
- 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, p. 4, "The centenary of the Indian National Congress, which is being celebrated at its birthplace Bombay, is a unique event."
- "Congress foundation day celebrated". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
- David 1995, p. 215
- Gogate, Sudha (2014). "History of the Shiv Sena". The Emergence of Regionalism in Mumbai. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-7991-823-4. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Bal Thackeray turned to Hindutva in 1985 to win elections: ex-Shiv Sena MP". dna. 7 July 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014.
- Phadnis, pp. 86–87
- Rana 2006, pp. 315–316
- "Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra". Outlook. 29 April 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "List of Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Election Commission of India. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "List of Members Elected General Election of the 16th Lok Sabha, 2014" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2014.
- "List of ACs and PCs". Chief Electoral Officer (Government of Maharashtra). Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "Maharashtra Assembly Election 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
- "Sena says Mumbai was and will continue to belong to them in Saamana editorial". Press Trust of India. Mumbai: The Indian Express. 20 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Chondorkar, Aashish (22 October 2014). "Understand Maharashtra Election Results – 5 Trends & 7 Charts". Swarajya. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 6
- "Corporation". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- "Mayor – the First Citizen of Mumbai". Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
As the presiding authority at the Corporation Meetings, his/her role is confined to the four corners of the Corporation Hall. The decorative role, however, extends far beyond the city and the country to other parts of world
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 3
- "BMC results: Saffron alliance wins BMC with 75 seats". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, p. 27
- "Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai" (DOC). Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Ghose, Anindita (24 August 2005). "What's Mumbai without the black beetles?". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
In Mumbai autos run only in the suburbs up to Mahim creek. This is probably the perfect arrangement because it is not economically viable for autos and taxis to solicit the same passengers. So autos monopolise the suburbs while taxis rule South Mumbai.
- "Taxi, auto fares may dip due to CNG usage". The Times of India. 22 April 2004. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- Outlook. Hathway Investments Pvt Ltd. July 2008. Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Kumar, Akshey. "Making Rail Commuting Easier in Mumbai" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Overview of existing Mumbai suburban railway". Mumbai Rail Vikas Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 June 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- Environment and urbanization 2002, p. 160
- http://220.127.116.11/MRVC/intr.html[permanent dead link]
- Gupta, Saurabh (30 January 2014). "Mumbai monorail to be inaugurated on Saturday". NDTV. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "Maharashtra CM Prithivraj Chavan flags off Mumbai Metro". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–14
- "Terminal Facilities in Metropolitanc Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Railways (India). p. 14. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
The port city of Mumbai is served by 5 passenger terminals namely Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal (CST), Mumbai Central, Dadar, Bandra and Lokmanya Tilak Terminal.
- Shaikh, Ateeq (27 September 2015). "Mumbai: BEST ridership falls further". Mumbai. DNA. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Organisational Setup". Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST). Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Times of India Publications". Lite.epaper.timesofindia.com. 16 May 2011. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Composition of Bus Fleet". BEST. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
- "A timeline of BEST buses in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. 29 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "BEST buses, the new killer on the prowl?". Daily News and Analysis. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Sitaram, Mewati (29 December 2014). "Soon, computer-aided training for MSRTC drivers". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 31 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Tembhekar, Chittaranjan (4 August 2008). "MSRTC to make long distance travel easier". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "MSRTC adds Volvo luxury to Mumbai trip". The Times of India. 29 December 2002. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Sitaram, Mewati (2 February 2015). "NNMT gains from BEST's plan to discontinue AC bus services". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Badgeri, Manoj (3 November 2014). "TMT rakes in moolah on new AC bus routes". Times of India. Thane. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world 1993, p. 49
- Seth, Urvashi (31 March 2009). "Traffic claims Mumbai darshan hot spots". MiD DAY. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "Bus Routes Under Bus Rapid Transit System" (PDF). BEST. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- Khanna, Gaurav. "7 Questions You Wanted to Ask About the Mumbai Metro". Businessworld. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
Road congestion has worsened, though 88 per cent of journeys are made by public transport.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, p. 2-1: "The 137% increase in cars, a 306% increase in two wheelers, the 420% increase in autos and 128% increase in taxis during 1991–2005 has created a lethal dose of traffic congestion which has categorised Mumbai as one of the congested cities in the world."
- "Transportation from Alibaug". Raigad District Authority. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Navi Mumbai mulls hovercraft services". Sify. Navi Mumbai. 3 November 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "NH wise Details of NH in respect of Stretches entrusted to NHAI" (PDF). National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2008.
- Dalal, Sucheta (1 April 2000). "India's first international-class expressway is just a month away". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Kumar, K.P. Narayana; Chandran, Rahul (6 March 2008). "NHAI starts work on Rs 6,672 cr expressway". Mint. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- "MSRDC – Project – Bandra Worli Sea Link". Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC). Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- Mumbai Plan, 1.10 Transport and Communication Network
- "28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- Kulkarni, Dhaval (31 May 2015). "Mumbai's five gateways may become toll-free". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Somit Sen; Manthan K Mehta (12 April 2014). "Only 10 public transport services for every 90 private vehicles in Mumbai". The Times of India. TNN. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–9
- "28,000 more autos to run riot on MMR streets". dna. 3 May 2013. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014.
- "AAI traffic figures" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
- "Statistics: Mumbai International Airport Limited". Association of Private Airport Operators. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA)- Masterplan". Csia.in. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "With maiden Air India flight, T2 opens to public". Daily News & Analysis. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Work on Navi Mumbai airport may start next year". The Hindu. 19 December 2006. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "MIAL eyes Juhu airport". MiD DAY. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR, pp. 2–12
- Chittar 1973, p. 65: "The Port is endowed with one of the best natural harbours in the world and has extensive wet and dry dock accommodation to meet the normal needs of the city."
- "Laudable Achievement of JNPT" (Press release). Press Information Bureau (Government of India). 7 January 2003. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Our Mission". Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
- Sonawane, Rakshit (13 May 2007). "Cruise terminal plan gets MoU push". Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2009.
While Arthur Bunder is used by small boats and Hay Bunder caters to declining traffic of barges, Ferry Wharf offers services to Mora, Mandva, Rewas and Uran ports.
- "BMC Inc. will now sell bottled water". The Indian Express. 21 May 1998. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Sawant, Sanjay (23 March 2007). "It will be years before Mumbai surmounts its water crisis". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Tansa water mains to be replaced". The Times of India. 1 August 2007. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT-2005 INFORMATION BOOKLET" (PDF). Mumbai: Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. 2013 . Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Water contamination complaints double, Bhandup hit hard". Times of India. Mumbai. 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
- Wajihuddin, Mohammed (4 May 2003). "Make way for Mulund, Mumbai's newest hotspot". Mumbai Newsline. Indian Express Group. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Country's first water tunnel to come up in Mumbai". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 20 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- Baliga, Linah (26 January 2014). "BMC completes water tunnel project". Times of India. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- Express News Service (22 October 2009). "Now, a toll-free helpline to check water leakage, theft". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2009.
- Nevin, John (27 August 2005). "Plastic ban: 1 lakh to be jobless". Rediff. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "How BMC cleans up the city". MiD DAY. 26 August 2002. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "Bombay Sewage Disposal". The World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- Dasgupta, Devraj (26 April 2007). "Stay in island city, do biz". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Aghor, Ashwin (10 December 2009). "Reliance Energy curbs power theft". DNA. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- Kulkarni, Dhaval (11 March 2015). "To curb power theft, Maharashtra explores underground supply network across state". Daily News and Analysis. India. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "Cooking gas cylinders to be sold at petrol pumps". Daily News and Analysis. 24 July 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Mukherjee, Promit (14 September 2014). "Piped gas becomes more attractive for the kitchen". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Campbell 2008, p. 143
- Somayaji, Chitra; Bhatnagar, Shailendra (13 June 2009). "Reliance Offers BlackBerry in India, Vies With Bharti". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- "DETAILS OF SERVICE AREA" (Word Document). Department of Telecommunications, Government of India. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Internet surfers: Mumbai scores, Bangalore falls". economictimes.indiatimes.com. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- "Rainswept glory". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 July 2004. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- Morris & Winchester 2005, p. 212
- "Mumbai's entrance -the 'Gateway' to be more tourist-friendly". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 March 2007. Archived from the original on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
- "India: World heritage sites centre". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
- "Is the world's weirdest property market strangling the city that hosts it?". The Economist. 9 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
- "India's impressive railway stations". Rediff.com. 13 October 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, p. 6
- "The minimum city". economist.com. The Economist. 9 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Jain, Bhavika (17 October 2010). "62% of Mumbai lives in slums: Census". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
The projections showed that about 90 lakh Mumbai residents now live in slums as against 60 lakh recorded in 2001 census – a 50 per cent increase in a decade that also saw an unprecedented real estate boom in the city.
- "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city". The Times of India. 8 September 2004. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
- "Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year". Eighty potholes have already been reported in the pothole-tracking system. With work on several roads to be carried out after the rains, should Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year?. HindustanTimes. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Datta & Jones 1999, Low-Income Households and the Housing Problem in Mumbai, pp. 158–159
- Jacobson, Marc (May 2007). "Dharavi: Mumbai's Shadow City". National Geographic Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Davis 2006, p. 31
- "Dharavi, Mumbai | Sustainable Milano". Blogs.newschool.edu. 24 May 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06" (PDF). Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department (Government of Maharashtra). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
- T Surendar (10 February 2010). "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top". Forbes. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- "Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board". Times of India. 26 April 2016.
- "C-1 Population By Religious Community". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2016. On this page, select "Maharashtra" from the download menu. "Greater Mumbai (M.Corp.)" is at line 11 of the excel file, "Mumbai Suburban District" at line 1065 and "Mumbai District" at line 1072.
- "Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data". Census2011. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India". The 30-Days Prayer Network. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- Mehta 2004, p. 99
- Baptista 1967, p. 5
- Larsen, Karin (1998). Faces of Goa: A Journey Through the History and Cultural Revolution of Goa and Other Communities Influenced by the Portuguese. Gyan Books. p. 310.
In Bombay today, there are three Catholic communities; Goans, the Mangaloreans and the East Indians.
- Weil, Shalva (30 November 2008). "Background: A rich history now stained with blood". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- Karkaria, Bachi (9 January 2016). "Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing?". BBC. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "The world's successful diasporas Archived 15 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine". Managementtoday.co.uk.
- Bates 2003, p. 266
- Pai 2005, p. 1804
- O'Brien 2003, p. 141
- "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. 15 July 2015. p. 152. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
- "Beginners' Bollywood". The Age. Sydney. 28 September 2005. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
- Vilanilam 2005, p. 130
- Nagarajan, Saraswathy (10 September 2006). "Matchbox journeys". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- "Filmfare Awards gets new sponsor". IndiaTimes Movies. The Times of India. 11 January 2006. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2008.
- Chaudhuri 2005, pp. 4–6
- Gilder, Rosamond (October 1957). "The New Theatre in India: An Impression". Educational Theatre Journal. 9 (3): 201–204. doi:10.2307/3203529. ISSN 0192-2882. JSTOR 3203529.
- David 1995, p. 232
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya". Prince of Wales Museum of Western India, Mumbai. Archived from the original on 1 February 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
- "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships". Sahitya Akademi. 1999. Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
- "Kala Ghoda Arts Festival". Kala Ghoda Association. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- Shah, Shika (17 September 2008). "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos". MiD DAY. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
- Shukla, Ahustosh (8 November 2008). "MTDC will not pull out of Elephanta, Banganga fests". Daily News and Analysis. Mumbai. Archived from the original on 1 September 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "The Banganga Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "The Elephanta Festival". Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "Mumbai celebrates Maharashtra Day". The Times of India. 1 May 2009. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- Krishnan, Ananth (24 March 2009). "'Vote at Eight' campaign". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- "BMC to transfer beach cleaning works". The Asian Age. 24 August 2013. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- Jain, Bhavika (10 May 2011). "8 out of city's 10 beaches unsafe". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
- "About Essel World". Essel World. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- O'Brien 2003, p. 143
- Sharma, Samidha (27 November 2012). "Adlabs founder bets big on theme parks". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
- "The Times of India turns the Times of Colour". Televisionpoint.com. 26 April 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
- "IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai". Afaqs.com. 1 September 2010. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light". Exchange4media.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Bansal, Shuchi; Mathai, Palakunnathu G. (6 April 2005). "Mumbai's media Mahabharat". Rediff. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- Rao, Subha J. (16 October 2004). "Learn with newspapers". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- "Public life and voluntary social service organisations". Maharashtra State Gazetteers. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
- "IN-fighting among cable operators". The Indian Express. 26 July 1999. Retrieved 10 June 2009.[dead link]
- "What is CAS? What is DTH?". Rediff News. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- "Tata Sky on Insat 4A". LyngSat. Archived from the original on 9 August 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- "Radio stations in Maharashtra, India". Asiawaves. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- "Few takers for CAS in Mumbai". The Times of India. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
- Ganti 2004, p. 3
- Lundgren, Kari (26 November 2008). "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2009.
- "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films". The Times of India. 17 July 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- Deshpande, Haima (5 March 2001). "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- "City has 43 one-teacher schools". MiD DAY. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Mukherji, Anahita (2 April 2009). "Education board tells schools to get state recognition". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Now, schools can teach in 2 languages". The Times of India. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). "City Development (Education)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
- "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?". Rediff News. 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Sharma, Archana (4 June 2004). "When it comes to courses, MU dishes up a big buffet". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "History". University of Mumbai. Archived from the original on 25 April 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- India Today Best Universities 2013: University of Mumbai – | Photo1 | India Today |. Indiatoday.intoday.in (15 March 1978). Retrieved on 2013-07-16. Archived 26 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "The World's Best Engineering Schools". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
-  Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "QS University Rankings: BRICS 2013". Top Universities. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Top Universities in India". Top Universities. 16 December 2013. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "IIT flights return home". Daily News and Analysis. 22 December 2006. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Admission process for autonomous engg colleges to start today". Indian Express Group. 11 June 2008. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "About the Institute". Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "About University". SNDT Women's University. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "..:: Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai ::". Archived from the original on 1 September 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Bansal, Rashmi (8 November 2004). "Is the 'IIM' brand invincible?". Rediff News. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Sydenham College: Our Profile". Sydenham College. Archived from the original on 25 June 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- "About The Government Law College". Government Law College. Archived from the original on 22 June 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- Martyris, Nina (6 October 2002). "JJ School seeks help from new friends". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- "University ties up with renowned institutes". Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "CIRUS reactor". Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
- "About BCCI". Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI). Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2009.
- "I-T Raids at IPL Headquarter at BCCI in Mumbai, reports NDTV | InvestmentKit.com Articles". Investmentkit.com. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on 8 December 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Makarand, Waingankar (18 January 2009). "Attacking pattern of play has delivered". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- Seth, Ramesh (1 December 2006). "Brabourne – the stadium with a difference". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- "Aussies claim elusive trophy". The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
- Bubna, Shriya (7 July 2006). "Forget cricket, soccer's new media favourite". Rediff News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "Mumbai Football Club launched". Rediff News. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2 July 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "I-League: Mahindra United to face Mumbai FC". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 10 October 2008. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- "'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India – TIME NewsFeed". Newsfeed.time.com. 4 August 2011. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Gridiron league launched in India". The Times of India. 5 August 2011. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Mumbai Marines down Chennai Cheetahs". Press Trust of India. Mumbai. 31 March 2012. Archived from the original on 3 June 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "HIL: Police assure tight security for matches in Mumbai". Press Trust of India. Mumbai. 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Indian Badminton League Schedule Archived 5 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Badminton Association of India announces the 2nd Edition of the Indian Badminton League". sportskeeda.com. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Premier Badminton League- Overview-".
- "Mumbai to host Asian men's rugby". Daily News and Analysis. 10 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2015.
- Pal, Abir (17 January 2007). "Mallya, Diageo fight for McDowell Derby". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
- "Mumbai to host F-1 powerboat race". NDTV. Mumbai. 17 December 2003. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- Baldwin, Alan (25 January 2008). "Motor racing-Force India F1 team to launch 2008 car in Mumbai". Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2008.
- Ashley D'Mello (24 January 2011). "Formula track soon". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
- "Bangalore replaces Mumbai on ATP Tour circuit". CBS Sports. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- Baptista, Elsie Wilhelmina (1967). The East Indians: Catholic Community of Bombay, Salsette and Bassein. Bombay East Indian Association.
- Bates, Crispin (2003). Community, Empire and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-2482-8.
- Brunn, Stanley; Williams, Jack Francis; Zeigler, Donald (2003). Cities of the World: World Regional Urban Development (Third ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. ISBN 978-0-06-381225-3.
- Campbell, Dennis (2008). International Telecommunications Law . II. ISBN 978-1-4357-1699-5.
- Census of India, 1961. 5. Office of the Registrar General (India). 1962.
- Carsten, F.L. (1961). The New Cambridge Modern History (The ascendancy of France 1648–88). V. Cambridge University Press Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-04544-5.
- Chaudhuri, Asha Kuthari (2005). "Introduction: Modern Indian Drama". Mahesh Dattani: An Introduction. Contemporary Indian Writers in English. Foundation Books. ISBN 978-81-7596-260-6. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
- Chittar, Shantaram D. (1973). The Port of Bombay: a brief history. Bombay Port Trust.
- Datta, Kavita; Jones, Gareth A. (1999). Housing and finance in developing countries. Volume 7 of Routledge studies in development and society (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-17242-4.
- David, M. D. (1973). History of Bombay, 1661–1708. University of Mumbai.
- David, M. D. (1995). Bombay, the city of dreams: a history of the first city in India. Himalaya Publishing House.
- Davis, Mike (2006). Planet of Slums [" Le pire des mondes possibles : de l'explosion urbaine au bidonville global "]. Paris: La Découverte. ISBN 978-2-7071-4915-2.
- Dwivedi, Sharada; Mehrotra, Rahul (2001). Bombay: The Cities Within. Eminence Designs. ISBN 978-81-85028-80-4.
- Environment and urbanization. v. 14, no. 1. International Institute for Environment and Development. April 2002. ISBN 978-1-84369-223-2. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
- "Executive Summary on Comprehensive Transportation Study for MMR" (PDF). MMRDA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
- Farooqui, Amar (2006). Opium city: the making of early Victorian Bombay. Three Essays Press. ISBN 978-81-88789-32-0.
- Fortescue, J.W. (2008). A History of the British Army. III. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4437-7768-1.
- Fuller, Christopher John; Bénéï, Véronique (2001). The everyday state and society in modern India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-471-1.
- Ganti, Tejaswini (2004). "Introduction". Bollywood: a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28854-5.
- Greater Bombay District Gazetteer. Maharashtra State Gazetteers. v. 27, no. 1. Gazetteer Department (Government of Maharashtra). 1960.
- Ghosh, Amalananda (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. Brill. ISBN 978-81-215-0088-3.
- Guha, Ramachandra (2007). India after Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019881-7.
- Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of violence: naming and identity in postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08840-2. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- Huda, Anwar (2004). The Art and Science of Cinema. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 978-81-269-0348-1. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
- Jha, Subhash K. (2005). The Essential Guide to Bollywood. Roli Books. ISBN 978-81-7436-378-7.
- Keillor, Bruce David (2007). Marketing in the 21st Century: New world marketing. 1. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99276-7.
- Kelsey, Jane (2008). Serving Whose Interests?: The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-44821-5.
- Khalidi, Omar (2006). Muslims in the Deccan: a historical survey. Global Media Publications. ISBN 978-81-88869-13-8.
- Kothari, Rajni (1970). Politics in India. Orient Longman.
- Krishnamoorthy, Bala (2008). Environmental Management: Text And Cases. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-203-3329-1.
- Kumari, Asha (1990). Hinduism and Buddhism. Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7124-060-9.
- Lok Sabha debates. New Delhi: Lok Sabha Secretariat. 1998.
- Machado, José Pedro (1984). "Bombaim". Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa. Editorial Confluência (in Portuguese). I.
- Mehta, Suketu (2004). Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found. Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40372-9.
- Metropolitan planning and management in the developing world: spatial decentralization policy in Bombay and Cairo. United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. 1993. ISBN 978-92-1-131233-1.
- Misra, Satish Chandra (1982). The Rise of Muslim Power in Gujarat: A History of Gujarat from 1298 to 1442. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
- Morris, Jan; Winchester, Simon (2005) . Stones of empire: the buildings of the Raj (reissue, illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280596-6.
- "Mumbai Plan". Department of Relief and Rehabilitation (Government of Maharashtra). Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
- Naravane, M. S. (2007). Battles of the honourable East India Company: making of the Raj. APH Publishing. ISBN 978-81-313-0034-3.
- O'Brien, Derek (2003). The Mumbai Factfile. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-302947-2.
- "Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai" (PDF). Mumbai Police. Archived from the original (PDF, 1.18 MB) on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Patel, Sujata; Masselos, Jim, eds. (2003). "Bombay and Mumbai: Identities, Politics and Populism". Bombay and Mumbai. The City in Transition. Delhi: The Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567711-9.
- Pai, Pushpa (2005). "Multilingualism, Multiculturalism and Education: Case Study of Mumbai City" (PDF). In Cohen, James; McAlister, Kara T.; Rolstad, Kellie; MacSwan, Jeff. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Cascadilla Press. pp. 1794–1806.
- Patil, R.P. (1957). The mangroves in Salsette Island near Bombay. Calcutta: Proceedings of the Symposium on Mangrove Forest.
- Aditi Phadnis. Business Standard Political Profiles: Of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard.
- "Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region" (PDF). Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
- Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. 65. Indian National Science Academy. 1999.
- Rana, Mahendra Singh (2006). India votes: Lok Sabha & Vidhan Sabha elections 2001–2005. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-647-6.
- Rohli, Robert V.; Vega, Anthony J. (2007). Climatology (illustrated ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7637-3828-0.
- Saini, A.K.; Chand; Hukam. History of Medieval India. Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-261-2313-1.
- Singh, K.S.; B.V. Bhanu; B.R. Bhatnagar; Anthropological Survey of India; D. K. Bose; V.S. Kulkarni; J. Sreenath (2004). Maharashtra. XXX. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-102-0.
- Shirodkar, Prakashchandra P. (1998). Researches in Indo-Portuguese history. 2. Publication Scheme. ISBN 978-81-86782-15-6.
- Swaminathan, R.; Goyal, Jaya (2006). Mumbai vision 2015: agenda for urban renewal. Macmillan India in association with Observer Research Foundation.
- Strizower, Schifra (1971). The children of Israel: the Bene Israel of Bombay. B. Blackwell.
- The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island. Gazetteers of the Bombay Presidency. 2. Gazetteer Department (Government of Maharashtra). 1978.
- "The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888" (PDF). State Election Commissioner (Government of Maharashtra). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
- Kurian, Mathew; McCarney, Patricia (2010). Peri-urban water and sanitation services policy, planning and method. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-90-481-9425-4.
- Vilanilam, John V. (2005). Mass communication in India: a sociological perspective (illustrated ed.). SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-3372-4.
- Wasko, Janet (2003). How Hollywood works. SAGE. ISBN 978-0-7619-6814-6.
- WMO bulletin. 49. World Meteorological Organization. 2000.
- Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86537-206-2.
- Yule, Henry; Burnell, A. C. (1996) . A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases: Hobson-Jobson (2 ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7007-0321-0.
- Zakakria, Rafiq; Indian National Congress (1985). 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985. Reception Committee, Congress Centenary Session.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Official website of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
- Official City Report