Monoid
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is an algebraic structure with a single associative binary operation and an identity element.
Monoids are semigroups with identity. They occur in several branches of mathematics.
For example, the functions from a set into itself form a monoid with respect to function composition. More generally, in category theory, the morphisms of an object to itself form a monoid, and, conversely, a monoid may be viewed as a category with a single object.
In computer science and computer programming, the set of strings built from a given set of characters is a free monoid. Transition monoids and syntactic monoids are used in describing finitestate machines. Trace monoids and history monoids provide a foundation for process calculi and concurrent computing.
In theoretical computer science, the study of monoids is fundamental for automata theory (Krohn–Rhodes theory), and formal language theory (star height problem).
See Semigroup for the history of the subject, and some other general properties of monoids.
DefinitionEdit
Suppose that S is a set and • is some binary operation S × S → S, then S with • is a monoid if it satisfies the following two axioms:
 Associativity
 For all a, b and c in S, the equation (a • b) • c = a • (b • c) holds.
 Identity element
 There exists an element e in S such that for every element a in S, the equations e • a = a • e = a hold.
In other words, a monoid is a semigroup with an identity element. It can also be thought of as a magma with associativity and identity. The identity element of a monoid is unique.^{[1]} For this reason the identity is regarded as a constant, i. e. 0ary (or nullary) operation. The monoid therefore is characterized by specification of the triple (S, • , e).
Depending on the context, the symbol for the binary operation may be omitted, so that the operation is denoted by juxtaposition; for example, the monoid axioms may be written and . This notation does not imply that it is numbers being multiplied.
Monoid structuresEdit
SubmonoidsEdit
A submonoid of a monoid (M, •) is a subset N of M that is closed under the monoid operation and contains the identity element e of M.^{[2]}^{[3]} Symbolically, N is a submonoid of M if N ⊆ M, x • y ∈ N whenever x, y ∈ N, and e ∈ N. N is thus a monoid under the binary operation inherited from M.
GeneratorsEdit
A subset S of M is said to be a generator of M if M is the smallest set containing S that is closed under the monoid operation, or equivalently M is the result of applying the finitary closure operator to S. If there is a generator of M that has finite cardinality, then M is said to be finitely generated. Not every set S will generate a monoid, as the generated structure may lack an identity element.
Commutative monoidEdit
A monoid whose operation is commutative is called a commutative monoid (or, less commonly, an abelian monoid). Commutative monoids are often written additively. Any commutative monoid is endowed with its algebraic preordering ≤, defined by x ≤ y if there exists z such that x + z = y.^{[4]} An orderunit of a commutative monoid M is an element u of M such that for any element x of M, there exists a positive integer n such that x ≤ nu. This is often used in case M is the positive cone of a partially ordered abelian group G, in which case we say that u is an orderunit of G.
Partially commutative monoidEdit
A monoid for which the operation is commutative for some, but not all elements is a trace monoid; trace monoids commonly occur in the theory of concurrent computation.
ExamplesEdit
 Out of the 16 possible binary Boolean operators, each of the four that has a two sided identity is also commutative and associative and thus makes the set {False, True} a commutative monoid. Under the standard definitions, AND and XNOR have the identity True while XOR and OR have the identity False. The monoids from AND and OR are also idempotent while those from XOR and XNOR are not.
 The natural numbers, N, form a commutative monoid under addition (identity element zero), or multiplication (identity element one). A submonoid of N under addition is called a numerical monoid.
 The positive integers, N ∖ {0}, form a commutative monoid under multiplication (identity element one).
 Given a set A, all subsets of A form a commutative monoid under intersection operation (identity element is A itself).
 Given a set A, all subsets of A form a commutative monoid under union operation (identity element is the empty set).
 Generalizing the previous example, every bounded semilattice is an idempotent commutative monoid.
 In particular, any bounded lattice can be endowed with both a meet and a join monoid structure. The identity elements are the lattice's top and its bottom, respectively. Being lattices, Heyting algebras and Boolean algebras are endowed with these monoid structures.
 Every singleton set {x} closed under a binary operation • forms the trivial (oneelement) monoid, which is also the trivial group.
 Every group is a monoid and every abelian group a commutative monoid.
 Any semigroup S may be turned into a monoid simply by adjoining an element e not in S and defining e • s = s = s • e for all s ∈ S. This conversion of any semigroup to the monoid is done by the free functor between the category of semigroups and the category of monoids.^{[5]}
 Thus, an idempotent monoid (sometimes known as findfirst) may be formed by adjoining an identity element e to the left zero semigroup over a set S. The opposite monoid (sometimes called findlast) is formed from the right zero semigroup over S.
 Adjoin an identity e to the leftzero semigroup with two elements {lt, gt}. Then the resulting idempotent monoid {lt, e, gt} models the lexicographical order of a sequence given the orders of its elements, with e representing equality.
 Thus, an idempotent monoid (sometimes known as findfirst) may be formed by adjoining an identity element e to the left zero semigroup over a set S. The opposite monoid (sometimes called findlast) is formed from the right zero semigroup over S.
 The elements of any unital ring, with addition or multiplication as the operation.
 The integers, rational numbers, real numbers or complex numbers, with addition or multiplication as operation.^{[6]}
 The set of all n by n matrices over a given ring, with matrix addition or matrix multiplication as the operation.
 The set of all finite strings over some fixed alphabet Σ forms a monoid with string concatenation as the operation. The empty string serves as the identity element. This monoid is denoted Σ^{∗} and is called the free monoid over Σ.
 Given any monoid M, the opposite monoid M^{op} has the same carrier set and identity element as M, and its operation is defined by x •^{op} y = y • x. Any commutative monoid is the opposite monoid of itself.
 Given two sets M and N endowed with monoid structure (or, in general, any finite number of monoids, M_{1}, ..., M_{k}), their cartesian product M × N is also a monoid (respectively, M_{1} × ... × M_{k}). The associative operation and the identity element are defined pairwise.^{[7]}
 Fix a monoid M. The set of all functions from a given set to M is also a monoid. The identity element is a constant function mapping any value to the identity of M; the associative operation is defined pointwise.
 Fix a monoid M with the operation • and identity element e, and consider its power set P(M) consisting of all subsets of M. A binary operation for such subsets can be defined by S • T = { s • t : s ∈ S, t ∈ T }. This turns P(M) into a monoid with identity element {e}. In the same way the power set of a group G is a monoid under the product of group subsets.
 Let S be a set. The set of all functions S → S forms a monoid under function composition. The identity is just the identity function. It is also called the full transformation monoid of S. If S is finite with n elements, the monoid of functions on S is finite with n^{n} elements.
 Generalizing the previous example, let C be a category and X an object of C. The set of all endomorphisms of X, denoted End_{C}(X), forms a monoid under composition of morphisms. For more on the relationship between category theory and monoids see below.
 The set of homeomorphism classes of compact surfaces with the connected sum. Its unit element is the class of the ordinary 2sphere. Furthermore, if a denotes the class of the torus, and b denotes the class of the projective plane, then every element c of the monoid has a unique expression the form c = na + mb where n is a positive integer and m = 0, 1, or 2. We have 3b = a + b.
 Let be a cyclic monoid of order n, that is, . Then for some . In fact, each such k gives a distinct monoid of order n, and every cyclic monoid is isomorphic to one of these.
Moreover, f can be considered as a function on the points given by
 or, equivalently
 Multiplication of elements in is then given by function composition.
 When then the function f is a permutation of and gives the unique cyclic group of order n.
PropertiesEdit
In a monoid, one can define positive integer powers of an element x : x^{1} = x, and x^{n} = x • ... • x (n times) for n > 1 . The rule of powers x^{n + p} = x^{n} • x^{p} is obvious.
From the definition of a monoid, one can show that the identity element e is unique. Then, for any x, one can set x^{0} = e and the rule of powers is still true with nonnegative exponents.
It is possible to define invertible elements: an element x is called invertible if there exists an element y such that x • y = e and y • x = e. The element y is called the inverse of x. If y and z are inverses of x, then by associativity y = (zx)y = z(xy) = z. Thus inverses, if they exist, are unique.^{[8]}
If y is the inverse of x, one can define negative powers of x by setting x^{−1} = y and x^{−n} = y • ... • y (n times) for n > 1. And the rule of exponents is still verified for all integers n, p. This is why the inverse of x is usually written x^{−1}. The set of all invertible elements in a monoid M, together with the operation •, forms a group. In that sense, every monoid contains a group (possibly only the trivial group consisting of only the identity).
However, not every monoid sits inside a group. For instance, it is perfectly possible to have a monoid in which two elements a and b exist such that a • b = a holds even though b is not the identity element. Such a monoid cannot be embedded in a group, because in the group we could multiply both sides with the inverse of a and would get that b = e, which isn't true. A monoid (M, •) has the cancellation property (or is cancellative) if for all a, b and c in M, a • b = a • c always implies b = c and b • a = c • a always implies b = c. A commutative monoid with the cancellation property can always be embedded in a group via the Grothendieck construction. That is how the additive group of the integers (a group with operation +) is constructed from the additive monoid of natural numbers (a commutative monoid with operation + and cancellation property). However, a noncommutative cancellative monoid need not be embeddable in a group.
If a monoid has the cancellation property and is finite, then it is in fact a group. Proof: Fix an element x in the monoid. Since the monoid is finite, x^{n} = x^{m} for some m > n > 0. But then, by cancellation we have that x^{m − n} = e where e is the identity. Therefore, x • x^{m − n − 1} = e, so x has an inverse.
The right and leftcancellative elements of a monoid each in turn form a submonoid (i.e. obviously include the identity and not so obviously are closed under the operation). This means that the cancellative elements of any commutative monoid can be extended to a group.
It turns out that requiring the cancellative property in a monoid is not required to perform the Grothendieck construction – commutativity is sufficient. However, if the original monoid has an absorbing element then its Grothendieck group is the trivial group. Hence the homomorphism is, in general, not injective.
An inverse monoid is a monoid where for every a in M, there exists a unique a^{−1} in M such that a = a • a^{−1} • a and a^{−1} = a^{−1} • a • a^{−1}. If an inverse monoid is cancellative, then it is a group.
In the opposite direction, a zerosumfree monoid is an additively written monoid in which a + b = 0 implies that a = 0 and b = 0:^{[9]} equivalently, that no element other than zero has an additive inverse.
Acts and operator monoidsEdit
Let M be a monoid, with the binary operation denoted by • and the identity element denoted by e. Then a (left) Mact (or left act over M) is a set X together with an operation ⋅ : M × X → X which is compatible with the monoid structure as follows:
 for all x in X: e ⋅ x = x;
 for all a, b in M and x in X: a ⋅ (b ⋅ x) = (a • b) ⋅ x.
This is the analogue in monoid theory of a (left) group action. Right Macts are defined in a similar way. A monoid with an act is also known as an operator monoid. Important examples include transition systems of semiautomata. A transformation semigroup can be made into an operator monoid by adjoining the identity transformation.
Monoid homomorphismsEdit
A homomorphism between two monoids (M, ∗) and (N, •) is a function f : M → N such that
 f(x ∗ y) = f(x) • f(y) for all x, y in M
 f(e_{M}) = e_{N},
where e_{M} and e_{N} are the identities on M and N respectively. Monoid homomorphisms are sometimes simply called monoid morphisms.
Not every semigroup homomorphism between monoids is a monoid homomorphism, since it may not map the identity to the identity of the target monoid, even though the identity is the identity of the image of homomorphism.^{[example needed]} So, a monoid homomorphism is a semigroup homomorphism between monoids that maps the identity of the first monoid to the identity of the second monoid (the latter condition must not be omitted).
In contrast, a semigroup homomorphism between groups is always a group homomorphism, as it necessarily preserves the identity (because, in a group, the identity is the only element such that x ⋅ x = x).
A bijective monoid homomorphism is called a monoid isomorphism. Two monoids are said to be isomorphic if there is a monoid isomorphism between them.
Equational presentationEdit
Monoids may be given a presentation, much in the same way that groups can be specified by means of a group presentation. One does this by specifying a set of generators Σ, and a set of relations on the free monoid Σ^{∗}. One does this by extending (finite) binary relations on Σ^{∗} to monoid congruences, and then constructing the quotient monoid, as above.
Given a binary relation R ⊂ Σ^{∗} × Σ^{∗}, one defines its symmetric closure as R ∪ R^{−1}. This can be extended to a symmetric relation E ⊂ Σ^{∗} × Σ^{∗} by defining x ~_{E} y if and only if x = sut and y = svt for some strings u, v, s, t ∈ Σ^{∗} with (u,v) ∈ R ∪ R^{−1}. Finally, one takes the reflexive and transitive closure of E, which is then a monoid congruence.
In the typical situation, the relation R is simply given as a set of equations, so that . Thus, for example,
is the equational presentation for the bicyclic monoid, and
is the plactic monoid of degree 2 (it has infinite order). Elements of this plactic monoid may be written as for integers i, j, k, as the relations show that ba commutes with both a and b.
Relation to category theoryEdit
Grouplike structures  

Totality^{α}  Associativity  Identity  Invertibility  Commutativity  
Semigroupoid  Unneeded  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded  Unneeded 
Small Category  Unneeded  Required  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded 
Groupoid  Unneeded  Required  Required  Required  Unneeded 
Magma  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded  Unneeded  Unneeded 
Quasigroup  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded  Required  Unneeded 
Loop  Required  Unneeded  Required  Required  Unneeded 
Semigroup  Required  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded  Unneeded 
Inverse Semigroup  Required  Required  Unneeded  Required  Unneeded 
Monoid  Required  Required  Required  Unneeded  Unneeded 
Group  Required  Required  Required  Required  Unneeded 
Abelian group  Required  Required  Required  Required  Required 
^α Closure, which is used in many sources, is an equivalent axiom to totality, though defined differently. 
Monoids can be viewed as a special class of categories. Indeed, the axioms required of a monoid operation are exactly those required of morphism composition when restricted to the set of all morphisms whose source and target is a given object.^{[10]} That is,
 A monoid is, essentially, the same thing as a category with a single object.
More precisely, given a monoid (M, •), one can construct a small category with only one object and whose morphisms are the elements of M. The composition of morphisms is given by the monoid operation •.
Likewise, monoid homomorphisms are just functors between single object categories.^{[10]} So this construction gives an equivalence between the category of (small) monoids Mon and a full subcategory of the category of (small) categories Cat. Similarly, the category of groups is equivalent to another full subcategory of Cat.
In this sense, category theory can be thought of as an extension of the concept of a monoid. Many definitions and theorems about monoids can be generalised to small categories with more than one object. For example, a quotient of a category with one object is just a quotient monoid.
Monoids, just like other algebraic structures, also form their own category, Mon, whose objects are monoids and whose morphisms are monoid homomorphisms.^{[10]}
There is also a notion of monoid object which is an abstract definition of what is a monoid in a category. A monoid object in Set is just a monoid.
Monoids in computer scienceEdit
In computer science, many abstract data types can be endowed with a monoid structure. In a common pattern, a sequence of elements of a monoid is "folded" or "accumulated" to produce a final value. For instance, many iterative algorithms need to update some kind of "running total" at each iteration; this pattern may be elegantly expressed by a monoid operation. Alternatively, the associativity of monoid operations ensures that the operation can be parallelized by employing a prefix sum or similar algorithm, in order to utilize multiple cores or processors efficiently.
Given a sequence of values of type M with identity element and associative operation , the fold operation is defined as follows:
In addition, any data structure can be 'folded' in a similar way, given a serialization of its elements. For instance, the result of "folding" a binary tree might differ depending on preorder vs. postorder tree traversal.
MapReduceEdit
An application of monoids in computer science is socalled MapReduce programming model (see Encoding MapReduce As A Monoid With Left Folding). MapReduce, in computing, consists of two or three operations. Given a dataset, "Map" consists of mapping arbitrary data to elements of a specific monoid. "Reduce" consists of folding those elements, so that in the end we produce just one element.
For example, if we have a multiset, in a program it is represented as a map from elements to their numbers. Elements are called keys in this case. The number of distinct keys may be too big, and in this case the multiset is being sharded. To finalize reduction properly, the "Shuffling" stage regroups the data among the nodes. If we do not need this step, the whole Map/Reduce consists of mapping and reducing; both operation are parallelizable, the former due to its elementwise nature, the latter due to associativity of the monoid.
Complete monoidsEdit
A complete monoid is a commutative monoid equipped with an infinitary sum operation for any index set I such that:^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]}
and
A continuous monoid is an ordered commutative monoid in which every directed set has a least upper bound compatible with the monoid operation:
These two concepts are closely related: a continuous monoid is a complete monoid in which the infinitary sum may be defined as
where the supremum on the right runs over all finite subsets E of I and each sum on the right is a finite sum in the monoid.^{[14]}
See alsoEdit
 Green's relations
 Monad (functional programming)
 Semiring and Kleene algebra
 Star height problem
 Vedic square

NotesEdit
 ^ If both e_{1} and e_{2} satisfy the above equations, then e_{1} = e_{1} • e_{2} = e_{2}.
 ^ Jacobson 2009.
 ^ Some authors omit the requirement that a submonoid must contain the identity element from its definition, requiring only that it have an identity element, which can be distinct from that of M.
 ^ Gondran, Michel; Minoux, Michel (2008). Graphs, Dioids and Semirings: New Models and Algorithms. Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series. 41. Dordrecht: SpringerVerlag. p. 13. ISBN 9780387754505. Zbl 1201.16038.
 ^ Rhodes, John; Steinberg, Benjamin (2009), The qtheory of Finite Semigroups: A New Approach, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, 71, Springer, p. 22, ISBN 9780387097817.
 ^ Jacobson 2009, p. 29, examples 1, 2, 4 & 5.
 ^ Jacobson 2009, p. 35.
 ^ Jacobson, I.5. p. 22
 ^ Wehrung, Friedrich (1996). "Tensor products of structures with interpolation". Pacific Journal of Mathematics. 176 (1): 267–285. Zbl 0865.06010.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Awodey, Steve (2006). Category Theory. Oxford Logic Guides. 49. Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0198568614. Zbl 1100.18001.
 ^ Droste, M., & Kuich, W. (2009). Semirings and Formal Power Series. Handbook of Weighted Automata, 3–28. doi:10.1007/9783642014925_1, pp. 7–10
 ^ Hebisch, Udo (1992). "Eine algebraische Theorie unendlicher Summen mit Anwendungen auf Halbgruppen und Halbringe". Bayreuther Mathematische Schriften (in German). 40: 21–152. Zbl 0747.08005.
 ^ Kuich, Werner (1990). "ωcontinuous semirings, algebraic systems and pushdown automata". In Paterson, Michael S. (ed.). Automata, Languages and Programming: 17th International Colloquium, Warwick University, England, July 1620, 1990, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 443. SpringerVerlag. pp. 103–110. ISBN 3540528261.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Kuich, Werner (2011). "Algebraic systems and pushdown automata". In Kuich, Werner (ed.). Algebraic foundations in computer science. Essays dedicated to Symeon Bozapalidis on the occasion of his retirement. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7020. Berlin: SpringerVerlag. pp. 228–256. ISBN 9783642248962. Zbl 1251.68135.
ReferencesEdit
 Howie, John M. (1995), Fundamentals of Semigroup Theory, London Mathematical Society Monographs. New Series, 12, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198511949, Zbl 0835.20077
 Jacobson, Nathan (1951), Lectures in Abstract Algebra, I, D. Van Nostrand Company, ISBN 0387901221
 Jacobson, Nathan (2009), Basic algebra, 1 (2nd ed.), Dover, ISBN 9780486471891
 Kilp, Mati; Knauer, Ulrich; Mikhalev, Alexander V. (2000), Monoids, acts and categories. With applications to wreath products and graphs. A handbook for students and researchers, de Gruyter Expositions in Mathematics, 29, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3110152487, Zbl 0945.20036
 Lothaire, M. (1997), Combinatorics on words, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and Its Applications, 17, Perrin, D.; Reutenauer, C.; Berstel, J.; Pin, J. E.; Pirillo, G.; Foata, D.; Sakarovitch, J.; Simon, I.; Schützenberger, M. P.; Choffrut, C.; Cori, R.; Lyndon, Roger; Rota, GianCarlo. Foreword by Roger Lyndon (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511566097, ISBN 0521599245, MR 1475463, Zbl 0874.20040
External linksEdit
 Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], "Monoid", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 9781556080104
 Weisstein, Eric W. "Monoid". MathWorld.
 Monoid at PlanetMath.org.