Mohammad Ali Foroughi

Mohammad Ali Foroughi (early July 1877[1][2][3] – 26[2] or 27[4][5][6] November 1942, Persian: محمدعلی فروغی‎) also known as Zoka-ol-Molk (Persian: ذُکاءالمُلک) was a teacher, diplomat, nationalist, writer, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.

Mohammad-Ali Foroughi
محمدعلی فروغی
Foroughi PM1314.jpg
22nd Prime Minister of Iran
In office
27 August 1941 – 9 March 1942
MonarchReza Shah
Mohammad Reza Shah
Preceded byAli Mansur
Succeeded byAli Soheili
In office
18 September 1933 – 3 December 1935
MonarchReza Shah
Preceded byMehdi Qoli Hedayat
Succeeded byMahmoud Jam
In office
1 November 1925 – 13 June 1926
MonarchReza Shah
Preceded byRēzā Pahlavi
Succeeded byMostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Finance
In office
1 September 1924 – 1 November 1925
Prime MinisterReza Khan
In office
15 June 1923 – 26 October 1923
Prime MinisterHassan Pirnia
In office
14 March 1915 – 1 May 1915
Prime MinisterHassan Pirnia
In office
24 May 1913 – 3 June 1913
Prime MinisterSaad ad-Daula
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
28 October 1923 – 1 September 1924
Prime MinisterReza Khan
In office
14 February 1923 – 15 June 1923
Prime MinisterMostowfi ol-Mamalek
Minister of Justice
In office
3 June 1913 – 6 December 1914
Prime MinisterSaad ad-Daula
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Speaker of the Parliament
In office
6 July 1912 – 10 July 1912
Preceded byMirza Esmaiel Khan
Succeeded byHossein Pirnia
Member of the Parliament of Iran
In office
19 November 1909 – 3 August 1921
Personal details
Bornearly July 1877[1][2][3]
Tehran, Iran
Died(1942-11-26)26 November 1942[2] or (1942-11-27)27 November 1942[4][5][6] (aged 65)
Tehran, Iran
Resting placeIbn Babawayh Cemetery
Political partyRevival Party
Alma materTehran School of Political Sciences
Dar ul-Funun

first book on Western philosophy (the course of wisdom in Europe) was written by him. Foroughi also edited Saadi's book Kaliyat and founded the Iranian Academy. He also attended the Ferdowsi Millennium Congress. In addition, Foroughi has authored numerous works on history (especially ancient Iranian history).[7][8]

Early life and educationEdit

Foroughi was born in Tehran to a merchant family from Isfahan. His ancestor, Mirza Abutorab was the representative of Isfahan in Mugan plain during Nader Shah Afshar's coronation. His grandfather, Mohammad Mehdi Arbab Isfahani, was amongst the most influential merchants of Isfahan and was skilled in history and geography. His father Mohammad Hosein Foroughi was the translator of the Shah from Arabic and French. He was also a poet and published a newspaper called Tarbiat. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar nicknamed Mohammad Hosein, Foroughi, after hearing a poem that he had written. Many sources alleged that Foroughi's ancestors were Baghdadi Jews who came to Isfahan and converted to Islam.[9] During occupation of Iran in the second world war, Nazi Germany often emphasized this alleged Jewish ancestry in radio broadcasts.[10] During his early life, Foroughi studied at the élite Dar ul-Funun (House of Sciences) in Tehran.


In 1907, Foroughi's father died, and thus Foroughi inherited his father's title of Zoka-ol-Molk.[2] During the same year, Foroughi became the dean of Tehran School of Political Science. In 1909, he entered politics as a member of Majlis (Parliament), representing Tehran. He subsequently became speaker of the house and later minister in several cabinets as well as prime minister three times and once as the acting prime minister when Reza Khan resigned as prime minister to take up the crown as Reza Shah. In 1912, he became the president of the Iranian Supreme Court. Later he was appointed prime minister and dismissed in 1935 due to the father of his son-in-law's, Muhammad Vali Asadi, alleged participation in the riot in Mashhad against the reforms implemented by Reza Shah.[11]

However, later Foroughi regained his status and became Prime Minister during the initial phase of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi's reign.[11] Foroughi as a prime minister was instrumental in having Mohammad Reza Pahlavi proclaimed as king after his father, Reza Shah, was forced to abdicate (16 September 1941) and exiled by the allied forces of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union during World War II. After the collapse of his cabinet, he was named Minister of Court and then named ambassador of Iran to the United States of America, but he died in Tehran at the age of 67 before he could assume the post.

Foroughi with Ali Mansour, Mostafa Gholibayat, Aliakbar Davar and Mahmoud Jam.


Foroughi at the court of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Foroughi wrote numerous books, including

The History of Iran,
The History of the Ancient Peoples of The East,
A Short History of Ancient Rome,
Constitutional Etiquette,
A Concise Course in Physics,
Far-fetched Thoughts,
The Wisdom of Socrates,
The History of Philosophy in Europe,
My Message to the Academy of Language (Farhangestan),
The Rules of Oratory or The Technique of Speech Making,
a book on the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings).[clarification needed]

In addition to this, he prepared scholarly editions of the works of Saadi, Hafez, Rumi, Omar Khayyam and Ferdowsi. The best-known of Foroughi's critical editions is Saadi's Kolliyat.

His son Mohsen Foroughi was a renowned architect who completed his studies in France and designed Niavarān Palace Complex, which is situated in the northern part of Tehran, Iran. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqraniyeh Palace of the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The main Niavaran Palace, completed in 1968, was the primary residence of the last Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial family until the Iranian Revolution.Franz Malekebrahimian worked directly under Mohsen Foruoghi in implementation and maintenance of the Palace.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Zoka-ol-Molk, Mohammad Ali (2009), Maghalat-e Foroughi مقالات فروغی (in Persian), 1, Tehran: Tous, p. هشت, ISBN 978-964-315-091-4, در اوایل دههٔ سوم جمادی الآخره ۱۲۹۴ قمری (۱۲۵۶ شمسی و ۱۸۷۷ میلادی) متولد شده‌ام
  2. ^ a b c d e Afshar, Iraj; Azimi, Fakhreddin (31 January 2012). "FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. X, Fasc. 1. pp. 108–112. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  3. ^ a b Mosaheb, Gholamhossein, ed. (2008). "Forughi, Mohammad Ali" فروغی، محمدعلی. The Persian Encyclopedia. دایرةالمعارف فارسی (in Persian). Vol. 2, Part 1. p. 1887. ISBN 978-964-303-046-9. جمادی الثانی ۱۲۹۴ ﻫق
  4. ^ a b Zoka-ol-Molk, Mohammad Ali (2009), Maghalat-e Foroughi مقالات فروغی (in Persian), 1, Tehran: Tous, p. هجده, ISBN 978-964-315-091-4, وفات فروغی که در شب جمعهٔ ششم آذرماه ۱۳۲۱ اتفاق افتاد
  5. ^ a b Hekmat, Ali-Asghar (1976), Si Khatere az Asr-e Farkhonde-ye Pahlavi سی خاطره از عصر فرخندهٔ پهلوی, Pars, p. 15, retrieved 27 November 2019, بتاریخ‌جمعهٔ ششم‌آذر۱۳۲۱ ساعت ده‌بعد ازظهر دوست دانشمند وبزرگوار، بلکه رئیس عالی‌مقام و استاد ارجمندم ، محمدعلی فروغی (ذکاءالملک‌دوم) دراثر بیماری ممتد قلبی جهان را بدرود گفت
  6. ^ a b Ettehad, Houshang (2000), Pazhuheshgaran-e Moaser-e Iran پژوهشگران معاصر ایران [Contemporary Scholars of Iran] (in Persian), 1, Tehran: Farhang Moaser, p. 79, ISBN 964-5545-43-9, جمعه، ۶ آذر سال ۱۳۲۱ ش، ساعت ده بعداز ظهر، محمدعلی فروغی، ذکاءالملک دوم، در اثر بیماری ممتد قلبی، جهان را بدرود گفت
  7. ^ "با «محمدعلی فروغی» بیشتر آشنا شوید". ایسنا (in Persian). 28 August 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  8. ^ "مرگ محمدعلی فروغی سیاستمدار و نخست وزیر رژیم پهلوی". ساعت و تقویم روز ایران (in Persian). Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  9. ^ Mina Shahmiri, A look at the life of Mohammad Ali Foroughi, in the midst of culture and power, Etemad Newspaper, No 1842, 2008.
  10. ^ Bagher Agheli, A biography of political and military figures in contemporary Iran, Elm publishing, Tehran, 2001.
  11. ^ a b Gholam Reza Afkhami (27 October 2008). The Life and Times of the Shah. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-25328-5. Retrieved 4 November 2012.


  • 'Alí Rizā Awsatí (عليرضا اوسطى), Iran in the past three centuries (Irān dar Se Qarn-e Goz̲ashteh - ايران در سه قرن گذشته), Volumes 1 and 2 (Paktāb Publishing - انتشارات پاکتاب, Tehran, Iran, 2003). ISBN 964-93406-6-1 (Vol. 1), ISBN 964-93406-5-3 (Vol. 2).

External linksEdit

  • A short motion picture of Mohammad-Ali Foroughi, from the film archives of Anoshirvan Sepahbodi, Geneva, 1931: YouTube.
Political offices
Preceded by
Reza Khan
Prime Minister of Iran
Succeeded by
Mostowfi ol-Mamalek
Preceded by
Mehdi Qoli Hedayat
Prime Minister of Iran
Succeeded by
Mahmoud Jam
Preceded by
Ali Mansur
Prime Minister of Iran
Succeeded by
Ali Soheili