Modern English Bible translations
Many attempts have been made to translate the Bible into Late Modern (c. 1700–1900) and present-day (c. 1900–) English.
The New Revised Standard Version is the version most commonly preferred by biblical scholars. In the United States, 55% of survey respondents who read the Bible reported using the King James Version in 2014, followed by 19% for the New International Version, with other versions used by fewer than 10%.
Development of Modern English Bible versionsEdit
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The Wessex Gospels were the first translation of the four Gospels in English without accompanying Latin text. The Authorized King James Version of 1611 was sporadically altered until 1769, but was not thoroughly updated until the creation of the Revised Version in 1885; it was not until the Revised Standard Version of 1952 (New Testament in 1948) that a rival to the KJV was composed, nearly 350 years after the KJV was first published. The RSV gained widespread adoption among the mainstream Protestant Churches in America and a Catholic Edition was released in 1962. It was updated as the New Revised Standard Version in 1989.
In the late twentieth century, Bibles increasingly appeared that were much less literal in their approach to translation. In 1946, the New English Bible was initiated in the United Kingdom, intended to enable readers to better understand the King James Bible. In 1958, J. B. Phillips (1906–1982) produced an edition of the New Testament letters in paraphrase, the Letters to Young Churches, so that members of his youth group could understand what the New Testament authors had written. In 1966, Good News for Modern Man, a non-literal translation of the New Testament, was released to wide acceptance. Others followed suit. The Living Bible, released in 1971, was published by its author Kenneth N. Taylor, based on the literal American Standard Version of 1901. Taylor had begun because of the trouble his children had in understanding the literal (and sometimes archaic) text of the King James Bible. His work was at first intended for children, but was later positioned for marketing to high school and college students, as well as adults wishing to better understand the Bible. Like Phillips' version, the Living Bible was a dramatic departure from the King James version.
Despite widespread criticism due to being a paraphrase rather than a translation, the popularity of The Living Bible created a demand for a new approach to translating the Bible into contemporary English called dynamic equivalence, which attempts to preserve the meaning of the original text in a readable way. Realizing the immense benefits of a Bible that was more easily accessible to the average reader, and responding to the criticisms of the Living Bible, the American Bible Society extended the Good News for Modern Man to the Good News Bible (1976) by adding the Old Testament, in this more readable style. This translation has gone on to become one of the best selling in history. In 1996, a new revision of Taylor's Living Bible was published. This New Living Translation is a full translation from the original languages rather than a paraphrase of the Bible.
Another project aimed to create something in between the very literal translation of the King James Bible and the more informal Good News Bible. The goal of this was to create a Bible that would be scholarly yet not overly formal. The result of this project was the New International Version (1978). This version became highly popular in Evangelical Protestant circles.
The debate between the formal equivalence and dynamic (or 'functional') equivalence translation styles has increased with the introduction of inclusive language versions. Various terms are employed to defend or attack this development, such as feminist, gender neutral, or gender accurate. New editions of some previous translations have been updated to take this change in language into account, including the New Jerusalem Bible (1985), the New Revised Standard Version (1989), the Revised English Bible (1989), and Today's New International Version (2005). Some translations have approached the issue more cautiously, such as the English Standard Version (2001).
A further process that has assisted in greatly increasing the number of English Bible versions is the use of the Internet in producing virtual bibles, of which a growing number are beginning to appear in print – especially given the development of "print on demand".
18th and 19th century translationsEdit
|Challoner's revision of the Douay–Rheims Bible||1752|
|John Wesley, Wesley's New Testament||1755|
|F. S. Paris, Cambridge 'Standard' Edition [KJV]||1762|
|Benjamin Blayney, Revised Standard Oxford Edition [KJV]||1769|
|Gilbert Wakefield, A Translation of the New Testament||1791|
|Alexander Campbell's The Living Oracles (New Testament)||1826|
|Young's Literal Translation||1862|
|Julia E. Smith Parker Translation||1876|
|English Revised Version||1885|
20th and 21st century translationsEdit
King James Version and derivativesEdit
The King James Version of 1611 (in its 1769 amended Oxford edition) still has an immense following, and as such there have been a number of different attempts to update or improve upon it. The English Revised Version and its derivatives also stem from the King James Version.
English Revised Version and derivativesEdit
The English Revised Version was the first official attempt to update the King James Version of 1769. This was adapted in the United States as the American Standard Version. The translations and versions that stem from them are shown in date order:
|RV/ERV||English Revised Version||1881, 1885, 1894|
|ASV||American Standard Version||1901|
|RSV||Revised Standard Version||1952, 1971|
|NASB||New American Standard Bible||1971, 1995|
|NRSV||New Revised Standard Version||1989|
|WEB||World English Bible||2000|
|ESV||English Standard Version||2001|
|UASV||Updated American Standard Version||2016 In Progress|
New International Version and derivativesEdit
The popular New International Version has appeared in a number of editions.
|NIV||New International Version||1978, 1984, 2011|
|NIrV||New International Reader's Version||1996|
|NIVI||New International Version Inclusive Language Edition (discontinued)||1996-unknown|
|TNIV||Today's New International Version (discontinued)||2005-2011|
Dynamic translations and paraphrasesEdit
A significant aspect in translations from the latter half of the 20th century was much greater use of the principles of dynamic equivalence.
|TLB||The Living Bible||1971|
|GNT/GNB/TEV||Good News Translation/Good News Bible/Today's English Version||1976, 1992|
|The Clear Word (paraphrase, non-official Seventh-day Adventist)||1994|
|CEV||Contemporary English Version||1995|
|NLT||New Living Translation||1996, 2004, 2007, 2015|
|RNT||Restored New Testament||2009|
The New English Translation (or NET Bible) is a project to publish a translation of the Bible using the Internet. It is freely available and accompanied by extensive translator's notes. Another is The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible, which uses a collaborative MediaWiki website that interlinks the words of the Bible to articles and image galleries about the topic. The Open English Bible aims to create the first modern public domain English translation of the Bible, using an open-source process for corrections and modernizing verses.
|NET||New English Translation||2005|
|OEB||Open English Bible||In progress.|
|LEB||Lexham English Bible||2011|
Some Bible translations find popular use in, or were prepared especially for, the Messianic Judaism movement.
|AENT||Roth, Andrew, Aramaic English New Testament||2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012|
|TS||The Scriptures||1993, 1998, 2009|
|HRV||Hebraic Roots Version||2004|
|CJB||Stern, David H, Complete Jewish Bible||1998, 2017|
|CNT||Cassirer, Heinz, God's New Covenant: A New Testament Translation AKA Cassirer New Testament||1989|
|OJB||Goble, Phillip E, Orthodox Jewish Bible||2002|
|TLV||Tree of Life Bible||2014|
|MCT||MCT Brit Chadashah Interlinear , in English and Hebrew.||2019|
New English Bible and derivativesEdit
The initiative to create the New English Bible began in 1946, in an attempt to make an entirely new translation of the Bible in modern English.
|NEB||New English Bible||1970|
|REB||Revised English Bible||1989|
Public domain translationsEdit
|OEB||Open English Bible||In progress|
|WEB||World English Bible||In Progress|
|WVSS||Westminster Version of the Sacred Scriptures||1913–19351|
|SPC||Spencer New Testament||1941|
|KLNT||Kleist-Lilly New Testament||19563|
|RSV-CE||Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition||1965–664|
|NAB||New American Bible||1970|
|TLB-CE||The Catholic Living Bible||1971|
|GNT–CE||Good News Bible Catholic Edition5||1979|
|NJB||New Jerusalem Bible||1985|
|CCB||Christian Community Bible||1988|
|NRSV-CE||New Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition||1989|
|GNT-CE||Good News Bible, Second Catholic Edition||1992|
|RSV-2CE||Revised Standard Version, Second Catholic Edition||2006|
|CTS||CTS New Catholic Bible||2007|
|NCB||New Community Bible||2008|
|NABRE||New American Bible Revised Edition||2011/1986|
|NLT-CE||New Living Translation Catholic Edition||2016|
|ESV-CE||English Standard Version Catholic Edition||2018|
|RNJB||Revised New Jerusalem Bible||2018-2019|
|NCB||New Catholic Bible - St. Joseph Edition||2019 |
1Released in parts between 1913–1935 with copious study and textual notes. The New Testament with condensed notes was released in 1936 as one volume.
2NT released in 1941. The OT contained material from the Challoner Revision until the entire OT was completed in 1969. This Old Testament went on to be the base for the 1970 NAB
3New Testament only; Gospels by James Kleist, rest by Joseph Lilly.
4Second Catholic Edition released 2006.
In addition to the above Catholic English Bibles, all of which have an imprimatur granted by a Catholic bishop, the authors of the Catholic Public Domain Version of 2009 and the 2013 translation from the Septuagint by Jesuit priest Nicholas King refer to them as Catholic Bibles. These versions have not been granted an imprimatur, but do include the Catholic biblical canon of 73 books.
Sacred Name translationsEdit
These Sacred Name Bibles were all done with the specific aim of carrying into English the actual Name of God as they were in the originals. Most have been done by people from the Sacred Name Movement. They are distinguished by their policy of transliterating Hebrew-based forms for sacred names, such as "Yahweh", "YHWH", etc.
|SNB||Restoration of Original Sacred Name Bible||1976|
|HNB||Holy Name Bible||1963|
|SSBE||Sacred Scriptures Bethel Edition||1981|
|SN-KJ||Sacred Name King James Bible||2005|
|SSFOY||Sacred Scriptures, Family of Yah Edition||2000|
|TWOY||The Word of Yahweh||2003|
|TS||The Scriptures (ISR)||1993, 1998, 2009|
|TBE||Transparent English Bible||In progress|
|NOG||Names of God Bible (Available in 2 editions, GW or KJV)||2011, 2014|
|MCT||Mickelson Clarified Translation||2008, 2013, 2015, 2019|
|LSV||Literal Standard Version||2020|
Masoretic Text / Jewish translationsEdit
Jewish translations follow the Masoretic Text, and are usually published in bilingual editions with the Hebrew text facing the English translation. The translations often reflect traditional Jewish exegesis of the Bible. As translations of the Masoretic Text, Jewish translations contain neither the apocrypha nor the Christian New Testament.
|JPS||Jewish Publication Society of America Version||1917|
|Koren Jerusalem Bible based on a translation by Harold Fisch||1962|
|Kaplan, Aryeh, The Living Torah
Elman, Yaakov, The Living Nach
|NJPS||New Jewish Publication Society of America Version||1985|
|Artscroll||Stone Edition (Artscroll)||1996|
|The Holy Scriptures, Hebrew Publishing Company, revised by Alexander Harkavy||1936,1951|
|MCT||Mickelson Clarified Interlinear of the Old Testament, in the Literary Reading Order; LivingSon Press||2015, 2019|
|Charles Thomson's The Holy Bible, Containing The Old And New Covenant, Commonly Called The Old And New Testament: Translated From The Greek||1808|
|Brenton's English Translation of the Septuagint||1851|
|ABP||Apostolic Bible Polyglot||2003|
|AB||The Apostles' Bible ||2007|
|OSB||Orthodox Study Bible||2007|
|NETS||New English Translation of the Septuagint||2007|
|LES||Lexham English Septuagint||2013|
|OCT||MCT Octuagint ||2019|
|EOB||Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible||In progress|
Simplified English BiblesEdit
There have been a number of attempts to produce a Bible that greatly simplifies the English. (Some of these versions are also listed in other categories: for example, the NIrV is also found under the NIV section). These are translations that are not necessarily a very dynamic translation, but go beyond simply everyday English into a restricted vocabulary set, often aimed at non-native speakers of English.
|BBE||Bible in Basic English||1949|
|BWE||Bible in Worldwide English [New Testament only]||1969|
|NLV||New Life Version (Gleason Ledyard)||1986|
|SEB||Simple English Bible (Dr Stanley Morris)||1980|
|ERV||Easy-to-Read Version (previously English Version for the Deaf)||1989|
|NCV||New Century Version||1991|
|NIrV||New International Reader's Version||1998|
|MSG||The Message (Eugene H. Peterson)||2002|
|EASY||EasyEnglish Bible (MissionAssist)||2018|
Translations exclusively published by Jehovah's WitnessesEdit
|Diaglott||The Emphatic Diaglott (Benjamin Wilson)||1864, 1926|
|NWT||New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures||1950, 1951 (NT only), 1961, 1963, 1981, 1984, 2013|
|By||The Bible in Living English (Steven T. Byington)||1972|
Translations exclusively published by the Latter Day Saints movementEdit
|JST||Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible||1830|
Some versions have been labelled "adaptive retelling" as they take many liberties with the form of the text.
|Black Bible Chronicles||1993, 1994|
|CPG||Cotton Patch Gospel by Clarence Jordan||1968–1973 (4 vols)|
|The Aussie Bible; also More Aussie Bible by Kel Richards||2003|
|ERB||Rotherham's Emphasized Bible||1902|
|Fenton||The Holy Bible In Modern English (by Ferrar Fenton)||1903|
|MNT||A New Translation (by James Moffatt)||1926|
|Lamsa||Lamsa Bible (by George Lamsa)||1933|
|AAT||An American Translation (by Smith and Goodspeed)||1935|
|BV||Berkeley Version (by Gerrit Verkuyl)||1958|
|Knoch||Concordant Literal Version (by Adolph Ernst Knoch)||1966|
|MLB||The Modern Language Bible (New Berkeley Version)||1969|
|TSB||The Story Bible||1971|
|BECK||An American Translation (by William F. Beck)||1976|
|TMB||Third Millennium Bible||1998|
|RcV||Recovery Version (Living Stream Ministry)||1999|
|Purified||The Holy Bible: A Purified Translation (The New Testament)||2000|
|ABP||Apostolic Bible Polyglot||2003|
|HCSB||Holman Christian Standard Bible||2004|
|DTE||The Writ, Dabhar Translation (by Fritz Henning Baader)||2005|
|The Literary Bible (by David Rosenberg)(Old Testament Only)||2009|
|CEB||Common English Bible||2011|
|CSB||Christian Standard Bible||2017|
|Diaglott||Emphatic Diaglott by Benjamin Wilson||1864|
|Jefferson Bible, or The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, by Thomas Jefferson||1895|
|The Epistles of Paul in Modern English (includes Hebrews), by George Barker Stevens||1898|
|The Twentieth Century New Testament||1902|
|Weymouth New Testament (New Testament in Modern Speech)||1903|
|Centenary New Testament (by Helen Barrett Montgomery)||1924|
|The Four Gospels, by E. V. Rieu, Penguin||1952|
|The Authentic New Testament, by Hugh J. Schonfield||1955|
|Phi / PME||Phillips New Testament in Modern English and Four Prophets (by J. B. Phillips)||1958|
|The Simplified New Testament, by Olaf M. Norlie||1961|
|WET||Wuest Expanded Translation (by Kenneth Wuest)||1961|
|The New Testament: a New Translation, by William Barclay||1968|
|TransLine, by Michael Magill||2002|
|The Four Gospels, by Norman Marrow, ISBN 0-9505565-0-5||1977|
|The Original New Testament, by Hugh J. Schonfield, ISBN 0-947752-20-X||1985|
|int-E||The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures by The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society||1969,1985|
|McCord's New Testament Translation of the Everlasting Gospel by Hugo McCord||1988|
|A Fresh Parenthetical Version of the New Testament by B. E. Junkins ISBN 0-7618-2397-2||2002|
|God's New Covenant: A New Testament Translation by Heinz Cassirer, ISBN 0-8028-3673-9||1989|
|Jewish New Testament, by David H. Stern||1989|
|Gaus||The Unvarnished New Testament by Andy Gaus||1991|
|Christian Bible||The Christian Bible: Its New Contract Writings Portion (Christian Bible Society, Mammoth Springs, AR)||1991|
|The New Testament, by Richmond Lattimore, ISBN 0-460-87953-7||1996|
|TCE||The Common Edition New Testament||1999|
|COM||The Comprehensive New Testament||2008|
|A New Accurate Translation of the Greek New Testament, by Julian G. Anderson ISBN 0-9602128-4-1||1984|
|The Voice ISBN 1-4185-3439-0||2008|
|MLV||Modern Literal Version||2012|
|JNT||Jewish New Testament by David H. Stern||1989|
|The Source New Testament With Extensive Notes on Greek Word Meaning, by Dr A. Nyland ISBN 0-9804430-0-8||2004|
|The Last Days New Testament, Ray W. Johnson||1999|
|NTE||The Kingdom New Testament: A Contemporary Translation (U.K. title: The New Testament for Everyone), N T Wright ||2011|
|The Wilton Translation of the New Testament, Clyde C. Wilton||1999, 2010|
|The Original Aramaic Bible in Plain English with Psalms & Proverbs, David Bauscher||2010|
|MEV||The New Testament, Modern Evangelical Version, by Robert Thomas Helm ISBN 1479774197||2013, 2016|
|EHV||The Evangelical Heritage Version||2017|
|The Wisdom Books in Modern Speech (Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, and Song of Songs), John Edgar McFadyen||1917|
|Four Prophets (Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah), J.B. Phillips||1963|
|Job Speaks (Job), David Rosenberg||1977|
|The Book of J (Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), Harold Bloom and David Rosenberg||1990|
|A Poet's Bible (Psalms, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Maccabees, Job, Ecclesiastes, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zechariah, Jonah, Ruth, Esther, Judith, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah), David Rosenberg||1991|
|The Book of Job, Stephen Mitchell||1992|
|The Five Books of Moses, Everett Fox||1995|
|The Lost Book of Paradise: Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden (Genesis and related apocrypha), David Rosenberg||1995|
|Genesis, Stephen Mitchell||1996|
|The Book of David (2 Samuel), David Rosenberg||1998|
|Give us a King! (1, 2 Samuel), Everett Fox||1999|
|The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible, Martin Abegg, Peter Flint, Eugene Ulrich||1999|
|The David Story (1, 2 Samuel), Robert Alter||2000|
|The Five Books of Moses, Robert Alter||2004|
|The Bible with Sources Revealed, Richard Elliott Friedman||2005|
|The Book of Psalms, Robert Alter||2007|
|The Wisdom Books, Robert Alter||2010|
|Ancient Israel (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings), Robert Alter||2013|
|The Psalms Translated and Explained, Joseph Addison Alexander||1850|
- Bible translations - for a view of translation into languages other than English.
- Bible errata
- List of English Bible translations
- Jewish English Bible translations
- Bible version debate
- List of Bible verses not included in modern translations
- List of major textual variants in the New Testament
- Bible translations into Broad Scots
- A Discussion of Bible Translations and Biblical Scholarship Archived 2016-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Bible in American Life" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-30. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- G. W. Bromiley, D. M. Beegle, and W. M. Smith, “English Versions,” ed. Geoffrey W. Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Revised (Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1979–1988), 83.
- Wakefield, Gilbert (1820). A Translation of the New Testament
- American King James Version
- Updated King James Version
- King James Bibles
- The Holy Scriptures. Rabon Vincent Jr., translator. Victoria: Trafford, 2001. ISBN 1-55369-199-7
- "The Evidence Bible". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
- New Cambridge Paragraph Bible
- http://www.avupdate.org/ Archived 2011-05-25 at the Wayback Machine (Broken link)
- "King James Version - Corrected Edition". Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- MCT Bible, a precise and unabridged translation (a derivative of Webster's Revision of the KJV), with contextual dictionaries and concordances.
- "Updated American Standard Version". Updated American Standard Version. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
- "About the New International Version". Electronic version available; print version available March 2011.
- "The Lexham English Bible is a new translation of the Bible into English". lexhamenglishbible.com. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
- LivingSon Press, MCT Brit Chadashah Interlinear, in print
- Catholic Public Domain Version
- MCT Bible, a precise and unabridged translation (precisely and contextually denoting the Sacred Name as "Yahweh" in both the Old and New Testaments), with contextual dictionaries and concordances.
- Literal Standard Version
- The Hebrew Bible in English, Mechom Mamre.
- The Judaica Press Complete Tanach with Rashi, Chabad
- Jerusalem Bible (Koren), UK: CAM, archived from the original on 2008-04-16, retrieved 2008-04-28.
- The Living Torah, ORT
- Mickelson Clarified Interlinear, precise and unabridged, with contextual dictionary and concordance.
- LivingSon Press, USA
- Esposito, Paul W., The Apostles Bible, based on Brenton's translation
- Mickelson, Jonathan K., MCT Octuagint, a remediated translation of the Septuagint
- LivingSon Press, MCT Octuagint Interlinear, in print
- Boswell, Freddy. 2006. Classifying "Cotton Patch Version" and similar renderings as adaptive retelling rather than translation (La clasificación de la "cotton patch version" y de otros tipos de versiones más como reescrituras adaptadoras más traducciones)." Hermēneus, Vol. 8: 45–66.
- The Cotton Patch Version
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2009-07-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- The Writ, Dabhar Translation
-   Archived 2006-05-28 at the Wayback Machine
-  Archived 2006-06-27 at the Wayback Machine 
- SPCK Shop, The New Testament for Everyone
- The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible