Missile defense systems by country

Missile defense systems are a type of missile defense intended to shield a country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles. The United States, Russia, Taiwan, India, France, Israel and China have all developed missile defense systems.[1]


  • The term "Missile defense system" broadly means a system that provides any defense against any missile type (conventional or nuclear) by any country.
  • Any mechanism which can detect and then destroy a missile before it can cause any harm is called a missile defence system (MDS).[2]

The role of defense against nuclear missiles has been a heated military and political topic for several decades. However, missile defense is no longer limited to interception of strategic nuclear weapons. The gradual development and proliferation of missile technology has blurred the line between the technologies for the interception of tactical missiles (usually short to intermediate range with non-nuclear payloads) and the interception of strategic missiles (usually long ranged with nuclear payloads). High-performance tactical ballistic missiles carrying non-nuclear payloads now have the ability to affect strategic balance in conflict zones. Likewise, high-performance tactical missile defense systems can now influence force deployment strategies.

France, Italy, and UKEdit

HMS Diamond (D34) a Royal Navy Type 45 destroyer equipped with the Sylver A-50 VLS and Aster 15 and 30 missiles. Diamond fired her missiles for the first time during May 2012 successfully intercepting a Mirach drone.[3]

The UK, France and Italy developed a programme called PAAMS (Sea Viper in UK). It was developed to arm the Horizon-class frigate (which was a joint programme by the UK, France and Italy) with the best anti-aircraft missile system in the world. Then the UK dropped out of the frigate programme and instead decided to design and build its own Type 45 destroyer which would still use the PAAMS missile system. France and Italy then decided they wanted to extend the programme to include a ground-launched anti-ballistic missile system. France and Italy then developed SAMPT - a truck-launched anti-ballistic missile system which used PAAMS technology.


Two systems are in planning and Testing stages. Air defence network has two principal components - the ‘Air Defence Ground Environment System’ (ADGES) and the ‘Base Air Defence Zones’ (BADZ). The ADGES network provides for wide area radar coverage and permits the detection and interception of most aerial incursions into Indian airspace. The BADZ system is far more concentrated with radars, interceptors, SAMs and AAA units working in conjunction to provide an intense and highly effective defensive barrier to attacks on vital targets.[4]

Ballistic missile defenceEdit

Launching of Advanced Air Defense (AAD) missile

The Ballistic Missile Defence Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks.[5][6]

Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan,[7] it is a double-tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high-altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield should be able to intercept an incoming missile having a range of up to 5,000 kilometers.[8]

PAD was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an Anti-ballistic missile system, after United States, Russia and Israel.[9] On 6 March 2009, India again successfully tested its missile defense shield, during which a test "enemy" missile was intercepted at an altitude of 75 km.[10]

On 6 May 2012, it was announced that Phase-I is complete and can be deployed to protect two Indian cities at a short notice.[11][12] New Delhi, the national capital, and Mumbai, have been selected for the ballistic missile defence shield.[13] After successful implementation in Delhi and Mumbai, the system will be used to cover other major cities in the country.[14] This shield can destroy incoming ballistic missiles with range up to 2,000 km. When the Phase II is completed and PDV is developed, the two anti-ballistic missiles can intercept targets up to range 5,000 km both at exo and endo-atmospheric (inside the atmosphere) regions.[15][16]

Apart from DRDO's endeavour to develop a potent missile defense, India is reportedly examining the Israeli Arrow, the Almaz design bureau's S-300 PMU-1/-2 and S-400 and the Antey design bureau's Antey 2500/S-300VM.[4] India has procured a squadron of S-300V systems which are in use as an 'anti-tactical ballistic missile screen'.[17][18]

India also purchased S-400 system from Russia for 5.4 Billion dollars in 2018.[19]

Cruise missile defenceEdit

Defending against an attack by a cruise missile on the other hand is similar to tackling low-flying manned aircraft and hence most methods of aircraft defence can be used for a cruise missile defence system.[2]

In order to ward off the threats of nuke-tipped cruise missile attack India has a new missile defence programme which will be focused solely on intercepting cruise missiles. The technological breakthrough has been created with an Advanced Air Defence missile (AAD).[20] DRDO Chief, Dr V K Saraswat stated in an Interview "Our studies have indicated that this AAD will be able to handle a cruise missile intercept,"[20]

Furthermore, India is acquiring airborne radars like AWACS to ensure detection of cruise missiles in order to stay on top of the threat.[20]

Barak-8 is a long-range anti-air and anti-missile naval defence system being developed jointly by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India. The Indian Army is considering induction of a variant of Barak 8 missile to meet its requirement for a medium-range surface-to-air air defence missile. The naval version of this missile will have the capability to intercept incoming enemy cruise missiles and combat jets targeting its warships at sea.[21] India has a joint venture for this missile with Israel.[22]

On 17 November 2010, in an interview Rafael's Vice President Mr. Lova Drori confirmed that the David's Sling system has been offered to the Indian Armed Forces.[23]


An Arrow anti-ballistic missile interceptor.

Israel has a national missile defense against short- to long-range missiles using their Arrow missile system. The Arrow or Hetz (Hebrew: חֵץ, pronounced [ˈχet͡s]) is a family of anti-ballistic missiles designed to fulfill an Israeli requirement for a theater missile defense system. Jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States,[Note 1] development of the system began in 1986 and has continued since, drawing some contested criticism.[citation needed] Undertaken by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Boeing, it is overseen by the Israeli Ministry of Defense's "Homa" (Hebrew: חומה‎, pronounced [χoma], "rampart") administration and the U.S. Missile Defense Agency.

The Arrow system consists of the joint production hypersonic Arrow anti-missile interceptor, the Elta EL/M-2080 "Green Pine" early-warning AESA radar, the Tadiran Telecom "Golden Citron" ("Citron Tree") C3I center, and the Israel Aerospace Industries "Brown Hazelnut" ("Hazelnut Tree") launch control center. The system is transportable, as it can be moved to other prepared sites.

Following the construction and testing of the Arrow 1 technology demonstrator, production and deployment began with the Arrow 2 version of the missile. The Arrow is considered one of the most advanced missile defense programs currently in existence.[24][25]

It is the first operational missile defense system specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles.[27][28] The first Arrow battery was declared fully operational in October 2000. Although several of its components have been exported, the Israeli Air Defense Command within the Israeli Air Force (IAF) of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is currently the sole user of the complete Arrow system. Arrow 3 was declared operational on Wednesday, 18 January 2017.[29]

Apart from Arrow missile, Israel has Iron dome which is designed to intercept and destroy short-range rockets and artillery shells fired from distances of 4 to 70 kilometers away[30] and David's Sling[Note 2] that is designed to intercept medium- to long-range rockets and cruise missiles, such as those possessed by Hezbollah, fired at ranges from 40 km to 300 km.[23]Iron Beam is a directed high energy laser (HEL) which during its prototype tests has shot down aerial targets at distances up to the 4 kilometer range.[31]


S-300PMU-2 vehicles. From left to right: 64N6E2 detection radar, 54K6E2 command post and 5P85 TEL.
S-400 vehicles. From left to right: 6P80 TEL, 65N6 detection radar.

The Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system is currently operational only around the city of Moscow, the national capital, and is being augmented to protect major cities in Russia. The A-135 anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. It became operational during 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and compliant with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty from which the US unilaterally withdrew in 2002.[32]

The A-135 system attained "alert" (operational) status on 17 February 1995. It is currently operational although its 53T6 (NATO:SH-11) component is deactivated (as of February 2007). A newer missile is expected to replace it. There is an operational test version of the system at the test site in Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan.

The S-300PMU1 and PMU2 can intercept SRBMs, and the S-300V and S-400 Triumf systems are capable of intercepting a multiple IRBM attack by all DF-21 model IRBMs.[32] These air-defense systems have been purchased by Turkey, India, China, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea. Other countries which have also expressed interest include Iran and Belarus.

The enhanced S-300VM/VMK is capable of intercepting ballistic missiles with a range of 2,500 km re-entry speeds of 4.5 km/s, whereas the S-400 is claimed to be capable of intercepting ballistic missiles with a range of 3,500 km which equates to re-entry speeds of 4.8 to 5 km/s. A system designed to intercept warheads at 5 km/s has the ability to act as a point system against simple ICBM warheads which have a typical re-entry speed of 7 km/s.[32] Apart from the main Moscow deployment, Russia has striven actively for intrinsic ABM capabilities of its late model SAM systems. Russian ground based theatre defence against ballistic and cruise missiles are centered on the in-service

United StatesEdit

A Payload Launch Vehicle (PLV) carrying a prototype exo-atmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on 3 December 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean.

The U.S. Sentinel program was a planned national missile defense during the 1970s, but was never deployed. Elements of Sentinel were actually deployed briefly as the Safeguard Program, although it was not national in scope. United States has had in development a nationwide antimissile program since the 1990s. After the renaming in 2002, the term now refers to the entire program, not just the ground-based interceptors and associated facilities.

Other elements yet to be integrated into NMD (National Missile Defense) may include anti-ballistic missiles, or sea-based, space-based, laser, and high-altitude missile systems. The NMD program is limited in scope and designed to counter a relatively small ICBM attack from a less sophisticated adversary. Unlike the earlier Strategic Defense Initiative program, it is not designed to be a robust shield against a large attack from a technically sophisticated adversary.[33]

As of 2012, this system is operational with limited capability. In early April 2013, the Pentagon announced plans to deploy 14 more missile interceptors (GBIs) to Alaska in response to the North Korean threats to deliver nuclear weapons to the United States.[34] A THAAD battery was deployed to Guam as well.[35]


China tested the FJ ABM in the Cold War but they were ultimately cancelled. The PLA has currently developed the KT series of anti ballistic missiles and also have adopted limited anti ballistic capabilities on the HQ-9, KS series, and HQ-16.

China successfully tested its exoatmospheric interception capabilities in a test in 2010 and also in a test in 2013, being the second of two countries able to do so. The anti missile technology is successful to this day. The BMD system was again tested on 8 September 2017 and was deemed successful.

Four versions of the S-300 are in service, the PMU, PMU1 and PMU2 and the navalised S-300FM Rif. Based on the S-300PMU1, the Rif equips the PLAN’s two Type 51C Luzhou air-defence destroyers enabling them to contribute to the protection of a coastal site against SRBM attack.[32]

The S-300PMU2 has the best chance of intercepting an SRBM missile as it employs the 48N6E2 missile which has a warhead optimised for destroying ballistic missiles, and better kinematics compared to earlier 48N6 missiles.[32]

HQ-9 may have some ABM capability.[Note 3][32]

However, it might be noted that on 11 January 2007 the Chinese successfully performed an anti-satellite missile test[36] using a KT-1[Note 4] missile with a Kinetic Kill Vehicle mounted.[32]

New missiles, the HQ-19, HQ-26, and HQ-29, are being built.[37]


Taiwan operates the Sky Bow family of BMD systems.[38] Development of Sky Bow I began in 1981 with deployment beginning in 1993. The Sky Bow II is an improved version of the Sky Bow I. Both the Sky Bow I and Sky Bow II use a common silo launch system.

In 2001 development of the completely new Sky Bow III system began with flight testing commencing in 2009 and deployment soon after. The Sky Bow III has a top speed of Mach 7.[39] A naval variant of the Sky Bow III has also been developed.[40]

In addition to the BMD force the Army operates the Antelope air defence system which has a significant anti-cruise missile capability.[41] The ROCAF also operates imported Patriot PAC-3 batteries.

Other developmentsEdit


In 2018, the Japan Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF), initiated their 54th year of Hawk system and missile training at Fort Bliss.[42] In 2016, the Japan Air Self Defense Force (JASDF), and also the Japan Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF), initiated their 52nd year[43] of annual live-fire missile launches at McGregor Range, New Mexico in Fort Bliss.[44] The 2014 annual service practice of the PAC-3 Patriot missile demonstrated a 100 percent kill rate before a group which included the commanding generals of White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), and of the 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command (AAMDC). Every JASDF Patriot team participated in the annual exercise, which takes several months.[45]

Since 1998, when North Korea launched a Taepodong-1 missile over northern Japan, the Japanese have been jointly developing a new surface-to-air interceptor known as the Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) with the US. So far tests have been successful, and there are planned 11 locations that the PAC-3 will be installed. A military spokesman[46] said that tests had been done on two sites, one of them a business park in central Tokyo, and Ichigaya – a site not far from the Imperial Palace. Along with the PAC-3, Japan has installed the US-developed Aegis ship-based anti-ballistic missile system, which was tested successfully on 18 December 2007. The missile was launched from a Japanese warship, in partnership with the US Missile Defense Agency and destroyed a mock target launched from the coast.

Japan is in consultations with the United States to possibly deploy the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system and a ground-based version of the Standard Missile-3 interceptors mounted on Aegis destroyers. In a joint US-Japan test of Standard Missile-3 Block IIa, a medium-range ballistic missile was successfully intercepted on 3 February 2017.[47][48] Japan's intention is to create a four-stage anti-missile shield.[49]

South KoreaEdit

Like the UAE (see below), South Korea has agreed to deploy THAAD systems.[50] The agreement was announced in July 2016.[51]

Because a kinetic-kill defense such as THAAD destroys high-value incoming missiles by colliding with them, the missile system is defensive, and not for offense. The agreement came after a North Korean intermediate-range ballistic missile launch in June 2016; China has rebuked the actions of the involved parties,[52] as destabilizing. South Korean military sources responded that a 12 February 2017 launch by North Korea represented a new technology, a 'cold launch' using compressed gas before the solid-fuel rocket ignition.[53] This type of launch is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) technology.[53] China responded to the North Korean launch by cutting off their import of North Korean coal, which is 50% of North Korea's income.[54][55] On 6 March 2017, North Korea launched four missiles from Tongchang-ri,[56] a known long-range missile site at 7:36 a.m. local time, one of which landed in the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea), with the remaining three missiles landing in Japan's economic zone.[57] A fifth North Korean missile failed to launch.[58]

That day, the first vehicles of a THAAD battery deployed to South Korea. Two launcher trucks arrived at Osan Air Base, South Korea, on 6 March 2017.[58][59] By 6 September 2017 the AN/TPY-2 radar, the fire control system, and all six launchers (with 48 THAAD interceptors) were fully deployed.[60]

South Korea is also developing several indigenous short-range BMD systems, under its Korean Air and Missile Defense (KAMD) system scheduled to be deployed by the early 2020s. KAMD (Korea Air and Missile Defense) is a multi-platform, short-range air and missile defense concept that South Korea has been developing since 2006 to enhance its protection against DPRK SRBMs, cruise missiles, and light aircraft. South Korea is developed the Cheongung Korean medium-range surface-to-air missile (KM-SAM), intended to intercept DPRK SRBMs and MRBMs at a relatively low altitude, similar to PAC-3. The Korean long-range surface-to-air missile (L-SAM), under development until 2023, will reportedly be similar to THAAD, operating in a high-altitude, terminal-phase intercept role against SRBMs and MRBMs.[61]

United Arab EmiratesEdit

United Arab Emirates (UAE) has graduated its first two American Terminal High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) unit classes at Fort Bliss in 2015, and in 2016.[62] Its first live-fire exercises with Patriot missiles took place in 2014. The UAE is "the first GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) partner to possess an upper tier ballistic missile defense capability the THAAD weapon system," stated the US Army general who addressed this graduating class.[63]


Bruno Gruselle, in 2010, noted that French policymakers considered the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the doctrine of mutual assured destruction to be the cornerstones of strategic stability.[64] Some French analysts, notably Camille Grand,[65] view missile defense as jeopardizing both the doctrine and the treaty, as well as risking a new arms race,[64] which is reflected in the development of advanced missile defense counter measures and decoys as well as a higher number of and more maneuverable independently targetable reentry vehicles[66]—as well as the intercept systems designed to defeat them.

Additionally, experts such as L. David Montague, retired U.S. Air Force General Eugene E. Habiger and Harvey L. Lynch question the reliability of these systems.[67] Beyond the technical difficulties, which have been described as more challenging than hitting one bullet with another, all performance data is derived from experiments and scripted tests. Their effectiveness in an actual all-out war situation is uncertain.[2] However, non-nuclear ballistic and conventional missiles have been used in recent limited regional conflicts to strategic effect. Several Houthi-fired ballistic missiles in Yemen have been intercepted by Saudi MIM-104 Patriot batteries, and Russian cruise missiles have been notably used in the Syrian Civil War.

Gruselle noted most French security experts doubted the technological feasibility of intercontinental ballistic missile defense. Some thought it foolish to spend huge amounts of money on unproven technologies that lacked operational or political usefulness. Instead, the French defense policy community viewed missile defense merely as an American "economic weapon" used to defeat the Soviet Union and win the Cold War.[68]

The extant missile defenses are currently vulnerable to maneuverable hypersonic vehicles, which can maneuver at speeds high enough to defeat missile defenses. China is among the countries pursuing hypersonic vehicles as warhead delivery systems.[69]

Yousaf Butt, a critic of missile defense, states in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists that "just as with nuclear weapons, the U.S. infatuation with missile defense will cause other nations to desire this expensive technology".[70]

Russia's top military officer has threatened to carry out a pre-emptive strike on U.S.-led NATO missile defense facilities in Eastern Europe if Washington goes ahead with its plan to build a missile shield.[71] Russian Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov also warned that talks between Moscow and Washington on the topic are "close to a dead end."[71] U.S. State Department special envoy Ellen Tauscher responded that neither country could afford another arms race.[71]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Dr. Uzi Rubin: "The Arrow program used practically no U.S. technology, just U.S. money. It was almost entirely based on Israeli technology, though we bought some components in the U.S. because they were cheaper." (2003) —source
  2. ^ [http://www.waaytv.com/redstone_alabama/missile-defense-agency-and-israel-conduct-successful-test-of-david/article_0eedb1b2-e324-11e6-8a7b-37eb6ddc3e63.html The 5th system-level test
  3. ^ However, it is kinematically inferior to the imported Russian S-300PMU2 Favorit according to this source
  4. ^ described by the director of United States Defense Intelligence Agency as a SC-19 missile


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  7. ^ The New Guardian Archived 2 February 2008 at the Wayback MachineIndia unveils an all new anti-ballistic missile expected to be the fore-runner of a sophisticated air defence system to thwart, among other threats, a Pakistani nuclear weapons attack
  8. ^ "India tests interceptor missile". 6 March 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
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  11. ^ Rajat Pandit, TNN, 26 November 2007, 02:43AM IST (26 November 2007). "India on way to joining exclusive BMD club". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 19 April 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
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  22. ^ "Naval Barak-8 Missiles, Israel, India". Naval Technology. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  23. ^ a b "Rafael Confirms Offer of Iron Dome, David's Sling to Indian Armed Forces". India-defence.com. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
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  25. ^ "The Arrow missile program". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 21 August 2009.
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  29. ^ Israel deploys 'Star Wars' missile killer system
  30. ^ Sharp, Jeremy M. (16 September 2010). "U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel" Archived 31 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  31. ^ Israeli Army IDF expects to deploy new Rafael Iron Beam laser air defense system this year
  32. ^ a b c d e f g "China's Cruise and Ballistic Missile Defence". A Strategic Assessment of PLA Theatre Missile and ASAT Capabilities. Air Power Australia. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  33. ^ http://www.zmne.hu/aarms/docs/Volume6/Issue4/pdf/05riem.pdf
  34. ^ "The Ultimate North Korean Missile Threat To America: A Nuke Power Grid Attack". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  35. ^ Stewart, Phil. "U.S. to send missile defenses to Guam over North Korea threat". Reuters. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  36. ^ "World fury at satellite destruction". Theage.com.au. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  37. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/world/china/hq-19.htm
  38. ^ "Tien-Kung (Sky Bow)". missiledefenseadvocacy.org. Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^ "Taiwan's NCSIST Successfully Tested a Ship-based Variant of Tien Kung III BMD Interceptor". navyrecognition.com. Navy Recognition. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  41. ^ "The Antelope". missiledefenseadvocacy.org. Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  42. ^ Laven2 (31 October 2018) Japanese test fire Ground self-defense forces successfully fire Hawk missiles at McGregor range
  43. ^ Air defenders share knowledge of the Patriot system, missile training accessdate=2016-11-18
  44. ^ Japanese conduct joint live-fire exercises at McGregor
  45. ^ Fort Bliss Bugle (16 Oct 2014) p.12A JASDF 50th year of live-fire missile exercises Archived 2 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ "Japan plans Tokyo missile shield". BBC News. 15 January 2008.
  47. ^ US-Japan military successfully intercept a ballistic missile target with SM-3 Block IIA
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  49. ^ "Defense Ministry to study new missile defense systems". The Japan Times. 21 June 2014.
  50. ^ South Korea, U.S. agree to deploy THAAD missile defense to counter North Korea threat (7 July 2016)
  51. ^ S.Korea, U.S. Officially Start THAAD Talks (10 July 2016)
  52. ^ S.Korea, U.S. to deploy THAAD missile defence, drawing China rebuke (7 July 2016)
  53. ^ a b Reuters World News (12 Feb 2017) "South Korea says North Korea missile used 'cold eject' launch system" accessdate=2017-02-19
  54. ^ Bloomberg Politics (18 Feb 2017) "China's Message to Trump With North Korea Coal Ban: Let's Deal" accessdate=2017-02-19
  55. ^ PM Abe: North Korea launched four ballistic missiles .nytimes.com/2017/01/01/world/asia/north-korea-intercontinental-ballistic-missile-test-kim-jong-un.html Choe Sang-Hun, (1 Jan 2017) "North Korea Will Test Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, Kim Says" New York Times[permanent dead link]
  56. ^ PM Abe: North Korea launched four ballistic missiles accessdate=2017-03-05
  57. ^ Washington Post North Korea launches another missile, perhaps one that can reach U.S. A fifth North Korean missile failed its launch.
  58. ^ a b U.S. Begins Shipping Controversial Anti-Missile System to South Korea accessdate=2017-03-06
  59. ^ THAAD arrives on the Korean Peninsula accessdate=2017-03-06
  60. ^ Reuters: (6 September 2017) South Korea deploys anti-missile system as U.S. seeks tough North Korea sanctions
  61. ^ https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/us-allied-ballistic-missile-defenses-asia-pacific-region
  62. ^ UAE graduates second class of THAAD air defenders
  63. ^ UAE air defenders graduate THAAD course, make BMD history accessdate=2016-01-07
  64. ^ a b "... Missile defense would become a reality and that systems would eventually be deployed. Paris realized that it needed to adjust policy to these realities to avoid risking the credibility of the French nuclear deterrent. " Nonetheless, Gruselle concedes in the same work that "Paris realized that it needed to adjust policy to these realities to avoid risking the credibility of the French nuclear deterrent.", as well as the fact that "France recognized the necessity of missile defense to protect deployed French troops." That is to say, French policy makers realized that the increasing performance and reliability of missile defense systems could reduce its own nuclear deterrence, and was also necessary to maintain its foreign military deployment Bruno Gruselle (Nov 2010) "Missile Defense in NATO: a French Perspective" Lisbon NATO Summit, Nov 2010
  65. ^ Camille Grand, Director, FRS; Chair, EU Non-Proliferation Consortium
  66. ^ "Prepared Statement by Dr. Christopher Yeaw, Director, Center for Assurance, Deterrence, Escalation, and Nonproliferation Science & Education at the Louisiana Tech Research Institute, Before The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission Hearing on China's Offensive Missile Forces Wednesday, April 1st, 2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  67. ^ The Pentagon’s $10-billion bet gone bad, Los Angeles Times
  68. ^ Bruno Gruselle (2010) "Missile Defense in NATO: A French Perspective"
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  70. ^ 05/08/2010 - 07:49 "The myth of missile defense as a deterrent"
  71. ^ a b c Craggs, Ryan (3 May 2012). "Russia Threatens Pre-Emptive Strike On NATO Missile Defense Shields". Huffington post. Retrieved 6 August 2012.

External linksEdit