Metric prefix
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in common use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well.^{[1]} Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand: one kilogram is equal to one thousand grams. The prefix milli, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand; one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre.
Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the metric system, with six of these dating back to the system's introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have also been used with some nonmetric units. The SI prefixes are metric prefixes that were standardized for use in the International System of Units (SI) by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991.^{[2]} Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities. They are also used in the Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM)
List of SI prefixesEdit
The BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units (SI).
Prefix  Base 10  Decimal  English word  Adoption^{[nb 1]}  

Name  Symbol  Short scale  Long scale  
yotta  Y  10^{24}  1000000000000000000000000  septillion  quadrillion  1991  
zetta  Z  10^{21}  1000000000000000000000  sextillion  trilliard  1991  
exa  E  10^{18}  1000000000000000000  quintillion  trillion  1975  
peta  P  10^{15}  1000000000000000  quadrillion  billiard  1975  
tera  T  10^{12}  1000000000000  trillion  billion  1960  
giga  G  10^{9}  1000000000  billion  milliard  1960  
mega  M  10^{6}  1000000  million  1873  
kilo  k  10^{3}  1000  thousand  1795  
hecto  h  10^{2}  100  hundred  1795  
deca  da  10^{1}  10  ten  1795  
10^{0}  1  one  –  
deci  d  10^{−1}  0.1  tenth  1795  
centi  c  10^{−2}  0.01  hundredth  1795  
milli  m  10^{−3}  0.001  thousandth  1795  
micro  μ  10^{−6}  0.000001  millionth  1873  
nano  n  10^{−9}  0.000000001  billionth  milliardth  1960  
pico  p  10^{−12}  0.000000000001  trillionth  billionth  1960  
femto  f  10^{−15}  0.000000000000001  quadrillionth  billiardth  1964  
atto  a  10^{−18}  0.000000000000000001  quintillionth  trillionth  1964  
zepto  z  10^{−21}  0.000000000000000000001  sextillionth  trilliardth  1991  
yocto  y  10^{−24}  0.000000000000000000000001  septillionth  quadrillionth  1991  

Each prefix name has a symbol that is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for 'kilo' is 'k', and is used to produce 'km', 'kg', and 'kW', which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, and kilowatt, respectively. Where the Greek letter 'μ' is unavailable, the symbol for micro 'µ' may be used. Where both variants are unavailable, the micro prefix is commonly written as the lowercase Latin letter 'u'.
Prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence '100 m' is preferred over '1 hm' (hectometre) or '10 dam' (decametres). The prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre (cm) is especially common. However, some modern building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because "use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points and confusion".^{[3]}
Prefixes may not be used in combination. This also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit (kilogram) already contains a prefix. For example, milligram (mg) is used instead of microkilogram (μkg).
In the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier, except when combining values with identical units. Hence,
 5 mV × 5 mA = 5×10^{−3} V × 5×10^{−3} A = 25×10^{−6} V⋅A = 25 μW
 5.00 mV + 10 μV = 5.00 mV + 0.01 mV = 5.01 mV
When powers of units occur, for example, squared or cubed, the multiplication prefix must be considered part of the unit, and thus included in the exponentiation.
 1 km^{2} means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres.
 2 Mm^{3} means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×10^{18} m^{3}, and not 2000000 cubic metres (2×10^{6} m^{3}).
 Examples
 5 cm = 5×10^{−2} m = 5 × 0.01 m = 0.05 m
 9 km^{2} = 9 × (10^{3} m)^{2} = 9 × (10^{3})^{2} × m^{2} = 9×10^{6} m^{2} = 9 × 1000000 m^{2} = 9000000 m^{2}
 3 MW = 3×10^{6} W = 3 × 1000000 W = 3000000 W
Application to units of measurementEdit
The use of prefixes can be traced back to the introduction of the metric system in the 1790s, long before the 1960 introduction of the SI. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, whether officially included in the SI or not (e.g., millidynes and milligauss). Metric prefixes may also be used with nonmetric units.
The choice of prefixes with a given unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are much larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used.
Metric unitsEdit
MassEdit
The units kilogram, gram, milligram, microgram, and smaller are commonly used for measurement of mass. However, megagram, gigagram, and larger are rarely used; tonnes (and kilotonnes, megatonnes, etc.) or scientific notation are used instead. Megagram and teragram are occasionally used to disambiguate the metric tonne from other units with the name 'ton'.^{[citation needed]}
The kilogram is the only base unit of the International System of Units that includes a metric prefix.
VolumeEdit
The litre (equal to a cubic decimetre), millilitre (equal to a cubic centimetre), microlitre, and smaller are common. In Europe, the centilitre is often used for packaged products such as wine and the decilitre is used less frequently.
Larger volumes are usually denoted in kilolitres, megalitres or gigalitres, or else in cubic metres (1 cubic metre = 1 kilolitre) or cubic kilometres (1 cubic kilometre = 1 teralitre). For scientific purposes, the cubic metre is usually used.
LengthEdit
The kilometre, metre, centimetre, millimetre, and smaller are common. (However, the decimetre is rarely used.) The micrometre is often referred to by the nonSI term micron. In some fields, such as chemistry, the ångström (equal to 0.1 nm) historically competed with the nanometre. The femtometre, used mainly in particle physics, is sometimes called a fermi. For large scales, megametre, gigametre, and larger are rarely used. Instead, nonmetric units are used, such as the solar radius, astronomical units, light years, and parsecs; the astronomical unit is mentioned in the SI standards as an accepted nonSI unit.
TimeEdit
Prefixes for the SI standard unit second are most commonly encountered for quantities less than one second. For larger quantities, the system of minutes (60 seconds), hours (60 minutes) and days (24 hours) is accepted for use with the SI and more commonly used. When speaking of spans of time, the length of the day is usually standardized to 86,400 seconds so as not to create issues with the irregular leap second.
Larger multiples of the second such as kiloseconds and megaseconds are occasionally encountered in scientific contexts, but are seldom used in common parlance. For longscale scientific work, particularly in astronomy, the Julian year or annum is a standardized variant of the year, equal to exactly 31,557,600 SI seconds (365 days, 6 hours). The unit is so named because it was the average length of a year in the Julian calendar. Long time periods are then expressed by using metric prefixes with the annum, such as megaannum or gigaannum.
AngleEdit
The SI unit of angle is the radian, but degrees, minutes, seconds and more rarely tierces see some scientific use.
TemperatureEdit
Official policy also varies from common practice for the degree Celsius (°C). NIST states:^{[4]} "Prefix symbols may be used with the unit symbol °C and prefix names may be used with the unit name 'degree Celsius'. For example, 12 m°C (12 millidegrees Celsius) is acceptable." In practice, it is more common for prefixes to be used with the kelvin when it is desirable to denote extremely large or small absolute temperatures or temperature differences. Thus, temperatures of star interiors may be given in units of MK (megakelvins), and molecular cooling may be described in mK (millikelvins).
EnergyEdit
In use the joule and kilojoule are common, with larger multiples seen in limited contexts. In addition, the kilowatt hour, a composite unit formed from the kilowatt and hour, is often used for electrical energy; other multiples can be formed by modifying the prefix of watt (e.g. terawatt hour).
There exist a number of definitions for the nonSI unit, the calorie. There are gram calories and kilogram calories. One kilogram calorie, which equals one thousand gram calories, often appears capitalized and without a prefix (i.e. 'Cal') when referring to "dietary calories" in food.^{[5]} It is common to apply metric prefixes to the gram calorie, but not to the kilogram calorie: thus, 1 kcal = 1,000 cal = 1 Cal.
Nonmetric unitsEdit
Metric prefixes are widely used outside the system of metric units. Common examples include the megabyte and the decibel. Metric prefixes rarely appear with imperial or US units except in some special cases (e.g., microinch, kilofoot, kilopound or 'kip'). They are also used with other specialized units used in particular fields (e.g., megaelectronvolt, gigaparsec, millibarn). They are also occasionally used with currency units (e.g., gigadollar), mainly by people who are familiar with the prefixes from scientific usage.^{[citation needed]} In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, the year, with symbol a (from the Latin annus), is commonly used with metric prefixes: ka, Ma, and Ga.
Official policies about the use of SI prefixes with nonSI units vary slightly between the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) and the American National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For instance, the NIST advises that "to avoid confusion, prefix symbols (and prefix names) are not used with the timerelated unit symbols (names) min (minute), h (hour), d (day); nor with the anglerelated symbols (names) ° (degree), ′ (minute), and ″ (second)",^{[4]} whereas the BIPM adds information about the use of prefixes with the symbol 'as' for arcsecond when they state: "However astronomers use milliarcsecond, which they denote mas, and microarcsecond, μas, which they use as units for measuring very small angles."^{[6]}
PresentationEdit
PronunciationEdit
When a metric prefix is affixed to a root word, the prefix carries the stress, while the root drops its stress but retains a full vowel in the syllable that is stressed when the root word stands alone.^{[citation needed]} For example, kilobyte is /ˈkɪlɒbaɪt/, with stress on the first syllable. However, units in common use outside the scientific community may be stressed idiosyncratically. In Englishspeaking countries, kilometre is the most conspicuous example. It is often pronounced /kɪˈlɒmɪtər/, with reduced vowels on both syllables of metre. This stress is not applied to other multiples or submultiples of metre, or to other units prefixed with 'kilo'.
The prefix giga is usually pronounced in English as /ˈɡɪɡə/, with hard ⟨g⟩ as in 'get', but sometimes /ˈdʒɪɡə/, with soft ⟨g⟩ as in 'gin'.
TypesettingEdit
The LaTeX typesetting system features an SIunitx package in which the units of measurement are spelled out, for example, \SI{3}{\tera\hertz}
formats as "3 THz".
Nonstandard prefixesEdit
Obsolete metric prefixesEdit
Some of the prefixes formerly used in the metric system have fallen into disuse and were not adopted into the SI.^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]} The decimal prefix myria (sometimes also written as myrio) (ten thousand) as well as the binary prefixes double and demi, denoting a factor of 2 and 1/2 (one half), respectively, were parts of the original metric system adopted by France in 1795.^{[1]} These were not retained when the SI prefixes were internationally adopted by the 11th CGPM conference in 1960.
Other metric prefixes used historically include hebdo (10^{7}) and micri (10^{−14}).
Double prefixesEdit
Double prefixes have been used in the past, such as micromillimetres or "millimicrons" (now nanometres), micromicrofarads (now picofarads), kilomegatons (now gigatons), hectokilometres (now 100 kilometres) and the derived adjective hectokilometric (typically used for qualifying the fuel consumption measures).^{[10]} These are not compatible with the SI.
Other obsolete double prefixes included "decimilli" (10^{−4}), which was contracted to "dimi"^{[11]} and standardized in France up to 1961.
Proposals for future prefixesEdit
Although the yotta prefix is large, the field of computer data is likely to approach values reaching or exceeding yottabytes in the future. Thus, various proposals for a prefix beyond yotta have been put forth.
"Hella" prefix proposalEdit
In 2010, UC Davis student Austin Sendek started a petition to designate "hella" as the SI prefix for one octillion (short scale; long scale: quadrilliard; 10^{27}).^{[12]} The petition gathered over 60,000 supporters by circulating through Facebook and media coverage.^{[13]} It was also adopted by Wolfram Alpha.^{[14]}
R and QEdit
A proposal made to the BIPM is ronna (R) for 10^{27}, quecca (Q) for 10^{30}, ronto (r) for 10^{−27} and quecto (q) for 10^{−30}.^{[15]}
Similar symbols and abbreviationsEdit
In written English, the symbol K is often used informally to indicate a multiple of thousand in many contexts. For example, one may talk of a 40K salary (40000), or call the Year 2000 problem the Y2K problem. In these cases, an uppercase K is often used with an implied unit (although it could then be confused with the symbol for the kelvin temperature unit if the context is unclear). This informal postfix is read or spoken as "thousand" or "grand", or just "k", but never "kilo" (despite that being the origin of the letter).
The financial and general news media mostly use m/M, b/B and t/T as abbreviations for million, billion (10^{9}) and trillion (10^{12}), respectively, for large quantities, typically currency^{[16]} and population.^{[17]}
The medical and automotive fields in the United States use the abbreviations "cc" or "ccm" for cubic centimetres. 1 cubic centimetre is equivalent to 1 millilitre.
For nearly a century, the electrical construction industry used the abbreviation "MCM" to designate a "thousand circular mils" in specifying thicknesses of large electrical cables. Since the mid1990s, "kcmil" has been adopted as the "official" designation of a thousand circular mils, but the designation "MCM" still remains in wide use. A similar system is used in natural gas sales in the United States: m (or M) for thousands and mm (or MM) for millions of British thermal units or therms, and in the oil industry,^{[18]} where 'MMbbl' is the symbol for 'millions of barrels'. This usage of the capital letter M for 'thousand' is from Roman numerals, in which M means 1,000.^{[19]}
Binary prefixesEdit
In some fields of information technology, it has been common to designate nondecimal multiples based on powers of 1,024, rather than 1,000, for some SI prefixes (kilo, mega, giga), contrary to the definitions in the International System of Units (SI). This practice was once sanctioned by some industry associations, including JEDEC. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standardized the system of binary prefixes (kibi, mebi, gibi, etc.) for this purpose.^{[20]}^{[Note 1]}
See alsoEdit
 Engineering notation
 E1 series (preferred numbers)
 Indian numbering system
 International vocabulary of metrology
 ISO/IEC 80000
 List of numbers in various languages (for comparison/etymology)
 Names of large numbers
 Names of small numbers
 Number names
 Numeral prefix
 Order of magnitude
 RKM code
 SI base unit
 Unified Code for Units of Measure
NotesEdit
 ^ The names and symbols of the binary prefixes proposed by the IEC include etc.
ReferencesEdit
This article is based on material taken from the Free Online Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "La Loi Du 18 Germinal An 3  Décision de tracer le mètre, unité fondamentale, sur une règle de platine. Nomenclature des "mesures républicaines". Reprise de la triangulation" (in French). histoire.du.metre.free.fr. Retrieved 20151012.
 ^ "Four Resolutions". Bipm.org. Retrieved 20120301.
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 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Thompson, Ambler; Taylor, Barry N. (March 2008), "Special Publication 811", NIST (2008 ed.), retrieved 20180621
 ^ Conn, Carole; Len Kravitz. "Remarkable Calorie". University of New Mexico. Retrieved 20170522.
 ^ "SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI)". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Retrieved 20170305.
 ^ 29th Congress of the United States, Session 1 (18660513). "H.R. 596, An Act to authorize the use of the metric system of weights and measures". Archived from the original on 20150705.
 ^ Brewster, David (1830). The Edinburgh Encyclopædia. 12. Edinburgh, UK: William Blackwood, John Waugh, John Murray, Baldwin & Cradock, J. M. Richardson. p. 494. Retrieved 20151009.
 ^ Brewster, David (1832). The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 12 (1st American ed.). Joseph and Edward Parker. Retrieved 20151009.
 ^ Rowlett, Russ (2008) [2000]. "millimicro". How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Archived from the original on 20160829. Retrieved 20160829.
 ^ DanlouxDumesnils, Maurice (1969). The metric system: a critical study of its principles and practice. The Athlone Press. p. 34. Retrieved 20151009. (a translation of the French original Esprit et bon usage du systeme metrique, 1965)
 ^ Chawkins, Steve (20100706). "Physics major has a name for a really big number". Los Angeles Times.
 ^ "The Official Petition to Establish "Hella" as the SI Prefix for 10^27".
 ^ Sendek, Austin. "First goes Google, now goes Wolfram Alpha".
 ^ Adam, David (20190214). "You know kilo, mega, and giga. Is the metric system ready for ronna and quecca?". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aax0020.
 ^ The Associated Press (20120213). "Obama unveils $3.8T budget proposal". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 20120301.
 ^ "More than 65M Flock to Discovery's Planet Earth". Multichannel.com. Retrieved 20120301.
 ^ "Purcell, P (2007). Disambiguating M. PESA News 88". Pesa.com.au. Retrieved 20120301.
 ^ "What is the difference between MCM and kcmil?". Reference.com. Retrieved 20160905.
 ^ International Electrotechnical Commission (January 2010). "IEC 60050  International Electrotechnical Vocabulary  Details for IEV number 1120127". Retrieved 20110619.